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INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

NIRMA UNIVERSITY

TEAM STALLIONS
RULE BOOK PARAMETER
The goal of the team is to design , analyze and simulate a virtual prototype
of BAJA vehicle for manufacturing by a fictitious firm at the rate of 4000
units per Year.
It should be designed with sound practices of engineering and analyzed for
safety.
Important guidelines governing the vehicle design are:
I. Safety Parameters
II. Roll Cage requirements
III. Driver Ergonomics
For vehicle identification, it should display College initials , Event Sponsor
Logos, SAE India logo.



TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
Length 2400.3mm(94.5inch)
Width 1524mm(60inch)
Height 1698mm(66.86inch)
WHEEL BASE 1676.4mm(66inch)
TRACK WIDTH 1320.8mm(52inch)
GROUND CLEARANCE 228.6mm(9inch)
APPROX WEIGHT DISTRIBUTION(Front: Rear) 40:60
ENGINE BRIGGS & STRATTONS
VEHICLE DRIVE Front-Engine Rear Wheel
TRANSMISSION Atul auto (goods)
BRAKES:
Type Hydraulic-disc
Master Cylinder Dual tandem(diagonal connection)
Master Cylinder Diameter 20mm
Diameter of Caliper Piston 27mm (two piston)
Diameter of Disc 200mm
Dynamic Weight Distribution(Front: Rear)
71:29
DIMENSIONS OF THE VEHICLE:
STEERING:
Gear Type Rack & Pinion
Steering Mechanism Ackerman mechanism
Turning circle radius
3500mm(outer front)
Tie rod length
300mm
Camber 1
Castor 8
Mechanical trail 44.187mm
Kingpin Inclination 12.70
Toe In 0
Scrub Radius 14.51mm
TYRES:
Size (Tire Dia. X Rim
Dia. Width)
25 X 12-8
Load rating 175 KG per tire
Maximum pressure 45 KPa
Aspect ratio .81
Ply rating 4 ply
Tread Lateral Tread
BRAKING PERFORMANCE:
Max. Pedal Force 110N
Total Braking Force 3207N
Braking Torque (on each disc) 80.19N.m
Deceleration 8.142m/s
2
Stopping Distance 17.058m
Braking Force at ground 241.181 N
Braking Efficiency 83.00%
SUSPENSION
FRONT SUSPENSION
TYPE DOUBLE WISHBONE PARALLEL,
UNEQUAL LENGTH
UPPER ARM LENGTH 252 mm
LOWER ARM LENGTH 287 mm
SPRING MOUNTING LOWER ARM
FRONT ROLL CENTRE HEIGHT 106.21mm ABOVE GROUND
STATIC CAMBER 1 POSITIVE
CAMBER GAIN 1
MAX. JOUNCE TRAVEL 100 mm (4 inches)
MAX. DROOP TRAVEL 50 mm (2 inches)
MAX. JOUNCE WIDTH 1529.443 mm (60.2 inches)
MAX. DROOP WIDTH 1503.673 mm (59.2 inches)
ADJUSTMENT POSSIBLE STATIC CAMBER
ANTI-DIVE CHARACTERISTICS 0 %
REAR SUSPENSION
TYPE DOUBLE WISHBONE NON-
PARALLEL, UNEQUAL LENGTH
UPPER ARM LENGTH 443 mm
LOWER ARM LENGTH 447 mm
SPRING MOUNTING UPPER ARM
REAR ROLL CENTRE HEIGHT 168.28 mm ABOVE GROUND
STATIC CAMBER 0
MAX. JOUNCE TRAVEL 125 mm (5 inches)
MAX. DROOP TRAVEL 50 mm (2 inches)
MAX. JOUNCE WIDTH 1553.713 mm (61.1 inches)
MAX. DROOP WIDTH 1492.76 mm (58.76 inches)
ANTI-SQUAT CHARACTERISTICS 0 %
ROLL AXIS
TYPE NOSE-DIVE
INCLINATION 2.12
STEERING GEOMETRY
MATERIAL SELECTION AND COST ANNALYSIS
Subject Type Of material
AISI-1080 AISI-1020 ASTM-106 Grade B
E (GPa) 200 200 205
S
yt
(MPa) 365 380 385
Cost Rs/m
(Approx)
110 170 130
COST OF MANUFACTURING ROLL CAGE
Total number of Weld Joints 72
Length of each Weld (approx.) 79.75mm
Total Length of Weld Joints 5742.53mm
Cost Of Welding Rs15 /10mm
Total Cost of Weld Joints Rs8620
Material of Pipe ASTM A106 GRADE-B SCHEDULE 40
Length of the Pipe 50m
COST OF PIPE/M ( approx) Rs130
Total Cost of pipe Rs6500
Miscellaneous Cost R1000
Total Cost of Manufacturing Roll cage Rs16120
Max stress : 33.1 MPa
Yield strength : 365 Mpa
Factor of safety : 11
FRONT A-ARM
Max stress : 89.9 MPa
Yield strength : 365 Mpa
Factor of safety : 4.064
REAR A-ARM
Comparative Report
Mahindra Champion Alpha v/s Atul
Mahindra champ
alpha

