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Major earthquakes dramatically demonstrate
that the earth is a dynamic, changing system.
Earthquakes, in general, represent a release of
built-up stress in the lithosphere. They occur
along faults, planar breaks in rock along which
there is displacement of one side relative to
the other.
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Elastic deformation of
common materials. A.
An elastically deformed
material, such as a bent
metal ruler, will spring
back to its original
shape B when released.
If the material is pushed
beyond the limits of its
strength, it may break
C, but the two halves
will each snap back to
their original shape
(straight, in the case of
the ruler). This is an
analogy for the elastic
rebound theory of the
origin of earthquakes.
PLATE TECTONICS
AND EARTHQUAKE

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Seismic body waves: P and S
A. P wave alternately compresses and expands the rock as
the wave passes through. These squares illustrate the
alternating compression and expansion. As waves pass
through, a square will repeatedly expand to a long
squashed-looking rectangle, and so on.
B. S waves cause a shearing motion, like that of a rope
being shaken up and down. In this case, as the waves
pass through, the squares move up and down
perpendicular to the direction of S-wave travel. The
square doesn't expand or contract but changes its
shape, starting as a square, then becoming a distorted
parallelogram, and then changing back to a square
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P-Wave refraction and S-Wave Shadow Zone. P waves
are strongly bent (refracted) when they encounter the
boundary between the mantle and the core.
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Seismogram of a typical earthquake
This typical seismogram
illustrates the different travel
times for P waves, S waves,
and surface waves. The P
waves and S waves leave the
point of origin (the focus) at
the same instant. The faster-
moving P waves reach the
seismograph first, followed
some time later by the
slower-moving S waves. The
surface waves, which travel
the long way around on the
Earth's surface, arrive even
later.
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The focus of an
earthquake is the actual
site of first movement
along a fault and the center
of energy release, which
usually occurs at some
depth.
The epicenter is the point
on the Earth's surface
directly above the focus; it
is used to specify the map
location of an earthquake.
FOCUS (HYPOCENTER)
AND
EPICENTER

