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Mechanical Seals

Firas Al-Zayadneh
1 PPT Course
Borg-Warner
Mechanical
Seals
Prepared By:
Firas M. Al-Zayadneh
Mechanical Skills Training Unit SAITD
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
2
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
3 Objective
Develop the skills and theoretical knowledge required to remove, inspect,
troubleshoot, and refit the Borg-Warner mechanical seal in accordance with
manufacturers standard procedures.
Course Objective
Mechanical Seals
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4
1. The various methods of
sealing rotating
equipment
2. Classification of
Mechanical Seals
3. The Borg-Warner Seals
4. The Bellows seals

Overview
5. Mechanical seals-
special parts
6. The installation of a
mechanical Seal
7. Environmental Control
8. Why Seals fail?
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
5 Chapter
The various methods of
sealing rotating equipment 1
Introduction
1.1 Stuffing box packings
1.2 Condensate injection sealing
1.3 Floating seal rings
1.4 Labyrinth Bushings
1.5 Wind back scroll or wind back seal
1.6 Lip Seals
1.7 Mechanical Seals
a. Principles of operation
b. Comparison with other types
c. Advantages
Mechanical Seals
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6 Chapter
Classification of Mechanical
Seals 2
Introduction
2.1 Balanced and unbalanced
2.2 Rotating and stationary
2.3 Single and double seals
2.4 inside and outside seals
2.5 Seals placed on the shaft or cartridge mounted

Mechanical Seals
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7 Chapter
The Borg-Warner Mechanical
Seals 3
3.1 U-type mechanical seal
3.2 Some design features of the U-type seal
3.3 W-Seals (double seals)
3.4 Tandem Seal type UT
3.5 D-Type mechanical Seals
3.6 GS mechanical seals
3.7 GU-mechanical seal
3.8 The QL and QBL mechanical seals
3.9 The inverted seals UHT and DHT
3.10 Borg-Warner model numbering system
Mechanical Seals
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8 Chapter
The Bellows Seals
4
Welded Metal bellows seals

Advantages

The advantages of stationary bellows seals comparing to rotating bellows seal

Potential Problems

Borg-Warner Bellows seals
Mechanical Seals
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9 Chapter
Mechanical Seals Special
Parts 5
The seal flange and seal flange bushing

Shaft sleeve

Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
10 Chapter
The Installation of a
Mechanical Seal 6
Determine if the pump or unit is in good enough condition to use a mechanical
seal (pre-installation checks)

Place the seal at its correct position (seal setting with respect to the seal
manufacturer instructions)

Assemble all components of the mechanical seal in correct manner and in correct
sequence

Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
11 Chapter
Environmental Control
7
Environmental controls are necessary to control dirt and heat, or to cool the seal
area and, under certain conditions, to keep the product away from the seal entirely
Mechanical Seals
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12 Chapter
Why Seals Fail?
8
1. The main reasons of seal failures
2. Seal failure due to faulty installation
3. Seal failure due to lack of auxiliaries
4. Pump condition as a cause of seal failure
5. Changed conditions
6. Wrong choice of materials
7. Fault in the seal parts from the manufacturer
8. Some shapes of failure in the mechanical seal parts
Mechanical Seals
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13
We hope you would enjoy this course
Mechanical Seals
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14 Introduction
Commercially developed 50 years ago
They are the predominant type of seals found on
centrifugal pumps, compressors, and similar
machines
They present a significant improvement over
former sealing devices
Despite their widespread use, there has been a
growing concern amongst users about their
performance in service
The behavior of mechanical seals is
unpredictable, and their mean time between
failures appears to be between 8 to 13 months,
but some times they might live up to 3 to 5 years
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
15 Introduction
Studies have shown that failures
come in the following distribution
The major cause of failure is often
beyond the scope of the seal
designers responsibility, springing
from possible lack of knowledge
and training; certain from a lack of
real appreciation of those factors
which can clearly cause failure
The other major component which
can cause a pump outage is the
bearings

