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Prepared by:-

AMIT MITTAL (PE-ELECT)


MINAL KATARIA (PE-ELECT)
TRANSFORMER BUSHINGS


Bushing is a device that enables one
or several conductors to pass through
grounded transformer tank, and
insulates the conductors from it.

Broadly EHV class bushings (132 kV &
above) can be categorised in two types
based on their material, manufacturing &
design:-

1. Porcelain OIP Bushing
(Oil Impregnated Paper)

2. Composite RIP Bushing
(Resin Impregnated Paper)
OIP BUSHING
PORCELAIN OIP BUSHING
(Oil Impregnated Paper)

OIL
OIL SIDE
AIR SIDE
conducting
rod
OIP
EXTERNAL VIEW

INTERNAL VIEW

test tap
Porcelain

In OIP bushing paper is
impregnated with
transformer oil & it is
contained in porcelain
envelope, the space
between paper &
porcelain is being filled
with the transformer oil.


COMPOSITE RIP BUSHING
(Resin Impregnated Paper)

EXTERNAL VIEW

INTERNAL VIEW


In Composite RIP
bushing, paper is
impregnated with
curable resin & it is
contained in composite
silicone envelope, the
space between paper &
porcelain is being filled
with the insulating
medium like gel, PU
foam etc.
.
RIP
Composite
insulator
Dry filling
insulating
medium
Comparison between
RIP & OIP Bushing
TECHNICAL
PARAMETERS
Composite RIP Porcelain OIP

Generally Observed PD level <2 pC <5 pC
Generally Observed Tan delta <0.35% <0.45%
Insulation Class Class E (upto 120
o
C) Class A (upto 105
o
C)
Weight Composite RIP bushing weight is 50% of Porcelain OIP.
Transportation OIP bushings are more susceptible to damage from vandalism,
shipping, handling, and installation.
Installation a.) Vertical, Horizontal & at
any angle.
b.) Easy removal/ installation
c.) Less installation time
a.) Vertical<= 30
o
.
b.) Difficult Removal/installation
c.) More installation time
Maintenance RIP requires fewer maintenance checks compare to OIP due to
absence of oil and porcelain.
Explosion Risk Low High
Flamability Non flammable Flammable
Seismic Withstand
capability
High
(as well as high mechanical strength)
Low
(Moderate mechanical strength)

BUSHING
Failures
Composite RIP Porcelain OIP

WORLDWIDE* No failure reported
due to RIP bushing
by any Transformer
Manufacturer.
World wide transformer failure rate due to
HV bushing is 14%. Bushings are 3
rd
major
source of transformer failure after OLTC (40%)
& Winding (30%).
IN NTPC** Yet to be used NTPC projects like Auraiya, Khalagaon,
Talcher, Vindhyachal, Rihand, dadri, Unchahar
& Singrauli have experienced many failures of
GT/ICT/Reactor due to direct /indirect
(explosion of OIP due to fire) involvement of
OIP HV bushings.

In NTPC, it is observed that around 25%
failures of Transformers & Reactors are due to
OIP HV bushings.
Comparison between
RIP & OIP Bushing Contd..
* Based on CIGRE WG -12 Report-1983.
** 1. Based on OS Data bank of Transformers & Reactor Failures
(Doc. No:-COS-ISO-00-OIN/OPS/ELEC/005, Rev. No. : 0, March 2002)
2. OS record for Failure of Power Transformers in NTPC till 2007.
Comparison between
RIP & OIP Bushing Contd..
Availability Composite RIP Porcelain OIP

Manufacturers
(In India)
None BHEL
TELK
CGL
AREVA

Manufacturers
(outside India)
ABB MICAFIL
(Switzerland)
Pasoni villa (Italy)
Trench (UK)
HSP (Germany)
ABB (Switzerland)
Pasoni villa (Italy)
Trench (UK)
HSP (Germany)
PCORE Electric Company
(USA)
THVS (China)
and many more.

