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Welcome to World of
Electronics
Soldering & Soldering
Techniques
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Presentation Overview
Terms and Definitions
Soldering Tools & Materials and their Uses
Cleaning Before & After Soldering
Stripping and Tinning
Soldering Procedure
Characteristics of a Good Solder Connection
Types of Poor Solder Connections & Causes
Types of Soldered Connections
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Terms and Definitions
A. Oxides- Films and impurities which form on the surface of
metals when exposed to air or water and which , if not
cleaned off, will prevent a good bond between the surfaces
and solder
B. Rosin- A material obtained from pine trees which is used
during soldering to help ensure a good bond between the
solder and the solder and the metal surfaces
C. Wetting- The ability of molten solder to flow over and fuse
completely with the metal surfaces to which it is applied
(NOTE: Dirt, grease, and oxides prevent good wetting during
soldering.)
D. Stripping- Removing insulation from electrical conductors

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Terms and Definitions (contd)
E. Tinning- The application of a small amount of solder to
surfaces to be soldered to help ensure good wetting during
soldering
F. Flux- A liquid or solid which when heated cleans and
protects surfaces to be soldered
G. Crimping- Applying mechanical pressure to compress a
sleeve-type or cup-type electrical terminal to ensure a good
electrical connection between the sleeve and the conducting
wires it contains
H. Solder -is a fusible metal alloy used to join together metal
workpieces and having a melting point below that of the
workpiece(s).

WHAT IS SOLDERING
Soldering is the process of joining
metal leads, creating a mechanical and
electrical bond.
The process of making an electrical
connection by melting low-temperature
metal alloys around component leads.
Soldering is just as much an Art as it
is a Science

WHAT IS REQUIRED
The tools needed for the
soldering process:
Safety glasses
Soldering iron
Solder
Wire cutter & plier
Damp sponge
TOOLS
SOLDERING IRONS
Pencil tip
Temperature Controlled
SOLDERIN IRON TIPS
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appropriate size and width is determined by the size of the connection
to be made
ideally 2/3 to equal the diameter of the pad
tips should be correctly 'tinned at all times, by adding a small amount
of solder to the hot tip
WHAT IS SOLDER
Solder is the material that melts on
the joint attaching to both the
component lead and the pad on the
circuit board.
Solder Types
Rosin core and Flux
Flux type is used for household soldering
Rosin core is used for electrical wiring (reduced corrosion
potential)
Rosin and flux are chemical compounds that clean the
metal surfaces that are being soldered
The rosin or flux melts first to contact the joint
The rosin or flux float the impurities away from the metal surfaces
and to the top surface of the solder joint
Produces the smoke you will see associated with soldering
Rosin Core Solder
Outer tube of low
melting alloy
Tin
Lead
(Industry is moving toward
lead-free)
Silver
Copper
Other specialized metals
Inner core is the Rosin
Mildly Activated (RMA)
flux

Use appropriate safety equipment





READY TO SOLDER
Component Side

Soldering Side
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Cleaning
before and after soldering
(CAUTION: Use safety goggles or glasses when soldering)
A. Oil, grease, and dirt- Wipe with isopropyl alcohol and clean
cloth
B. Old Solder- Heat with soldering iron, and wick away, or suck up
by means of a solder sucker
C. Oxides
1. Component leads- Use component lead cleaner
2. Terminals- Use typewriter eraser
D. Rosin flux- Wipe or brush with isopropyl alcohol or flux cleaner
(CAUTION: Use alcohol only in well-ventilated spaces and do
not permit open flames in the vicinity.)
Step 1:
WHAT ARE THE STEPS IN SOLDERING?
Prepare component for mounting.
In this step you bend the leads of the
component at 90 degree angle to fit into
the holes of the circuit board. You can do
this with your hand or with the help of
pliers. Be sure that the leads are bent at
the right distance from the body of the
component so they fit comfortably in the
holes on the board.

Step 2:
Mount component onto board
Mount component on board.
In this step you insert the leads of the component
into the holes on the board, from the component
side. The body of the component should rest on the
component side of the board.
It is a common incorrect practice among new
students to install the component on the soldering
side (foil side) of the board instead of the component
side, or to install the component away from the
surface of the board, instead of resting on the
surface of the board, as shown in the figure.

Step 3:
Bend component leads slightly.

After you have inserted the leads of the
component into the holes on the board,
you should bend the component leads
slightly to hold the component in place
while the board is turned over to be
soldered.

LEAD TERMINATIONS

TYPE 1 FULLY CLINCHED
bend the lead flat against the pad
trim the lead to a length of between 1-
2 lead diameters
Used in High Quality/High Reliability
military or life support applications
difficult to rework

TYPE 2 SEMI-CLINCHED
bend the lead to an angle of approx.
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Cut to a minimum of 0.5mm and a
max. of 1.5mm, or between 1-2 lead
diameters
Used for commercial applications
ease of de-soldering

TYPE 3 RIGID LEAD TERMINATION
straight through termination
Cut to a length of min. 0.5mm and
max. of 1.5mm, or between 1-2 lead
diameters
Step 4.

