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Superposition in water

Create your own wave

superposition in your tub.

Take a photograph and print off

a picture

Show on the picture

where the waves have a

supercrest,

where they have a supertrough

Where a crest meets a trough

and the resultant

displacement is zero

Hearing superposition

1m

Same frequency from

Signal generator

Walk along a path that is one metre away

What do you hear?

Today you will...

Find out about interference patterns

and answer these questions

What are coherent sources?

What is the general condition for the formation of a bright fringe?

Are Youngs fringes equally spaced?

What factors could be (i) increased or (ii) decreased, to increase the fringe spacing

Why are slits used, rather than two separate light sources, in Youngs double slits

experiment?

What are the roles of diffraction, and interference, when producing Youngs fringes?

What do we mean by diffraction?

What feature of two waves must combine in order to produce reinforcement?

What is the phase difference between two waves if they produce maximum

cancellation?

Why is total cancellation rarely achieved in practice?

Thomas Young

Newtons view that light was

made from particles was

questioned by young in his

Youngs double slit

experiment.

The experiment showed that

light had wave properties

because they formed

interference patterns.

Interference patterns happen

for light, water and sound.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DfPeprQ7oGc

The Interference Pattern

The laser interference

Laser light is highly monochromatic

(only gives out 1 frequency of light)

The emitted light is also coherent

(of the same phase)

This gives a very sharp image

What are the factors that affect fringe

separation?

Fringe separation =

distance between

bright lines

Fringe separation

w = separation of the fringes (bright to bright or dark to dark)

= wavelength of the light

s = separation of the two slits

D = distance between slits and screen

w

D

s

W = D

S

Youngs Questions

Finding the wavelength of sodium light

In a two-slit apparatus the slits are 0.3 mm apart. Fringes in sodium are observed at a

distance of 1.2 m from the slits. The separation of the fringes is 2.4 mm.

1. What is the wavelength of sodium light?

2. The same light gives a fringe separation of 3.6 mm with a different pair of slits.

What is the slit separation if the distance between the slits and the fringes is the

same?

Red light of wavelength 7.0 x 10

7

m is shone at right angles through two slits of

separation 0.3 mm. Fringes are formed at a distance of 1.3 m from the slits.

3. What is the fringe spacing?

4. The same light gives a fringe spacing of 2 mm when passed through a different pair

of slits. What is the slit separation if the distance between the slits and the fringes

is the same?

In a two-slit apparatus the slits are 0.3 mm apart. White light passes through the slits

and fringes are observed at a distance of 2 m from the slits. Red light has a

wavelength of 700 nm and blue light has a wavelength of 400 nm.

5. Calculate the fringe spacing for each colour.

6. Use your answers to explain the coloured fringes seen on the screen.

W = D

S

Youngs answers

Ripple Tank

The geometric analysis of Youngs

experiment

Youngs two-slit interference experiment

narrow

source

two slits: 1 mm

spacing or less

bright and

dark fringes

several metres several metres

screen

Bright fringe at centre

to central bright

fringe on screen

d

waves in phase:

path difference = 0

s

What is the use of knowing ?

from

source d

light combines

at distant screen

slit-screen distance L

fringe

spacing x

Geometry of two-slit experiment

x/L = sin approximately

For it to be in phase (first fringe)

= sin

-1

d/

For it to be out of phase

= sin

-1

2d/

At the first dark fringe

d sin = /2

waves in anti-phase:

path difference = /2

path difference = d sin

to dark fringe on screen

Light going to first dark fringe

The waves must be in anti-phase

\2 difference at the point on the wall

\2 = s sin

= sin

-1

2d/

s

What is this length?

O = s sin

Opposite

Sin Hypotenuse

s

s

At the first Bright fringe

First bright fringe off centre

to bright

fringe on

screen

d sin =

d

waves in phase:

path difference =

path difference = d sin

difference at the point on the wall

= s sin

= sin

-1

s/

s

s

s

What is the use of knowing ?

from

source d

light combines

at distant screen

slit-screen distance L

fringe

spacing x

Geometry of two-slit experiment

x/L = sin approximately

For it to be in phase (first fringe)

= sin

-1

d/

For it to be out of phase

= sin

-1

2d/

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