Sie sind auf Seite 1von 24

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S
E L E V E N T H E D I T I O N
W W W . P R E N H A L L . C O M / R O B B I N S

2005 Prentice Hall Inc.
All rights reserved.
PowerPoint Presentation
by Charlie Cook
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 180
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 181
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 182
Work Stress and Its Management
Stress
A dynamic condition in which an individual is
confronted with an opportunity, constraint,
or demand related to what he or she desires
and for which the outcome is perceived to
be both uncertain and important.
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 183
Work Stress and Its Management
Constraints
Forces that prevent individuals
from doing what they desire.
Demands
The loss of something
desired.
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 185
12-6
Macrolevel Organizational Stressors
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
AND DESIGN
Centralization and formalization
Line-staff conflicts
Specialization
Role ambiguity and conflict
No opportunity for promotion
Restrictive, untrusting culture
WORKING CONDITIONS
Crowded work area
Noise, heat, or cold
Polluted air
Strong odor
Unsafe, dangerous conditions
Poor lighting
Physical or mental strain
Toxic chemicals or radiation
ORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES
Tight controls
Only downward communication
Little performance feedback
Centralized decision making
Lack of participation in decisions
Punitive appraisal systems
JOB
STRESS
ADMINISTRATIVE POLICIES
AND STRATEGIES
Downsizing
Competitive pressures
Merit pay plans
Rotating work shifts
Bureaucratic rules
Advanced technology
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 187
Potential Sources of Stress
Environmental Factors
Economic uncertainties of the business cycle
Political uncertainties of political systems
Technological uncertainties of technical innovations
Terrorism in threats to physical safety and security
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 188
Potential Sources of Stress
Organizational Factors
Task demands related to the job
Role demands of functioning in an organization
Interpersonal demands created by other employees
Organizational structure (rules and regulations)
Organizational leadership (managerial style)
Organizations life stage (growth, stability, or decline)
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 189
Potential Sources of Stress (contd)
Individual Factors
Family and personal relationships
Economic problems from exceeding earning capacity
Personality problems arising for basic disposition
Individual Differences
Perceptual variations of how reality will affect the
individuals future.
Greater job experience moderates stress effects.
Social support buffers job stress.
Internal locus of control lowers perceived job stress.
Strong feelings of self-efficacy reduce reactions to job
stress.
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1810
Consequences of Stress
High Levels
of Stress
Physiological
Symptoms
Behavioral
Symptoms
Psychological
Symptoms
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1811
A Model of Stress
E X H I B I T 189
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1812
Inverted-U Relationship between Stress and
Job Performance
E X H I B I T 1810
SUBJECTIVE EFFECTS

Anxiety, aggression, apathy, boredom,
depression, fatigue, frustration, guilt and shame,
irritability and bad temper, moodiness, low self-
esteem, threat and tension, nervousness, and
loneliness.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1813
BEHAVIOURAL EFFECTS

Accident proneness, drug taking, emotional
outbursts, excessive eating or loss of appetite,
excessive drinking and smoking, excitability,
impulsive behaviour, impaired speech, nervous
laughter, restlessness and trembling.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1814
COGNITIVE EFFECTS

Inability to make decisions and concentrate,
frequent forgetfulness, hypersensitivity to
criticism, and mental blocks.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1815
PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

Increased blood and urine catecholamines and
corticosteroids, increased blood glucose levels,
increased heart rate and blood pressure, dryness
of mouth, sweating, dilation of pupils, difficulty in
breathing, hot and cold spells, a lump in the
throat, numbness and tingling in parts of the
limbs.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1816
HEALTH EFFECTS

Asthma, amenorrhoea, chest and back pains,
coronary heart disease diarrhoea, faintness and
dizziness, dyspepsia, frequent urination,
headaches and migraine, neuroses, nightmares,
insomnia, psychoses, psychosomatic disorder,
diabetes mellitus, skin rash ulcers

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1817
ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTS

Absenteeism, poor industrial relations, and poor
productivity, high accident and labour turnover
rates, poor organisational climate, antagonism at
work and job dissatisfaction.

2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1818
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1820
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1821
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1822
Managing Stress
Individual Approaches
Implementing time management
Increasing physical exercise
Relaxation training
Expanding social support network
2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1823
Managing Stress
Organizational Approaches
Improved personnel selection and job placement
Training
Use of realistic goal setting
Redesigning of jobs
Increased employee involvement
Improved organizational communication
Offering employee sabbaticals
Establishment of corporate wellness programs