Atul auto (goods)

Engine overhanging 5 8
weight distribution. 4 8
Implementation of innovation 2 9
Final torque available 8 6
Final wheel speed 7 8
compactness 9 7
Power loss 8 7
Drive train simplicity 5 7
TOTAL 48 60
INNOVATION
HIGH LOW SPEED GEAR BOX
HIGH GEAR WILL INCREASE THE TORQUE
LOW GEAR WILL INCREASE THE SPEED
FOR LOW
GEAR
4
th
3
rd
2
nd
1
st

GEAR RATIO
6.56 10.78 17.16 29.29
GRADABILITY
6.48 10.58 16.57 26.92
ACCELERATION
1.037 1.64 2.62 4.48
SPEED
61 37 23 13
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
6.56 10.78 17.16 29.29
Gradeability
Acceleration
GEAR - RATIO
D
e
g
r
e
e
s
.

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
6.56 10.78 17.16 29.29
Wheel Speed
Wheel Speed
GEAR - RATIO


TORQUE AT 1
ST
GEAR= 500.859 Nm
FOR HIGH
GEAR
4
th
3
rd
2
nd
1
st

GEAR RATIO
9.21 15.14 24.10 41.13
GRADABILITY
9.07 14.70 22.67 35.49
ACCELERATION
1.24 2.03 3.24 5.53
SPEED
43 26 16 9
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
9.21 15.14 24.10 41.13
Gradeability
Acceleration
GEAR - RATIO
D
e
g
r
e
e
s
.

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
9.21 15.14 24.10 41.13
Wheel Speed
Wheel Speed
GEAR - RATIO


TORQUE AT 1
ST
GEAR= 703.318 Nm
ROLLCAGE OPTIMAZATION
Mass concentration at rear
Poor ergonomics
Greater length
Congested paddle and column fitting
Poor aesthetics

Preliminary Design
Finalized Design
Proper weight distribution
In the finalized design the torsional
rigidity of the vehicle is higher.
Improved ergonomics and aesthetics






ROLL CAGE DESIGN
Key factors for roll cage design:
Proper Driver Ergonomics
Keeping the roll cage as light as possible
Rear Roll Hoop is inclined at 93.
Clearance of 6.7 inch above the driver's helmet .
Necessary 3 inch clearance from the driver's
torso, shoulders, knees, elbows, hands and
arms.

SIDE VIEW
TOP VIEW
ISOMETRIC VIEW
STATIC ANALYSIS OF ROLLCAGE
Properties of ASTM A106 Grade-B
Modulus of Elasticity : 205 GPa
Poissons Ratio : 0.3
Yield Strength : 365 MPa
Ultimate Strength : 487 MPa
Loading Conditions:
Rear Portion : 1569.6 N
( cumulative weight of
driver and battery )
Front Portion : 2354.4 N
(cumulative weight of
engine and transmission )
Max. Deformation : 0.736 mm
Max. Von Mises Stress : 78.78N/mm
2
IMPACT
ANALYSIS
FRONT IMPACT
MAX. STRESS = 278.87MPa
MAX. DEFORMATION = 4.06mm
FOS = 1.3






REAR IMPACT
MAX. STRESS = 308.87MPa
MAX. DEFORMATION = 3.03 mm
FOS = 1.2
SIDE IMPACT
MAX. STRESS = 266.79MPa
MAX. DEFORMATION = 5.35 mm
FOS = 1.36






