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INTRODUCTION TO ARC WELDING (SMAW)
INTRODUCTION TO ARC
WELDING
(SMAW)
Terms & Definitions Welding - Joining of two or more pieces of metal together by the
Terms & Definitions
Welding - Joining of two or more
pieces of metal together by the
fusion process
NOTE: In arc welding, heat is produced by
the electric arc created.
SMAW - Shielded Metal Arc Welding
Electrode - Metal rod which conducts
a current from the electrode holder
to the base metal
Base Metal -
Metal to be welded
Continued Bead Weld - Made by one pass of the electrode Bevel – Type of edge
Continued
Bead Weld -
Made by one pass of
the electrode
Bevel – Type of edge preparation
containing an angle
Butt Joint - Weld located between
the two edges of metal.
Crater - Depression at the end of a
weld

Safety precautions in SMAW welding

Never look at the arc with the naked eye. Use a welding hood that is in
Never look at the arc with the naked
eye.
Use a welding hood that is in good
condition and has a #12 shade.
Wear suitable clothing to protect all
parts of the body. (PPE) personal
protective equipment
Long sleeved shirt
Leather gloves
Collar buttoned
Safety precautions in SMAW welding Never look at the arc with the naked eye. Use a
Continued Cuffs turned down High topped shoes or boots Do not strike an arc or weld
Continued
Cuffs turned down
High topped shoes or boots
Do not strike an arc or weld until
you are sure those in the vicinity
have protective equipment or
will look in the other direction.
(Note) Yell “cover” before striking an arc.
Continued Do not weld around combustible or flammable materials. Do not pick up hot metal with
Continued
Do not weld around combustible
or flammable materials.
Do not pick up hot metal with
the hands.
(NOTE) Use a pair of pliers
Do not weld in confined places
without ventilation
Continued Always turn off main switch or disconnect plug when checking over a welder. Do not
Continued
Always turn off main switch or
disconnect plug when checking over
a welder.
Do not leave electrode holder on the
welding table or in contact with
grounded metal.
Do not use worn or frayed cables.
Continued Stand on dry footing when welding. Keep area around welder clean. Keep tools and metals
Continued
Stand on dry footing when welding.
Keep area around welder clean.
Keep tools and metals in proper
location.
Types of Arc Welders A.C. – (Alternating current) Welder current alternates direction 120 times per second.
Types of Arc Welders
A.C. – (Alternating current) Welder
current alternates direction 120
times per second.

D.C. (Direct current) Welder current flows in the same direction.

TIG – (Tungsten Inert Gas) Welder may use either A.C. or D.C. with a non-consumable tungsten
TIG – (Tungsten Inert Gas) Welder
may use either A.C. or D.C. with a
non-consumable tungsten electrode
and an inert shielding gas.
Types of Arc Welders A.C. – (Alternating current) Welder current alternates direction 120 times per second.
Types of Arc Welders A.C. – (Alternating current) Welder current alternates direction 120 times per second.
Continued MIG – (Metal Inert Gas) May use A.C. or D.C. with a base wire filler
Continued
MIG – (Metal Inert Gas) May use
A.C. or D.C. with a base wire filler
material that is fed automatically into
weld; also has an inert shielding gas.
Common SMAW Tools Welder Electrode Holder Ground clamp Shield or helmet Gloves Chipping hammer Safety goggles
Common SMAW Tools
Welder
Electrode Holder
Ground clamp
Shield or helmet
Gloves
Chipping hammer
Safety goggles or glasses
Wire brush
Electrodes
Types of Electrodes Mild Steel High Carbon Steel Hard Surfacing Alloys – special purpose
Types of Electrodes
Mild Steel
High Carbon Steel
Hard Surfacing
Alloys – special purpose
Electrode Characteristics AWS Current Class Covering Requirements Position Characteristics EXX 10 Cellulose DCEP All Deep Penetration,
Electrode Characteristics
AWS
Current
Class
Covering
Requirements
Position
Characteristics
EXX 10
Cellulose
DCEP
All
Deep Penetration,
Sodium
With Ripples
EXX 11
Cellulose
AC, DCEP
All
Deep Penetration,
Potassium
Flat Decking
With Ripples
EXX22
Rutile
DCEN, AC
Flat, Horiz. Fillet
Deep Penetration,
Sodium
With Ripples
EXX
24
Rutile
AC, DCEP, DCEN Flat, Horiz. Fillet
High Deposition
50% Iron
Shallow Penetration
Powder
EXX
27
Mineral
AC,DCEP, DCEN
Flat, Horiz. Fillet
High Deposition
50% Iron
Shallow Penetration
Powder
Electrode Characteristics continued AWS Current Class Covering Requirements Position Characteristics EXX 12 Rutile DCEN, AC All