40%
24%
19%
9%
8%
operating problems
Mechanical difficulties
Faulty fluid circuit design
Seal component selection inadequate
Miscellaneous
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
16 Chapter
The various methods of
sealing rotating equipment 1
Introduction
1.1 Stuffing box packings
1.2 Condensate injection sealing
1.3 Floating seal rings
1.4 Labyrinth Bushings
1.5 Wind back scroll or wind back seal
1.6 Lip Seals
1.7 Mechanical Seals
a. Principles of operation
b. Comparison with other types
c. Advantages
Mechanical Seals
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17 The function of a seal
The basic function to a seal is to prevent or to
reduce to a minimal level the leakage from high
pressure areas to low pressure areas
Seals come in two main categories: Static seals
and dynamic seals
Also seals serve to prevent entry of foreign
materials into an operating medium
In some rotating machines, like multi stage
centrifugal compressors, shaft seals are
normally used to achieve one of the following:
Reduce or prevent in-leakage of gas
Reduce or Prevent out-leakage of gas
Reduce or prevent both in- and out-leakage
Mechanical Seals
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18 The various methods of sealing rotating equipment
The following methods are commonly used for sealing rotating shafts:
1. Conventional packings
2. Condensate injection sealing
3. Floating seal rings
4. Labyrinth seals
5. Wind back scroll or wind back seals
6. Lip seals
7. The mechanical seals
Mechanical Seals
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19 1 Conventional packings
In pumps, packings must leak to
perform properly, they are used
to control leakage and not to
stop it
This controlled leakage along
the shaft allows the fluid being
handled to send lubricant into
the packing
Many packings contain a built in
lubricant, it is intended only for
initial start up or as temporary
protection
Mechanical Seals
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20 1 Conventional packings
Stuffing boxes come in three
basic forms:
Where pressure is above
atmospheric
Where pressure is below
atmospheric
When used for slurries


Mechanical Seals
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21 1 Conventional packings
Where pressure is
above atmospheric

P>atm atm
Mechanical Seals
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22 1 Conventional packings
Where pressure is
below atmospheric

P<atm atm
Flow from pump
discharge
Mechanical Seals
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23 1 Conventional packings
When used for slurries

Slurry
atm
Clean Flow from external
source
(pressure should be 10-25psi more
than pump pressure)
Slurry
atm
Clean Flow from external
source
(pressure should be 10-25psi more
than pump pressure)
Mechanical Seals
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24 1 Conventional packings
Disadvantages:
1. It requires regular adjustment
of the gland
2. It will score the shaft or shaft
sleeve
3. the packings require a
generous amount of lubrication,
that means wastage and
pollution
4. It requires relatively more
power, because rings around
the shaft acts as brakes
5. Cant cope with increasing
pump sizes and stuffing boxs
pressures
6. If used on abrasive materials, a
packing offers a short lift
together with increased power
consumption resulting from
frictional drag
1 2 3 4 5 6
100
200
300
400
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
p
s
i
)

Mechanical Seals
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25 1 Conventional packings
Advantages:
1. Initial cost is relatively low
2. Easily replaced in the field
3. Available in wide range of
materials
Mechanical Seals
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26 2 Condensate injection sealing
A serrated breakdown bushing
replaces the packing and the
pump sleeve runs within the said
bushing with a narrow radial
clearance (0.0014)
Cold condensate at higher
pressure must be available and
introduced to this breakdown
bushing
A small part of the injected
condensate flows into the pump,
the reminder flows outward into a
cavity called a collecting chamber
which is vented to the
atmosphere, and from here the
leakage is piped back to
condenser
Mechanical Seals
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27 2 Condensate injection sealing
Drawbacks of condensate
injection sealing:
1. It requires a lot of piping and
auxiliary equipment with
energy to keep it going
2. Pressure monitoring is of
great importance
3. The radial clearance is also of
great importance between the
breakdown busing and the
shaft sleeve
Mechanical Seals
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28 3 Floating seal rings
In this type a number of
individual solid rings are used,
each ring is mounted in a
specially constructed holder and
it is spring loaded to produce an
stationary seal in axial direction,
the assembly is locked against
rotation
The radial clearance between
the above described rings and
the shaft sleeve is relatively
small
The principle of work is similar to
the condensate injection seal
Mechanical Seals
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29 3 Floating seal rings
Advantages:
1. The individual rings are able to float to a
certain degree, thus allowing then to find
their own relative position t the shaft
2. This seal is cheaper to maintain as
individual portions of the seal may be
replaced when damaged
Mechanical Seals
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30 4 Labyrinth Seal
They are controlled clearance
seals, there are no rubbing parts
The basic idea behind this type is to
make it as difficult as possible for
the fluid to get out
A small leak is tolerated
Because of the narrow axial and
radial clearance, installation and
maintenance has to be well taken
care of
They are well suited for shafts that
rotate at high speeds