DESIGN VALIDATION REPORT
Sr. No. Parameter Method of Validation
Theoretical
Value Actual Value Difference Remarks
1 Speed
Speedometer calibrated
to baja vehicle 61m/s
2
Fuel
Consumption
Supplying controlled
amount of fuel and
measuring the distance
covered
3
Stopping
Distance
Calculating the distance
between the point of
application of brakes (at
full speed) and the point
where the car stops. 17.058m
4 Turning Radius
Measuring the diameter
of circle made by the car
under condition of full
steering 3500mm
5 Steering Ratio
Shall be calculated by
measuring the steering
wheel angle and the
angle turned by tire from
straight condition 6.5:1
SAFETY
PADDING: The part of roll cage that is in contact with driver will be covered with resilient foam material.
FIREWALL: As the engine is in front & battery is at rear, at both places, firewall will be present.
BELLY PAN: Belly pan will be provided in the entire driver compartment as leg &foot shielding.
KILL SWITCH: 2 Kill Switches will be mounted. 1 in driver compartment & other at rear of the vehicle
that will be easily accessible.
DRIVERS EQUIPMENT: Drivers equipment of SFI rating will be used as mentioned in rulebook.
FIRE EXTINGUSHER: The fire extinguishers with min. 1 liter capacity will be mounted.
SAFTY BELTS: 5 point restraint harness will be provided with single quick release mechanism. Arm
restraint will be provided.
Head Restraint is as a part of the seat.



Electrical and
Kill Switch Circuit
FACTORY LAYOUT
PROJECT PLAN
COMPLITION OF VEHICLE =7
th
Jan 2012
TECHNICAL INSPECTION = 16
th
Jan 2012

MS PROJECT PLAN




DFMEA
DESIGN FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS
1 2 3 4 6 7
Function Failure
Mode
Effects
Of
failure
Mechanism(s)/
Cause(s) of
Failure
S O D RPN Recommended
Corrective
Action(s)
Tie rod buckle Erratic steering
performance

Front impact 6 3 2 36 Front bumper
provided
Ball-joint
dislocation
Steering failure Excessive suspension
travel
7 4 1 48 Positive stop at
suspension
Roll cage Bending and
buckling
Safety of
passenger
compromised
Impact 9 1 5 45 High FOS is
considered in design
Intermediate
propeller
shaft
bending Power train
failure
Impact due to
insufficient clearance
7 2 2 28 15 clearance
between ground
and shaft
Final drive
shaft
Shaft
dislocation
Power train
failure
Excessive suspension
travel
9 4 2 72 Rear suspension
stops provided
Knuckle Shear Suspension
failure
Front impact on tyre 9 1 2 18 Better design with
high FOS is designed
DIFFERENT VIEWS OF VEHICLE
Team Distribution

No Team Category Members
1 DESIGN TEAM
Ronak Shah
Shravan Kottapalli
Kishan Patel
Rushi Patel
Driver Team Captain
Team Head Co-driver

Vice-captain
2 FABRICATION TEAM
Tejas Tankaria
Vrajesh Makvana
Bansi Dalsania
Mehul lukhi
Kaushal Patel
Team Head
3 COST TEAM
Nisarg Gandhi
Aakash Savalia
Happy Sanghadia
Dhaval Boghara
Team Head Co-driver
4 PROCUREMENT TEAM
Udit Maradia
Sachin Panaliya
Nishant Thakor
Ankit Gupta
Team Head
5 QUALITY CONTROL TEAM
Alpesh Vala
Viren Gabani
Nitin Pillai
Vinayak Modi
Team Head
6 SPONSORSHIP TEAM
Parth Swaroop
Parth Patel
Sahil Sharma
Team Head
Faculty Advisor : Prof. N.K Shah
Workshop Facilities
DURING BRAKING
N Kg %
SI Units Dynamic Front Load 1853.769 188.9672 71%
Dynamic Rear Load 755.6914 77.03276 29%
Deceleration(m/s
2
) 8.142
Height of CG on Bottom(m) 0.63
Wheel Base(m) 1.6764 Weight Transfer 813.9086 82.96724 31%
Gravity Acceleration(m/s
2
) 9.81
Static load in Front 106 1039.86 40%
Static load in Rear 160 1569.6 60%
Total Sprung Weight 266 2609.46 100%
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DURING ACCELERATION
SI Units In N In kg
Acceleration(m/s
2
) 2.2 Dynamic Front Load 819.9387 83.58193 31%
Height of CG on Bottom(m) 0.63 Dynamic Rear Load 1789.521 182.4181 69%
Wheel Base(m) 1.6764
Gravity Acceleration(m/s
2
) 9.81
Static load in Front 106 1039.86 40% Weight Transfer 219.9213 22.41807 8%
Static load in Rear 160 1569.6 60%
Total Weight 266 2609.46 100%
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slide
MS Project Plan
Back to slide