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Drug Metabolism and Analysis

Jardine Jade Albert C. Valdez, RMT


Our Lady of Fatima University
Lecturer/ Clinical Instructor
Outline of Presentation
1. Drug Identification
1. Category
2. Schedule
3. Effect
2. Drug Metabolism
Drug Identification
Category
Schedules
Effects

Drug
A chemical substance that brings about
physical, physiological, behavioral and/or
psychological change in a person taking it.
A chemical substance other food which is
intended to affect the structure or function of
the body of man or animal
All medicine are drugs but not all drugs are
medicine.
Drug Abuse
Any non-medical use of drugs that cause
physical, psychological, legal, economic, or
social damage to the user or to people
affected by the users behavior.
Abuse usually refers to illegal drugs but may
also be applicable to drugs that are available
legally, such as prescribed medications and
certain over the counter medications
Classification of drugs (according to
origin)
1. Natural Drugs
Raw Opium
Marijuana
Coca bush
2. Synthetic Drugs
Methamphetamine
Barbiturates


Classification of Drugs (according to
legal classification)
1. RA 9165 (comprehensive Dangerous
Drug Act of 2002)
2. PD 1619 (Volatile substance)
Classification of Drugs (according to
international classification)
1. Narcotics substances
2. Psychotropic substances
3. Designer drugs
Narcotics
Any drug that produces sleep or stupor and
also relieves pain (medical)
Depress the central nervous system to
produce a marked reduction in sensitivity to
pain, create drowsiness and reduce physical
activity
A drug which therapeutic doses diminishes
awareness of sensory impulses.
Psychotropic substances
Any substance, natural or synthetic or
any natural material in schedule 1,2,3 or
4
Pertaining to any drug or agent having a
particular affinity for or effect on the
psyche.

Designer Drugs
Substance chemically related to but slightly
different from controlled substances
Designed by clandestine chemists with the
aim to manufacture compounds that produce
the high or euphoria of parent drugs and
avoid the penalties that would be levied
against those illegally trafficking the controlled
substance.
Controlled Substances
The Compound Substances Act of 1970
separates drugs that may be abused into five
categories based on the use and biological
effect of the drugs.
Strict regulations for the use and supply of the
drugs in each schedule are also established.
Schedule 1
Almost all the drugs in this schedule are
illegal.
All have a high potential for dependence and
abuse and it is illegal to have them in your
possession.
Examples: Heroin, LSD, marijuana
Schedule 2
These drugs are highly addictive but despite
the risk, they remain in medical use because
no satisfactory non addictive alternative
medication is available.
Example: Cocaine, Amphetamines, Morphine,
some barbiturates
Schedule 3
This schedule includes drugs that have some
potential for abuse or dependence.
Prescriptions can be renewed up to five times
in six months if your doctor so authorizes.
Example: Acetaminophen or aspirin with
codeine, some appetite suppressants.
Schedule 4
These drugs are considered less likely to cause
dependence or to be abused as much as the
drugs in schedule 3, but the prescriptions are
covered by the same regulations that govern
schedule 3.
Example: Diazepam, choral hydrate,
Phenobarbital
Schedule 5
These drugs are included in the regulations
because they contain small amounts of
narcotics. However, they are the least likely to
be abused.

Example: Some antidiarrheal medications and
cough medicines
Classification of drugs (according to
effects)
According to pharmacological calssification:
Stimulants
Hallucinogens
Narcotics
Sedatives/Depressants



Stimulants
Stimulants are drugs which increase alertness
and physical disposition

Examples: amphetamine, metamphetamine
hydrochloride
Amphetamine
Street name: Eye opener, lid poppers, pep
pills, upper, hearts

What it is?
Reduce appetite
Relieves mental depression
Comfort fatigue and sleepiness
Amphetamine
How taken
Orally as tablet or capsule

Effects
General: wakefulness, increased
alertness/initiative
Toxic: from restless to coma and death
Amphetamine
Dangers
Dependence, overdose, violent/bizarre
behavior
Caffeine
What it is?
Slightly bitter alkaloid/methylxanthine in
coffee, cola, tea, coca, soft drinks and OTC
medications
Effects Mental alertness, general sense of
well-being, hyperacidity, elevated heart rate,
irregularities in heartbeat, psychological and
physical dependence
Caffeine
Dangers - Osteoporosis, gastritis,
ulcer, cardiac arrest
Cocaine
Street name: coke, crack, gold dust, stardust,
white girl, speedballs

