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## Logical Topology Design

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Logical Topology vs. Physical
Topology
Optical layer provides lightpaths between
pairs of client layer equipment (SONET
TMs, IP routers, ATM switches)
The lightpaths and the client layer network
nodes form a logical topology
The OXCs and optical fibers form a
physical topology
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Logical Topology Design
Lightpath can eliminate electronic processing at
intermediate nodes in the client layer => save
client layer switch ports/electronic processing
Cost: more wavelength required at the optical layer
Ideally: use a fully-connected logical topology,
i.e., setup a lightpath between every pair of
source-destination nodes
Not possible for larger networks due to limit on #
wavelengths per fiber
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Logical Topology Design
Design logical topology based on given traffic
patterns and the physical topology
Traffic routed over logical topology
Traffic may travel more than one logical hops
A logical topology can be reconfigured by
changing the set of lightpaths
Self-healing capability (when physical topology
changes due to network component failures)
Upgradability (when physical topology changes due to
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A Logical Topology Design
Problem (LDT)
Given:
Physical topology
Packet arrival rates for every source-destination pair
Objective:
Compute a logical topology with minimal congestion
(congestion is the maximum traffic routed over a
Why minimize congestion?
Low congestion leads to low packet queuing delay
LT can accommodate the maximum traffic scale-up
Note: need solve the packets routing problem together with
LDT
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LTD
Assumptions:
No limit on the number of wavelengths in the
optical layer
All lightpaths are bidirectional: if we set up a
lightpath from node i to node j, we also set up a
lightpath from node j to node i
Each IP router has at most input ports and
output ports
constrains cost of IP routers and number of lightpaths
Traffic between the same pair of nodes can be
split over different paths
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Mathematical Formulation
See handout for problem formulation
The objective functions and the constraints are
linear functions of the variables
Linear program (LP): all variables are real
Integer linear program (ILP): all variables must take
integer values
Mixed integer linear program (MILP): some variables
must take integer values
There are efficient algorithms for solving LPs
ILPs and MILPs are NP-hard
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A Heuristic for LTD-MILP
Use LP-relaxation and rounding
Terms used in mathematical programming
Feasible solution: any set of values of the
variables that satisfy all the constraints
Optimal solution: a feasible solution that
optimizes the objective function
Value: value of the objective function achieved
by any optimal solution

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A Heuristic for LTD-MILP
LP-relaxation: if we replace the constraints b
ij

{0,1} by 0 b
ij
1, LTD-MILP reduces to LDT-
LP
The value of the LTD-LP is a lower bound on the
value of the LTD-MILP
The bound is called the LP-relaxation bound
Routing-LP: the values of the b
ij
are fixed at 0 or 1
such that the degree constraints are satisfied
The problem is to route the packets over the logical
topology to minimize the congestion
The value of routing-LP is an upper bound on the value
of LTD-MILP
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A Heuristic for LTD-MILP
Solve LTD-LP
Fix the values of b
ij
in LTD-LP to 0 or 1
using the rounding algorithm
Solve the routing-LP

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Rounding Algorithm
Idea: round the b
ij
in LTD-LP to the closet
integer
Rounding algorithm
1. Arrange the values of the b
ij
obtained in an optimal
solution of the LTD-LP in decreasing order
2. Starting at the top of the list, set each b
ij
= 1 if the
degree constraints would not be violated. Otherwise,
set the b
ij
= 0.
3. Stop when all the degree constraints are satisfied or
the b
ij
s are exhausted