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EARTHQUAKE AT
PLATE BOUNDARIES
LETUSAN
GUNUNGAPI
GEMPABUMI
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RICHTER MAGNITUDE SCALE
Description Magnitude
App. Energy
released (ergs)
Great earthquake Over 8 Over 5.8 x 10
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Major earthquake 7 7.9 2 - 42 x 10
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Destructive earthquake 6 6.9 8 - 150 x 10
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Damaging earthquake 5 5.9 3 - 55 x 10
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Minor earthquake 4 4.9 1 - 20 x 10
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Smallest usually felt 3 3.9 4 - 72 x 10
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Detected but not felt 2 2.9 1 - 26 x 10
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Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale
Intensity Description
I Not felt
II Felt by persons at rest on upper floors
III Felt indoors-hanging objects swing. Vibration like passing of ligth truck
IV
Vibration like passing of heavy trucks. Standing automobile rock. Windows, dishes, and doors rattle; wooden wall or
frame may creak.
V
Felt outdoors. Sleepers weakened. Liquids disturbed, some spilled; small objects may be moved r upset; doors swing;
shutters and pictures move.
VI
Felt by all; many frightened. People walk unsteadily; windows and dishes broken; objects knocked off shelves, pictures
off walls. Furniture moved or overturned; weak plaster cracked. Small bells ring. Trees and bushes shaken.
VII
Difficult to stand. Furniture broken. Damage to weak materials, such as adobe; some cracking of ordinary masonry. Fall
of plaster, loose bricks, and tile. Waves on ponds; water muddy; small slides along sand or gravel banks. Large bells ring.
VIII
Steering of automobiles affected. Damage to and partial collapse of ordinary masonry. Fall of chimneys, towers. Frame
houses moved on foundations if not bolted down. Changes in flow of springs and wells.
IX
General panic. Frame structures shifted off foundations if not bolted down; frames cracked. Serious damage even to
partially reinforced masonry. Underground pipe broken; reservoirs damaged. Conspicuous cracks in ground.
X
Most masonry and frame structures destroyed with their foundations. Serious damage to dams and dikes; large
landslides. Rails bent slightly.
XI Rails bent greatly. Underground pipelines out of service.
XII Damage nearly total. Large rock masses shifted; objects thrown into the air.
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Tsunami:
A tsunami develops when part of the sea floor drops during an
earthquake. Water rushes to fill the low spot, but the inertia of the
rushing water forces too much water into the area, creating a bulge in
the water surface. The long, shallow waves can build up into
destructive giants when they reach shore.
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Tsunami due to
down faulting of
sea floor
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A
D
B
C
Tsunami due to thrusting of overriding plate
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Indonesia, 2004
~49 m
>200,000 killed
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EARTHQUAKE IN INDONESIA
For the last few years, earthquakes have occurred in
Indonesian archipelago, such as those in Sumatra, Java, and
Sulawesi-Maluku-Papua. However, this lecture may emphasize
on earthquakes occurred in Sumatra and Java, especially
those caused very serious damage.
The most damaging earthquake is that followed by tsunami
took place in Aceh on December 26
th
, 2004, in which more
than 200.000 people were killed, tens of thousand of missing
people, and a million of homeless.
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TECTONIC SETTING AND EARTHQUAKE in ACEH
Modified from
Klous and Tilling, 1996
The Indian plate subducts beneath Sumatra at an average of 6-7
cm/yr. The epicenter of earthquake was just north of Simeuleu
Island, off the western coast of northern Sumatra
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TSUNAMI MECHANISM IN ACEH
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hypocenter: 3.307N and 95.947E; 160 km west of Sumatra; at a depth of
30 km below MSL
Moment magnitude (Mw): 9.0 (USGS)
Total energy released: 4.3 x 10
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joules equivalent to 100 gigatons of TNT
Movement along the fault line: 10 m laterally and 4-5 m vertically
Tsunami waves: up to 48.9 m high with a tsunami magnitude (Mt) of 9.1
Greatest strength of tsunami waves: an east-west direction
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EARTHQUAKE IN ACEH: 26 December 2004
00:58:53 GMT/07:58:53 WIB Western Coast of North Sumatra
In this region, earthquake was followed by
tsunami (30 minute after shocks), the
damage was caused by seismic ground
motion
Approximate damage:
Death: 200,000 to 300,000; missing
>51,000; and homeless >1,000,000
One-third of the dead appear to be
children Why? Students should
discuss it in a group.
As four times as many women than
men were killed Why? Students
should discuss it in a group.
Other victims: traumatic survivors
FACTORS considered to
be partly responsible for
the great human loss of
life include:
People lived on low-lying
coastal areas without
refuge buildings
Lack of earthquake and
tsunami knowledge
There was no an early
tsunami warning system
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Number of tsunami victims in Aceh by region
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EARTHQUAKE IN ACEH
Infrastructures:
Houses and other buildings
around the coastal region
were destroyed.
Other facilities such as
transportation and
communication (failure of
50,000 telp lines) caused the
coastal region isolated.
Up to 2 km away from
coastline every single thing
without exception (~100%)
was washed out by tsunami
Between 2-3 and 5 km from
coastline structures were
mostly washed out by
tsunami.
The rice field was submerged
near the coast at Piukan Bada
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Physical Impacts due to
Tsunami in Aceh
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FACTORS INFLUENCING DAMAGES
1. Collapse of Buildings due to
Seismic Ground Motion:
(a) Influence of period of
seismic motion
(b) Influence of the long
duration of the quake
2. Collapse of Buildings due to
Tsunami:
(a) Estimated by using washout
ratio, based on satellite
imagery data before and
after tsunami
(b) Influence of distance from
shore line
Mosque could remain after tsunami
attack WHY? STUDENT
DISCUSSION
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TSUNAMI HEIGHTS
15-30 m on the west coast
6-12 m on the Banda Aceh
coast
~6 m on the Krueng Raya
coast
~5 m on the Sligi coast
3-6 m on Weh Island
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Tsunami traces found in Leupung. Here
Tsunami was up to 30.5 m high.
A family house located ~1,3 km
inland in Banda Aceh
Coral stone transported by tsunami
A family house located ~0,9 km from the coast.
Also shown are inundation depths
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TSUNAMI IMPACTS IN ACEH
No Region Impacts
1 Banda Aceh
Residential zone between coastline and city center was
completely destroyed
Commercial zone & Government Offices escaped total
destruction, but were damaged badly by the flood
Most of the dead & missing people came from these zones
2 SW Coast
Towns, villages, and infrastructures (roads & bridges) were
destroyed
Towns & villages were totally isolated accessible only by boat
and by helicopter (STUDENTS SHOULD DISCUSS ANY
CONSEQUENCES OF THIS CONDITION)
3 N Coast
Tsunami did not inflict severe damage, compared to other
regions (except several fishing villages)
Local society was greatly affected by tsunami, because
survivors from SW coast flocked into towns & villages in N coast
Less aid as it was considered less affected. This could cause
future social uncertainties (STUDENTS SHOULD DISCUSS IT)
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DISTRIBUTION OF COMPLETELY COLLAPSED
BUILDINGS DUE TO SEISMIC GROUND MOTION
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KERUSAKAN ASET
BUDAYA