What it is?
Extraction from coca bush leaves
White (in pure form)
Odorless and bitter
Cocaine
How taken
Orally, injection and sniffing
Effects
General: euphoria, hyperactiveness, tend to
commit criminal and bizarre sexual acts, feeling of
paranoia, hallucination, psychological
dependence, etc.
Physical: increased HR, BP, respiration rate
Physical effect: loss of appetite, insomia,
buzzing noise in the ear, and intense feeling of
thirst
Immediate: dilated pupils, increased BP, HR,
breathing rate body temperature
Delayed: Psychosis, restlessness, irritability
Methamphetamine
Street name: shabu, speed, splash

What it is?
A stimulant closely related to amphetamine and
ephedrine

How taken
Oral, inhalation, intravenously
Methamphetamine
Effects
Toxic : restlessness, irritability, paranoid ideation

Psychology adverse reaction: anxiety
reactions, methamphetamine psychosis,
exhaustion syndrome, prolonged hallucinosis
Methamphetamine
Effect
Secondary: skin lesions, abscesses etc.

Dangers
Death, cardiovascular anomalies, jaundice,
microcephaly among babies
Shabu
Street name: Poor mans cocaine, S,
Shabs, Siopao, Sha, Ice
What it is?
White odorless, crystals/crystalline powder
with a bitter numbling taste
Shabu
How taken
Ingestion, inhalation (chasing the dragon), sniffing,
injection, smoke
Effects
General: anxiety, irritability, irrational behavior
Long term: psychosis similar to schizophrenia,
difficulty in concentrating, loss of interest in sex
Physical; chest pain, irregular heartbeat,
hypertension, convulsion, death
Dangers
Infection from contaminated needles,
phlebitis, septicemia, AIDS
Hallucinogens
Are drugs which affect sensation, thinking,
self-awareness and emotion. Changes in time
and space perception, delusions (false beliefs)
and hallucination may be mild or
overwhelming, depending on dose and quality
of drugs
Ecstasy
Street name: XTC, Adam, essence, E, herbals

How it is being taken:
Swallowing in inhalation

Effects
Exaggerated emotions, makes HR and BP hike up,
dries the mouth, stiffens arms, legs, jaw, dilates pupils
of the eyes, causes faintness, chills, sweating and
nausea
LSD
Lysergic acid diethylamide
Street name: lucy in the sky with diamonds,
wedding bells, acid, white sugar, lightning,
cubes, brain eaters
What it is?
A semi-synthetic alkaloid substance extracted
from a fungus which grows on rye, wheat and
other grains, odorless, tasteless, colorless
LSD
Effects
Psychological: vivid hallucinations, confusion,
blurring of distinction between conscious and
unconscious thought
Physical: dilated pupils, flushed face, increased BP
Dangers
May cause abnormal amount of breakage of
chromosomes of WBC that carry genes, which
may result to miscarriage and birth defects
Marijuana
Street name: mary jane, flower, pampapogi,
brownies, damo, pot, tea, joint, dope

What it is?
Comes from Cannabis sativa L. (indian hemp);
looks like fine, green tobacco
How taken
Smoked in pipes/cigarettes, can be taken in food,
made into candy, sniffed in powder form, mixed
with honey or butter
Effects
Immediate: faster heartbeat, bloodshot eyes, dry
mouth
Long term: chest pain, temporary loss of fertility,
cancer, marijuana burn out

Subjective: hilarity, carelessness, euphoria,
confusion
Toxic: general euphoria, phantasmagoria
Dangers
Slow down users mental and psychomotor
activities, long term use may lead to psychological
dependence may lead to cancer
Marijuana
Four major cannabinoids:
D9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
Cannabinol (CBN)
Cannabinol (CBD)
Cannabichromene (CBCh)
Cannabis products
Herbal product (marijuana)
Resin product (hashish)
Liquid Cannabis (hashish oil)
Mescaline
Street name: Cactus, buttons, beans

What it is?
A Chemical taken from peyote cactus, peyote
buttons are brown in color and resembles the
underside of a dried mushroom