Comparison between
RIP & OIP Bushing Contd..
COST Composite RIP Porcelain OIP
Ex works price
(for 400 kV, 1250
Amp, 1550 KVp
BIL )
Rs 18 lacs (approx)#

Rs. 9 lacs^
Ex works price
(below 400 kV)
Ex works price is approximately more than three times for RIP
bushing w.r.t OIP bushing.
% increase in Power
Transformers package
cost for standard
2x500 MW unit due to
use RIP bushing
400 kV HV bushings required (typical)
(7+3 spare for GTs, 2+3 spare for ICTs, 1+1 spare for reactor) = 17 nos.

Cost of of OIP bushing= 9 lacs x 17 nos= 153 lacs

Cost of of RIP bushing= 18 lacs x 17 nos= 306 lacs

Package cost = 105 Cr^

% increase in package cost due to RIP Bushing =1.45% (Approx.)
^ OIP bushing price & Package cost is taken from recent bid & CE for Mauda Power Transformer
Package respectively.
# Approximate price of RIP bushing is based on the Budgetary Quotation provided by two suppliers
(ABB MICAFIL-Switzerland & HSP-Germany).

Experience on RIP Bushings
RIP bushings were developed in Europe in early 1950s.

RIP bushings are gaining popularity in abroad & installed world
wide for various thermal & hydro projects. Manufacturers claim
that about 50% of bushings presently manufactured are RIP type.

Applicable international standards are IEC60137 & IEEE C57.19.00.

In INDIA, RIP bushing are supplied to various hydro projects like
NHPC-TEESTA-V, DHAULIGANGA, PARBATI HEPs & APGENCO-
Srisailam HEP etc.

For various NTPC Hydro projects like Tapovan Vishnugarh &
Loharinagpala, bidders are inclined to provide RIP bushings
(Oil to SF6) for GT.


Summary of Advantages of
Composite RIP Bushings over
Porcelain OIP Bushings
RIP
BUSHINGS
Non
Flammability
Non
Flammability
Non
Flammability
Non
Flammability
Safe &
Non Explosive
Non
Flammability
Non
Flammability
RIP
BUSHINGS
Non
Flammability
RIP
BUSHINGS
Non
Flammability
RIP
BUSHINGS
Non
Flammability
RIP
BUSHINGS
Non
Flammability
RIP
BUSHINGS
Non
Flammability
RIP
BUSHINGS
High
Thermal
Strength
Non
Flammability
Low
Maintenance
Light
Weight
&
excellent
Seismic
withstand
capability
RIP
BUSHINGS
Easy
Installation
Non
Flammability
CONCLUSION / Plan for Adoption


At present, NTPC technical specification
stipulates provision of OIP bushings for voltage
level above 52 kV.

In view of the above justification & considering
the advantages, it is proposed to adopt 400 kV
Composite RIP Bushing in place of 400 kV
Porcelain OIP bushing for critical transformer
like:-
Generator Transformers
Inter Connecting Transformers
Reactors
& Station Transformers (as applicable)



EXPLOSION OF TRANSFORMER
DUE TO FAULT IN BUSHING

MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES
CHECKS PERIOD PORCELAIN
OIP
COMPOSITE
RIP
Check the oil level from gauge
glass & leakage, if any.
DAILY
X
Examine for dirt deposition
and tightness of oil filling
plugs.
QUARTERLY
X
Clean Porcelain & examine for
cracks in porcelain.
QUARTERLY
X
Measurement of capacitance
and tan delta.
HALF
YEARLY

Check top terminal contact
joints.
YEARLY

RIP BUSHING
(INTERNAL VIEW)
OIP Bushing Storage
OIP Bushing Installation
Bushing Manufacturing


FEEDBACK LETTER

BHEL 400 KV OIP Bushing

ABB 400 KV RIP Bushing

TESTING REQUIREMENTS
ROUTINE TEST:-

1 MIN POWER FREQUENCY
C& TAN DELTA
PARTIAL DISCHARGE


TYPE TEST:-

dry lightning impulse voltage withstand test
switching impulse voltage withstand test
temperature rise test
thermal short-time current withstand