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Prepared By

Sukruti Kaulgud
Assistant Professor (EXTC)
What is 4G
4G is the name given to 4
technology. G stands for generation.
Different Generations
1G (First Generation)
2G (Second Generation)
3G (Third Generation)
4G (Fourth Generation)
1G (First Generation)
1G or First Generation was an analog system
Continuous in Amplitude and Time
Variations in the signal- disrupts over long distances.

Developed in the seventies
Simplest type to wireless data
Average between 4800 and 9600 bps (bits per

1G (First Generation) Cont.
Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) was
first launched by the US and is a 1G mobile

1G based on FDMA, it allows users to make voice
calls in one country.
Problems with 1G
Poor voice quality
Poor battery life
Phone size big
No security
Frequent call drops
Limited capacity
Poor handoff reliability
2G (Second Generation)
2G or second generation 2G phones uses Global
System for Mobile communication (GSM).

2G first used in early 1990s in Europe.
2G (Second Generation) Cont.
GSM provides voice and limited data services
and uses digital modulation for improved audio
But the demand for Fax, Short message and
Data transmission was growing rapidly.
2G cellular systems include

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
Digital AMPS (D-AMPS)
Personal Digital Communication (PDC)
2G (Second Generation) Cont.
2G digital technologies can be divided into two

TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access)
GSM: Originally from Europe but used worldwide
iDEN: proprietary network used by Nextel in US
PDC: Used exclusively in Japan.

CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
IS-95: Commonly referred as CDMA and used in US and parts of
Problems of 2G
Need to improve transmission quality
Spotty Coverage
Unable to support complex data such as video
System Capacity
Cell towers has a limited coverage area.
Abrupt dropped calls
3G (Third Generation)
3G networks provide the ability to transfer voice
data and non voice data (music downloads,
emails and instant messaging) over the same
network simultaneously.

3G networks deliver broadband capacity and
support greater number of voice and data
customers of lower incremental cost than 2G.
3G (Third Generation) Cont.
W-CDMA: Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
CDMA 2000 EVDO: Evolution Data Optimized
The idea behind is to have a single network standard
instead of the different type adopted in US Europe and
Less Complexity
Faster transmission
Large capacity
Broadband Capabilities
Allows transmission of 384 kbps for mobile systems and
upto 2 Mbps for stationary users.
3G (Third Generation) Cont.
Increased spectrum efficiency 5MHz.
A greater number of users that can be
simultaneously supported by a radio frequency
High data rates at lower incremental cost than
2G global roaming.
Problems with 3G
High Bandwidth Requirement

High Spectrum licensing fees

Huge Capital
4G (Fourth Generation)
4G is ------- MAGIC-------
Mobile Multimedia Connection
Anywhere Anytime with Anyone
Global Mobility support
Integrated Wireless solutions
Customized personal services.
4G (Fourth Generation)
4G, the successor of 3G

4G technology or mobile communication
systems are characterized by high speed data
rates at 20 to 100 Mbps, suitable for high
resolution movies and television.
Comparison 3G Vs 4G
4G architecture
Advantages of 4G
Higher bandwidth enables a range of new
Lower cost than previous generations
Faster and more reliable.

Why 4G
Video Streaming
TV broadcast
Video calls
Sports enhanced gaming
Location Service- GPS
Life Saving - Telemedicine

4G Technologies
Long Term Evolution
100 Mbps (downlink) / 50 Mbps (Uplink)

Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave
128 Mbps (downlink) / 56 Mbps (Uplink)

3G Vs 4G LTE
Circuit switching for Voice Communication
Packet switching for Data Communication
Fully IP based Infrastructure
IP Multimedia System (IMS) is used to bridge
the gap between voice calls and telephony
Parameters 4G LTE 4G WiMAX
Standardized by 3GPP IEEE 802.16
Ground Technology GSM-UMTS CDMA
Frequency of Operation 800 MHz, 2.5GHz-
2 GHz - 8 GHz
Multiplexing Technique OFDM OFDM
Antennas MIMO MIMO
Infrastructure Full IP Based Full IP Based
Latency Less More
Spectral Efficiency Better Good
Range of Coverage More Less
Speed Good Better

Thank You