Perpustakaan IAIN Ar-Raniry :
7.000 buku rusak
Perpustakaan Universitas Syah
Kuala : Bangunan retak, rak
buku rubuh, keramik pecah-
pecah, plafon berjatuhan.
Perpustakaan Ali Hasjimy untuk
Pendidikan : buku-buku
berjatuhan ke lantai ketika
gempabumi
Makam Syiah Kuala (ulama
abad 16) : utuh, hanya banguan
disekitarnya yang rusak/hanyut.
Sertifikat tanah 3-4% rusak
karena tsunami menyebabkan
masalah kepemilikan tanah
Berhentinya fungsi pemerintahan
Gempabumi dan tsunami
menghancurkan pusat
pemerintahan di :
Calang (Kota utama di Aceh
Jaya)
Meulaboh (Kota utama di
Aceh Barat)
Pejabat pemerintah di provinsi
korban, termasuk Walikota
Banda Aceh. Kesulitan
KEHANCURAN
INFRASTRUKTUR SOSIAL

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1921
1916
1984
1987
1892
1822
1943
1909
1995
1952
1926
1942
1893
1900
1933
1994
1908
1990
1997
1936
1964
1967
1822
1926 (~7)
1984 (6.4(
1987 (6.6)
1893
1892 (7.7)
1900
1908
1916
1933 (7.5)
1942 (7.3)
1936 (7.2)
1952 (6.8)
1979 (6.6)
1943 (7.3)
1990 (6.5)
1997 (6.5)
1964 (6.5)
1921 ( >7)
1994 (6.9)
1995 (7.0)
1909 (7.6)
1967 (6.8)
Historical Earthquakes along The Sumatran Fault Zone
2000
Seismic Gap?
23 destructive events in the past 200 years or
1-2 large earthquakes occur every decade
6 Maret 2007
(M6.3 & 6.1)
(sumber: Natawidjaja)
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Earthquake in West Sumatra and Yogyakarta

Earthquake occurred on May 27
th
, 2006 05:53:57 WIB; 8.00 LS-110,31 BT,
32,2 km south Yogyakarta City; 5,9 Richter Scale.
Dead > 10.000 people, injured ~47,000 people, Homeless > 3,400,000
orang
Damaged houses : >130.000 (heavily destroyed); >190.000
(moderately destroyed) and >278.000 (slightly destroyed )

Earthquake on March 6
th
, 2007; 10:49:39 WIB; Hypocenter : 0.55 LS -
100.47 BT Depth: 33 Km, Magnitude 5.8 RS, located inland 16 km SW
Batu Sangkar West Sumatra.
Damage : 4.085 houses (heavily destroyed); 1,783 houses (moderately
destroyed) dan 4.015 houses (slightly destroyed ); 176 religious
facilities, 172 educational facilities, 84 offices and 49 public facilities
Homeless: in Solok Distric up to 6,568 people.