Mechanical Seals
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31 4 Labyrinth Seal
There are several types of these seals:
Straight seal
Stepped
interference
Straight seal Stepped seal interference
seal
Mechanical Seals
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32 5 wind back scroll or wind back seal
In its simplest form, it is a
sleeve with helical grooves,
when the pump is running; it
provides a reverse pumping
action thus slowing down
the flow of the liquid trying
to get out
Wind back does not prevent
leakage but reduces it
depending on the shaft
running speed and its
design

Mechanical Seals
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33 5 wind back scroll or wind back seal
Disadvantages:
It is less effective when
shaft is running at low
speeds
If the machine is
completely stopped
then this seal wont work
and it will act as a
regular throat bushing
Mechanical Seals
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34 6 Lip seals
It is used primarily to keep
lubricant in
They are called oil seal or shaft
seals
Advantages:
Fit into small space
Fairly low cost
Easy to install
Handle many variables while
sealing
Mechanical Seals
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35 6 Lip seals
Operation:
An interference fit exists between the lip
and the shaft, a spring is usually fitted
to insure uniform pressure and contact
around the shaft.
The lip should ride on a thin film of
lubricant, the film does the sealing so
it must be controlled precisely by the
mechanical pressure of the sealing
element and the shaft finish

Mechanical Seals
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36 7 Mechanical Seals
A system consists of a rotating
element attached to the shaft, that
turns against a stationary face
attached to a flange.
Continuous contact between faces
is maintained by the hydraulic
pressure of the pump and the
loading of the spring or bellows
The two mating faces are made
from dissimilar materials and with
finely lapped smooth surfaces
Enough pressure between faces is
there to exclude all foreign
materials except a thin film of
lubricant between the faces
Mechanical Seals
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37 7 Mechanical Seals
The function of the spring in
the mechanical seal:
To compensate the shaft
play in the axial direction,
and to keep mating faces in
contact all the time
Also the spring pressure
maintain contact while the
machine is not working
Mechanical Seals
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38 7 Mechanical Seals
How it works?
Mechanical Seals
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39 7 Mechanical Seals
Comparison between mechanical
seal and conventional packings:
Conventional packings Mechanical seals
Large sealing areas Small sealing areas
Leakage from run out No Leakage from run out
Leakage from endplay No Leakage from endplay
Can be packed in place Installed over shaft end
Mechanical Seals
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40 7 Mechanical Seals
Reasons why many companies are using mechanical seals more than conventional packings:
1. Pollution
2. Cost of product
3. Power consumption
4. Cost of bearings
5. Vertical pumps
6. Cost of shafts or sleeves
7. Vacuum service
8. High pressures
9. Self Adjusted
10. Housekeeping costs

Mechanical Seals
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41 Chapter
Classification of Mechanical
Seals 2
Introduction
2.1 Balanced and unbalanced
2.2 Rotating and stationary
2.3 Single and double seals
2.4 inside and outside seals
2.5 Seals placed on the shaft or cartridge mounted

Mechanical Seals
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42 Introduction
Mechanical seals can be classified
into four types:
1. Balanced or Unbalanced
2. Rotating seal or stationary seal
3. Single seal or double seal
4. Inside seal or outside seal
And we can also classify them
whether any of the previous
types can be mounted on the
shaft or cartridge mounted
Mechanical Seals
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43 Balanced and Unbalanced Mechanical seals
The forces acting on the mechanical
seal:
1. The force of the spring, and it acts
mainly when the machine is off
2. When the pump is running, the
pressure inside the stuffing box will
increase, this pressure acts on the
total area of the rotating face
forcing it against the stationary face


