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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

W W W . P R E N H A L L . C O M / R O B B I N S
T E N T H E D I T I O N
Contents

Group
Team
Leadership
Politics and power
Conflict and negotiation
Organizational structure, culture and change
Basic OB Model, Stage I
E X H I B I T 1-6
Model
An abstraction of reality
A simplified representation
of some real-world
phenomenon
The Dependent Variables
x
y
Dependent Variable
A response that is affected by an independent variable
(what organizational behavior researchers try to
understand)
The Dependent Variables (contd)
Productivity
A performance measure that
includes effectiveness and efficiency
Effectiveness
Achievement of goals
Efficiency
Meeting goals at a low
cost
The Dependent Variables (contd)
Absenteeism
The failure to report to work
Turnover
The voluntary and
involuntary permanent
withdrawal from an
organization
The Dependent Variables (contd)
Deviant Workplace Behavior
Voluntary behavior that violates
significant organizational norms and
thereby threatens the well-being of
the organization and/or any of its
members
The Dependent Variables (contd)
Organizational Citizenship
Behavior (OCB)
Discretionary behavior that is not
part of an employees formal job
requirements
But that promotes the effective
functioning of the organization
The Dependent Variables (contd)
Job Satisfaction
A general attitude (not a behavior) toward ones job; a
positive feeling of one's job resulting from an
evaluation of its characteristics
The Independent Variables
Independent
Variables Can Be
Individual-Level
Variables
Organization
System-Level
Variables
Group-Level
Variables
Independent Variable
The presumed cause of some change in the dependent
variable; major determinants of a dependent variable
Basic OB
Model, Stage
II
E X H I B I T 1-7
Introduction to Group behavior
Defining and Classifying Groups
Defining and Classifying Groups (contd)
The Five Stage Model of Group Development
Stages of Group Development (contd)
The Punctuated-Equilibrium Model
E X H I B I T 8-3
Group Member Resources
Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities
Interpersonal skills
Conflict management and resolution
Collaborative problem solving
Communication
Personality Characteristics
Sociability
Initiative
Openness
Flexibility
Group Property - Roles (contd)
Group Property - Roles (contd)
Group Property - Roles

There are many roles among group members
Formal Leadership
Leadership that is imposed on the group by the
organization.
Leaders who derive their power from the positions they
occupy in the organizational structure.
Formal leaders may or may not also be the informal
leaders of the groups in which they function.
Group Member Control Mechanisms
Roles
Norms Rules
Why Do Group Members Conform to Norms?


How Can Groups Respond to Deviants?


Attempt to change deviant
Expel deviant
Change norm
Figure 10.4 The Relationship Between Levels of
Conformity and Deviance
Socialization and Role Orientation
Role Orientations
Institutionalized Individualized
Socialization Tactics
Tactics Leading To An
Institutionalized
Orientation
Collective tactics
Formal tactics
Sequential tactics
Fixed tactics
Tactics Leading To An
Individualized
Orientation
Individual tactics
Informal tactics
Random tactics
Variable tactics

Group Property - Norms
Classes of Norms:
Performance norms
Appearance norms
Social arrangement norms
Allocation of resources
norms
Group Property - Size
Group Size
Performance
Other conclusions:
Odd number groups do
better than even.
Groups of 5 or 7 work
well
Ways to Reduce Social Loafing
Make individual
contributions identifiable
Make individuals feel that
they are making valuable
contributions to a group
Keep the group as small as
possible
4
Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness,
Performance Norms, and Productivity
Group Tasks

Decision-making
Large groups facilitate the pooling of information about
complex tasks.
Smaller groups are better suited to coordinating and
facilitating the implementation of complex tasks.


Group Decision Making
Strengths
More complete
information
Increased diversity
of views
Higher quality of
decisions
Increased
acceptance of
solutions
Weaknesses
More time
consuming
Increased pressure
to conform
Domination by one
or a few members
Ambiguous
responsibility
Group Decision Making (contd)
Group think

the desire for conformity in
the group results in an
irrational or
dysfunctional decision-
making outcome.
Group members try to
minimize conflict and reach
a consensus decision
without critical evaluation of
alternative viewpoints
Group shift

is a phenomenon in which
the initial positions of
individual members of
a group are exaggerated
toward a more extreme
position or conservative
position.
When people are in groups,
they make decisions about
risk differently from when
they are alone.

Assignments


How the individual variables (I unit) has an impact
on group formation and functioning?

Explain how group develops norms in Hawthorne
experiment