How it is being taken
Swallowing

Effects:
Dilated pupils, increased pulse rate, BP, tremors,
feeling of terror, anxiety , impaired space and color
perception; produces hallucinations which are
occasionally sexual in nature and intensified sensual
experiences
Dangers
Produces depressions which can lead to serious
mental changes, psychotic manifestations, suicidal or
homicidal tendencies, psychological dependence
PCP
Phencyclidine
Street name: Angel dust, crystal super
grass, killer joints, ozone, wack, rocket
fuel
How it is being taken
Swallowing, snorting, smoking

Effects
Sedation: convulsion and coma leading to death,
feeling of weightlessness, unreality, hallucinations,
poor concentration, preoccupation with death,
nausea and vomiting
Dangers
Increase rates of fetal loss, chromosome breakage
and decreased fertility and death
Psilocybin
Street name: Magic mushroom
What it is?
Synthesized from several species of mushrooms,
notably Psilocyn Mexicana
How it is being taken
Orally or through injection
Effect
Papillary dilution; increased deep tendon reflexes;
hallucinations, exhilaration, depressions
Dangers
Hallucinations, exhilaration or depressions which
can lead to serious mental changes, psychotic
manifestations, suicidal or homicidal tendencies
Narcotics
Are drugs that relieve pain and
often induce sleep

Codeine
Street name: schoolboy

What it is?
A component of opium and derivative of
morphine, ideal analgesic, found in some cough
syrups
How it is taken?
Orally, by injection
Effects
Analgesic and cough suppressant with very little
sedation or exhilarant action, dependence can be
produced in large doses

Dangers
Occasionally taken for kicks, dependence may
occur, occasionally resorted to by opiate-
dependent persons to tide them over if heroin is
difficult to obtain with inadequate result.
Heroin
Street name: Blanco, brown sugar, kabayo,
kengkoy, gamot, matsakao, pulbos, sapsap,
tinik

What it is?
Alkaloid derived from morphine, white, off white
or brown crystalline powder
How taken
Orally, through inhalation, injection or by smoking

Effects:
Tracks, mitosis, slurring of speech, cyanosis, dry
skin and mouth, anoxia, ulticarcia, pulmonary
ventilation, pulmonary edema, hyperglycemia
Dangers
Dependence liability is high, dependence usually
develops more rapidly, sensitivity to respiratory
depressant effects

Morphine
Street name: M, dreamer, emma, emsel,
pulbos

What it is?
Principal active component in opium white
crystalline powder, light porous cubes, small white
tablets
How it is taken?
Any route, but mostly by intravenous injection.

Effects
Initial reaction is unpleasant to most people but
calming supersedes and depending on dose, may
progress to coma and death from respiratory
failure
Dangers
Sensitivity to respiratory depressant effect until
tolerance develops, psychic and physical
dependence and tolerance develop readily.
Sedatives
Are drugs which may reduce anxiety and
excitement
Alcohol
Street name: beer, whisky, gin, brandy, wine

Effects:
Sedation, impairs mental and physical functions,
increase the risk of heart attack and stroke
Dangers
Addiction, cirrhosis, brain damage, Obesity, may
lead to cancer of the esophagus, intestines,
pancreas, thyroid and breast
Barbiturates
Street name: lily, bala, downers, yellow jacket,
blue heavens

What are they?
Made from barbituric acid (barb) prescribed to
induce sleep or provide calming effect

How it is taken?
Orally, sometime intravenously
Effects
Small amount make user relaxed, sociable, good
humored, heavy doses make them sluggish,
gloomy, sometimes quarrelsome, thick speech,
staggering gait
Dangers
Sedation, coma, death from respiratory failure,
death from overdose
Volatile Substances
Inhalants
Solvents
Aerosols
Bases

Trade names: moth balls, hair spray,
insecticides, drain cleaner, furniture polish and
wax
Street name: whippets, poppers, snappers,
rush, bolt, bullet
What are they?
Liquid , solid or mixed substances having the
property of releasing toxic vapors or fumes or any
chemical substance which when sniffed, smelled,
inhaled or introduced into the physiological
system of the body produce/induce a condition of
intoxication, inebriation, excitement and
stupefaction
How it is taken?
Sniffing or inhaled
Effects
Immediate: confusion/disorientation, distorted
perception of time and distance; aggressive
behavior/violence, hallucination, illusions, nausea
and vomiting.
Dangers
Causes permanent damage to brain or may result
in sudden sniffing death.
Drug metabolism
Drug administration
Oral drinking
Intravenous
inhalations
Drug detection
Depends on:
Absorption
Disposition
Elimination

General Information
Alcohol may be the worlds oldest known
drug.
Also known as ethyl alcohol or ethanol
Big business in todays society
Alcohol abuse has become a major public
health problem.