Fluid pressure
spring pressure
Mechanical Seals
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44 Balanced and Unbalanced Mechanical seals
3. The third force is the force of
the liquid film coming in
between the faces as a
lubricant, we have to
remember that this film is
essential for correct
operation of the seal. This
film produces a pressure
gradient across the faces,
and this tends to force the
faces apart
Fluid pressure
Film wedge
Mechanical Seals
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45 Balanced and Unbalanced Mechanical seals
So, in general we have 3 forces:
1. A Spring force Fs pushing
the faces towards each other
(closing force)
2. Hydraulic force Fh pushing
the faces towards each other
(closing force)
3. Film wedge force Fw which
tend to force faces apart
(opening force)
The resultant force Fr which is
trying to close the faces will
be:
Fr = Fs + Fh - Fw
B
A
Fh
Fs
Fw Fw
Mechanical Seals
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46 Balanced and Unbalanced Mechanical seals
In practice, the spring force Fs
is very small and we can
ignore it
We try to make Fw very close
to Fh or a little smaller
As a conclusion we find out the
following:
If Fh = Fw, we call this seal a
balanced seal
If Fh is bigger than Fw, we
call this seal unbalanced seal
If Fh is smaller than Fw, the
seal in this case doesnt work
B
A
Fh
Fs
Fw Fw
Mechanical Seals
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47 Unbalanced Mechanical seal
This figure describes a typical
unbalanced mechanical seal where
the pressure of the stuffing box is 100
lb/in
2
and face area of 2 in
2
The pressure at the outside diameter of
the seal faces is 100 psi and at the
inside diameter is atmospheric (0 psi),
the average pressure across the faces
is (100+0)/2=50 psi
As mentioned before Fw=Area x
pressure, that means Fw=2x50=100
lbs , this force tends to open the faces
At the same time, Fh=Area x pressure =
2 x 100 = 200 lbs , and this force tend
to close the faces
B A
100 lb/in2
100 lb/in2
Avg.
50 lb/in2
0 lb/in2
Mechanical Seals
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48 Unbalanced Mechanical seal
In this case, the mechanical
seal is unbalanced, and
the excessive closing
force can cause excessive
heating of the seal faces.
Because there is no way
to form a lubrication film,
and this is why this type is
not used frequently, and
used only for low pressure
applications and small
sizes, the limit is usually
set for 100 psi
200 lbs 100 lbs
Mechanical Seals
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49 Balanced Mechanical seal
Here, the closing force is reduced by
reducing the closing area, and the
easiest way to do this, is by using a
stepped sleeve onto the shaft
Now only 1 sq.in. is exposed to the
pressure, so the closing force is
reduced to 100 lbs
When the forces are perfectly balanced,
there would be a danger of opening up
the faces, if the force increased due to
any reason or due to sudden shaft play
1 sq.in.
1 sq.in.
Stepped sleeve
Mechanical Seals
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50 Balanced Mechanical seal
The following image shows the
principle behind the balanced
mechanical seal
Diameter A is called the balance
diameter
This seal is actually over
balanced, and would be
forced apart by the pressure
gradient between faces
This is not a correct way to
balance a seal
A
Mechanical Seals
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51 Balanced Mechanical seal
To overcome this problem, we
must create a pressure area
by increasing the contact
area above the balance
diameter, and we increase
the resultant closing force
The balance in mechanical
seals is given in %
The balance diameter divides
the contact area of the
stationary face in two parts,
when we say: a seal is 75%
balanced, we mean that
75% of the contact area lies
above the balanced
diameter, and the remaining
25% lies beneath the
balance diameter
A
A
75%
25%
Mechanical Seals
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52 Stationary and rotating seals
Rotating Seals
It is called rotating because the spring rotate with the
shaft, and it represents 95% of the seals
Advantages:
It is suitable to be used in chemical solutions
where solids may precipitate, and because of
centrifugal forces, this seal has a tendency to
free its self
Low cost seal and available in a wide variety of
materials and designs
Disadvantages:
The centrifugal forces will cause additional stress
on the rotating parts
This design is seldom used for high speed
applications because of the centrifugal forces
affecting the flexible seal-ring
This type has a tendency to vibrate at high
speeds and big shaft diameters
Mechanical Seals
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53 Stationary and rotating seals
Stationary seals
It is called stationary because the spring doesnt
rotate with the shaft
Advantages:
Centrifugal forces do not work on the flexible
seal ring and springs
Used on shafts that travel at 15000 fpm (feet
per minute) or higher and shaft diameter
more than 3 inches
It is a logical choice for use on mixers,
because it can handle misalignment problems
Disadvantages:
If used with chemical solutions where solids
may precipitates and tend to foul the sliding
faces