Electrode Characteristics continued

Electrode Characteristics continued AWS Current Class Covering Requirements Position Characteristics EXX 12 Rutile DCEN, AC All
AWS Current Class Covering Requirements Position Characteristics EXX 12 Rutile DCEN, AC All Mild to Medium
AWS
Current
Class
Covering
Requirements
Position
Characteristics
EXX
12
Rutile
DCEN, AC
All
Mild to Medium Penetration
Sodium
EXX
13
Rutile
AC, DCEP, DCEN
All
Mild Penetration
Sodium
EXX
14
Rutile
AC, DCEN
All
Medium Penetration
30% Iron
Powder
EXX
18
Low-Hydrogen
DCEP, AC
All
Medium Penetration
30% Iron
Powder
EXX
28
Low-Hydrogen
AC, DCEP
Flat, Horiz. Fillet
High Deposition
50% Iron
Powder
Common Sizes of Electrodes 1/8” 5/32” Sizes of electrodes range from 1/16” to 3/8”. Electrode size
Common Sizes of Electrodes
1/8”
5/32”
Sizes of electrodes range from 1/16”
to 3/8”.
Electrode size is determined by the
diameter of the wire core.
AWS Classification
AWS Classification

E70XX-H4R

AWS Classification E70XX-H4R •Electrode Tensile in Ksi Welding Position: 1 = All Position, 2 = Flat
•Electrode Tensile in Ksi Welding Position:
•Electrode
Tensile in Ksi
Welding Position:
1 = All Position, 2 = Flat & Horizontal
1 = All Position, 2 = Flat & Horizontal
AWS Classification E70XX-H4R •Electrode Tensile in Ksi Welding Position: 1 = All Position, 2 = Flat
AWS Classification E70XX-H4R •Electrode Tensile in Ksi Welding Position: 1 = All Position, 2 = Flat

Type of Current and Coating *Hydrogen:

or H16 = Less than 16ml/100g weld metal *Meets Requirements of Absorbed Moisture Test *Optional Designators
or H16 = Less than 16ml/100g weld metal
*Meets Requirements of Absorbed Moisture Test
*Optional Designators
H4 = Less than 4ml/100g weld metal, H8 = Less than 8ml/100g Weld Metal
H4 = Less than 4ml/100g weld metal, H8 = Less than 8ml/100g Weld Metal
Electrode Coating Functions
Electrode Coating Functions
To Provide Deoxidizers & Scavengers To Produce Shielding Gases To Produce a Slag Covering To Provide
To Provide Deoxidizers & Scavengers
To Produce Shielding Gases
To Produce a Slag Covering
To Provide Mechanical and Physical
Properties
To Increase Deposit Rates

Effects of Raising & Lowering Current

Effects of Raising & Lowering Current Raising current Produces more heat Lowering current Produces less heat
Raising current Produces more heat Lowering current Produces less heat (Note: On thicker metals more heat
Raising current
Produces more heat
Lowering current
Produces less heat
(Note: On thicker metals more heat is
necessary in order to get penetration
of the weld.)
Methods of Establishing an Arc Scratching Similar to striking a match Tapping Straight down and up
Methods of Establishing an Arc
Scratching
Similar to striking a match
Tapping
Straight down and up

Characteristics of Proper Arc Length

End of electrode is the same distance from the base metal as the diameter of electrode.
End of electrode is the same distance
from the base metal as the diameter
of electrode.
1/8” electrode = arc length 1/8”
Correct arc length makes a steady
hum of the welder.
Correct arc length makes a “frying”
sound at the arc
Like bacon frying in a pan
Characteristics of Proper Arc Length End of electrode is the same distance from the base metal
Parts of the welding process Electrode Wire core Coating (flux) Arc Gaseous shield Weld Slag
Parts of the welding process
Electrode
Wire core
Coating (flux)
Arc
Gaseous shield
Weld
Slag
Parts Continued Heat lines Base metal Penetration Crater 15 – 30 degree angle Direction of travel
Parts Continued
Heat lines
Base metal
Penetration
Crater
15 – 30 degree angle
Direction of travel

Principles of the SMAW

Process
Process
Principles of the SMAW Process
Kinds of Welds Fillet Groove Bead
Kinds of Welds
Fillet
Groove
Bead
Fillet Weld
Fillet Weld
Groove Welds
Groove Welds
Continued
Continued
Types of Weld Joints Butt Joint Lap Joint Tee Joint Corner Joint Edge Joint
Types of Weld Joints
Butt Joint
Lap Joint
Tee Joint
Corner Joint
Edge Joint
Square Butt Joint
Square Butt Joint
Square Butt Joint
Tee Joints A- plain tee B- single beveled C- double beveled D- single J E- double
Tee Joints
A- plain tee
B- single beveled
C- double beveled
D- single J
E- double J
Lap Joints A- single lap joint, one weld. B- single lap joint, two welds. C- offset
Lap Joints
A- single lap joint,
one weld.
B- single lap joint,
two welds.
C- offset lap joint.
Corner Joints
Corner Joints
Corner Joints
Edge Joints
Edge Joints
Edge Joints
Welding Positions Flat 1F & 1G Horizontal 2F & 2G Vertical 3F & 3G Overhead 4F
Welding Positions
Flat
1F & 1G
Horizontal
2F & 2G
Vertical
3F & 3G
Overhead
4F & 4G
Weld Positions
Weld Positions
Reason for Poor Welds Machine adjustment too hot or too cold Electrode size too large or
Reason for Poor Welds
Machine adjustment too hot or too
cold
Electrode size too large or too small
Improper movement of electrode
Improper angle of holding electrode
Improper base metal preparation
Arc length too long or too short