The path of alcohol in the body
1. Mouth: alcohol enters the body.
2. Stomach: some alcohol gets into the
bloodstream in the stomach, but most goes on
to the small intestine.
3. Small Intestine: alcohol enters the bloodstream
through the walls of the small intestine.
4. Heart: pumps alcohol throughout the body.
5. Brain: alcohol reaches the brain.
6. Liver: alcohol is oxidized by the liver at a rate of
about 0.5 oz per hour.

Alcohol is converted into water, carbon dioxide
and energy.
How alcohol can effect you
Factors that influence how alcohol will affect a
person include:
age
gender
physical condition
amount of food eaten
other drugs or medicines taken
Effects on the body
Alcohol is a central nervous system
depressant.
In low doses, alcohol can produce:
a relaxing effect
reduced tension
lower inhibitions
impaired concentration
slower reflexes
impaired reaction time
reduced coordination
Effects on the body
In medium doses, alcohol can produce:
slurred speech
drowsiness
altered emotions
In high doses, alcohol can produce:
vomiting
breathing difficulties
unconsciousness
coma
DEATH
Addicted?
Chronic drinking can lead to dependence
and addiction to alcohol
Withdrawal symptoms include shaking
(tremors), sleep problems, and nausea.
More severe withdrawal symptoms include
hallucinations and even seizures.
Effects On the Body
Central Nervous System
Accelerates the loss of brain cells,
contributing to cognitive deficits. Chronic
use can lead to brain damage.
Liver
Long-term excessive drinking can cause
hepatitis (inflammation and destruction
of liver cells) and cirrhosis (scarring and
shrinkage of the liver).
Effects On the Body
Kidneys
Impairs their ability to regulate the
volume and composition of fluid and
electrolytes in the body.
Heart
Chronic, heavy alcohol use increases the
risk of heart disease.
Alcohol use can also worsen high blood
pressure and diabetes, two risk factors
for heart disease.
Statistics
16,885 alcohol-related fatalities in 2005
39 percent of the total traffic fatalities for
the year.

Nationwide in 2005, alcohol was present in
24 percent of the drivers involved in fatal
crashes.

The 16,885 fatalities represent one alcohol-
related fatality every 31 minutes.

254,000 injured in crashes where alcohol
was present an average of one person
injured every 2 minutes
Two main Categories of Drugs
Stimulants
Cocaine
Crack cocaine
Amphetamines (methamphetamine,
ecstasy)
Nicotine
Two main Categories of Drugs
Depressants
Heroin
Marijuana
Barbiturates Oxycodone,
Morphine, Codeine, Valium
GHB

Inhalant Use
Inhalants generally fall into three
categories:
Solvents- paint thinner, nail polish remover,
gasoline, and glue
Gases- whipped cream dispensers, spray paint,
hair spray, deodorant spray, nitrous oxide,
ether
Nitrites- room deodorizers

17.3 percent of 8th-graders, 12.4 percent of
10th-graders, and 11.9 percent of 12th-
graders have tried inhalants at least once in
their life.
Drug Abuse - Why do people start?
Idea that its easy to quit.
just want to try it
Social crutch: feel confident in social situations, something to
handle or hold
Deal with problems: escape, pressure, depression, boredom

Dont know how to say no.
Feel older Feel cool Feel different
Peer pressure Fit in Fun
Media: advertising, TV, movies, music
Friends / family Relieve stress / relax
Smoking
Organs Affected by Smoking:
Nose, throat, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Also called the respiratory tract.
Smoking
Conditions:
Chronic bronchitis
Emphysema
Wide variety of cancers
Linked to heart disease
Linked to artery disease

Deaths: 440,000 annual deaths in US each year are
smoking-associated (CDC). Equivalent to 36,666 per
month, 8,461 per week, 1,205 per day, 50 per hour, almost
1 per second.
Why You Should Not Smoke
Smoking gives you bad breath
Smoking makes your clothes and hair smell
Smoking turns your teeth and fingernails
yellow
Smoking makes your skin look grey and
unhealthy
Smoking can produce a hacking cough with
lots of phlegm. Really attractive!
Smoking zaps your energy for sports and other
activities.