Heat iron. Clean tip with damp sponge
Clean iron's tip.
Before you start soldering and after the tip of
the iron has heated up, the tip of the iron
should be cleaned on a damp sponge and
tinned, by melting apiece of solder on the
iron's tip and then wiping the tip on the damp
sponge again.
The tip of the iron should always have an
even shiny metal surface from the solder.
Each time oxide forms on the tip, clean the
tip on the damp sponge to make it shiny
again.
Step 5.

Apply heat.
In this step you apply heat to the joint to
be soldered by touching the tip of the
iron firmly against both the component
lead, and the pad on the board,
simultaneously. Allow about three
seconds or more for the joint to heat up
before applying the solder.
This is one of the most important steps
in the soldering process. If you do not
heat up the joint (lead and pad on the
board) sufficiently you will get a cold
soldering joint which will have to be
resoldered.

Step 6.

Apply Solder
Apply solder.
After the joint has heated up, apply solder
to the point where the lead and the pad
join. Apply enough solder to create a
"mountain " of solder that attaches to
both, the lead and the pad, as shown in
the drawing of step 8. A common problem
among new students is to apply too little
or too much solder, neither is good.

Apply solder.
After the joint has heated up, apply solder
to the point where the lead and the pad
join. Apply enough solder to create a
"mountain " of solder that attaches to
both, the lead and the pad, as shown in
the drawing of step 8. A common problem
among new students is to apply too little
or too much solder, neither is good.

Step 7.
Remove solder.

After the solder has melted on
the joint forming a nice
connection as the one shown in
steps 8 and 9, remove the
solder wire from the joint then
remove the iron.
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Soldering
Circuit Board
Resistor
Solder Pads
Side View
Top View
PCB printed circuit boards
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Soldering
Iron
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Move soldering iron until tip is
touching wire & solder pad
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Move solder to touch edge of tip.
Solder
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Hold until solder melts
on tip by wire
Solder
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Move solder back to touch wire only
Solder
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Move solder in to form a
small pocket
Solder
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Move soldering iron tip up. This
will drag solder up with it.
Solder
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Look for shinny
fillets
Step 9:
Inspect the soldering joint.
After the joint has cooled off, visually
inspect the joint that you have created.
It should have a shiny and smooth
surface and it should attach to both the
component lead, and the pad on the
board. In the next transparency we will
see what good and bad soldering joints
look like.
If, during the inspection, you recognize
that your soldering is not good, you will
have to resolder the connection by
reheating the joint with the iron, until
the solder melts and then applying a
little more solder.
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Characteristics of a
Good Solder Connection
A. Slivery, shiny appearance to solder surface
B. Good wetting of solder to surfaces
C. Solder completely covers connection, but contour
of connection is still visible
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Characteristics of a
Good Solder Connection
D. Insulation
1. No burnt areas
2. No damaged insulation
3. Gap between insulation and connection is
approximately the diameter of the wire insulation
E. No spilled solder
F. No pits or holes in the solder surface
A GOOD SOLDER JOINT
Figure a) the amount of solder applied is minimal and may result in a poor
electrical connection over time.

Figure b) shows the optimal solder joint that has good wetting between
component lead and PCB pad.

Figure c) indicates an excessive amount of solder has been applied to the
connection.
Step I0:

Cut excess lead
Cut off component leads.
After you have soldered a joint the next step
is to cut off the excess component lead
using a wire cutter. Trim the lead off the
component as close to the solder joint as
possible. This is another important step in
the assembly process that can not be
avoided because untrimmed component
leads might cause short circuits between
metallic traces on the board.

Good solder joint. As we have said before, a
good soldering joint has a shiny and smooth
surface and attaches to both the component
lead, and the pad on the board.

Cold solder join: You can recognize a cold
solder joint because it is dull (not shiny) and
irregular (not smooth). Cold solder joints do
not make good electrical connections and
should be resolder.
Solder not attached to lead: In this type of
defective soldering joint the solder is
attached to the pad of the board but not to
the lead of the component.
Solder not attached to pad. In
this type of defective soldering
joint the solder is attached to
the lead of the component but
not to the pad on the board.
Leads not trimmed.
This problem is caused by not
trimming the component leads
after soldering the joint.
Leads not trimmed.
Leads that are not trimmed pose a
potential problem because they can
be touching each other or touching
other parts of the pad, producing
short circuits and damaging the
components. Never leave untrimmed
leads after the soldering is completed.
Solder bridge:
Solder bridge: A solder bridge is a bridge
made with solder that is connecting two pads
(or foil traces) that should not be connected.
Sometimes solder bridges are easy to detect
and other times they are so tiny that they can
only be detected with the use of a magnifying
glass.
Solder bridge:
Solder bridges can be
eliminated by melting them with
the soldering iron.
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Top View
Tinned Copper Traces
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Top View
Soldered
Solder bridge shorting two traces - bad, bad, bad
But, can be fixed by reheating or using solder sucker
THANK
YOU
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