Mechanical Seals
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54 Single or Double seals
Mechanical seals are not zero
leakage devices, they work
based on a fluid film existing
between the mating faces,
and therefore a small amount
of leakage is there (might be
as low as 1 drop per minute),
and the flow is often invisible.
In cases where zero leakage
is required for any reason, a
single seal is not suitable,
and a double mechanical
seal is generally selected
Mechanical Seals
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55 Inside or outside seal
If the rotating face is
mounted inside the
stuffing box holding the
fluid, it is referred to as
an inside seal
When the rotating face is
mounted outside the
stuffing box, then it is
known as outside seal
Mechanical Seals
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56 Inside or outside seal
Advantages of Inside seal:
The rotating face is surrounded by
liquid, and the hydraulic forces are
acting with the springs to keep the
faces in contact
Flushing and lubrication can be
designed to be more positive for
better cooling
It take advantage of centrifugal
forces to throw dirt and solid particles
away
Disadvantages:
The metal parts are subjected to
chemical attack from liquid inside the
stuffing box
Mechanical Seals
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57 Inside or outside seal
Advantages of outside seal:
Preferred for ease of maintenance
They permit the metal parts to be
isolated from corrosive environment
Disadvantages:
Hydraulic forces tend to open seal
faces
Lubrication and flushing is restricted
Abrasive, dirt particles in the fluid can
pack in the annular opening, these
are then pushed between the faces
and cause rapid wear
Mechanical Seals
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58 Chapter
The Borg-Warner Mechanical
Seals 3
3.1 U-type mechanical seal
3.2 Some design features of the U-type seal
3.3 W-Seals (double seals)
3.4 Tandem Seal type UT
3.5 D-Type mechanical Seals
3.6 GS mechanical seals
3.7 GU-mechanical seal
3.8 The QL and QBL mechanical seals
3.9 The inverted seals UHT and DHT
3.10 Borg-Warner model numbering system
Mechanical Seals
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59 U type mechanical seal
U type mechanical seal is the
most widely used Borg-Warner
seal, it is a single seal widely
used in refining processes and
chemical industries and in
pipeline and general purpose
field
It is a balanced seal for pressures
up to 1000 psi, and its
temperature range is limited by
the type of gasket material
used. It can handle
temperatures up to 220 C
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60 U type mechanical seal
Basic seal parts include:
Seal drives
Drive pins
Coil spring
Spring holder
U-cup
Rotating face
Stationary face
Seat gasket
Special parts consist of:
Seal flange
Shaft sleeve
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61 U type mechanical seal
Some design features:
Gaskets fully confined
Positive drive
Single coil spring
Uniform spring pressure
Flexibility of the faces
Ease of dismantling
Protection against damage

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62 U type mechanical seal
Special arrangements
As we know before, mechanical seals cant prevent leakage completely.
So, if the product is toxic or dangerous; then we can use two
mechanical seals in one stuffing box
There are two arrangements for this case:
1. The rotating face of the inboard seal in opposite direction of the
rotating face of the outboard seal (back to back) and we call this
double seal or W-Seal
2. The two rotating faces are in the same direction. And we call this
arrangement Tandem seal

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63 U type mechanical seal
Double
Seal (W-Seal)
Mechanical Seals
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64 U type mechanical seal
Tandem Seal
Mechanical Seals
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65 U type mechanical seal
The difference between Tandem seal and Double seal (W-Seal):
Tandem Seal Double Seal (W-Seal)
Both seals are faced in the same direction The rotating faces in opposite direction (back to back)
Both seals are running in two different environments Both seals are running in the same environment
Fluid in the seal cavity is used as a barrier fluid. And is at
pressure lower than that in the stuffing box. Therefore,
leakage will be from stuffing box into the seal cavity
containing the barrier fluid
The seal liquid (buffer liquid) must be at a pressure above the
operating pressure of the stuffing box in order for the seal to
function
Mechanical Seals
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66 Double seals (W-Mechanical Seal)
A seal liquid (buffer liquid) whose temperature and pressure are controlled is circulated through
this cavity to provide good seal life and to prevent completely any leakage of the product
outside the pump
The seal liquid must be at a pressure above the operating pressure of the stuffing box in order
for the seal to function. The liquid going across the inboard face will enter the stuffing box
and mix with the pumped fluid, the liquid going across the outboard face will go to
atmosphere
Mechanical Seals
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67 Double seals (W-Mechanical Seal)
In case the inboard seal leaks, the seal liquid (buffer liquid)
will leak into the pump, and because of this the buffer liquid
must be compatible with the pumped liquid
The seal liquid (buffer liquid) in most cases is either oil or
water
Mechanical Seals
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68 Tandem Mechanical Seals
Both seals are running into two different environments. The inboard will be
sealed against the pumped product and the outboard seal will be
running in an environment of its own. (this can be oil, methanol, or in
fact, air)
Mechanical Seals
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69 Tandem Mechanical Seals
The UT mechanical seal is
tandem mechanical seal
used especially for
unattended product pipe line
pumps
The stuffing box is divided into
two chambers. The inner
chamber contains a single
balanced type U seal which
seal pumped product
exactly same as the
conventional single seal.
The outer chamber is filled
with lubricating oil and is
connected to a control tank
with piping
Mechanical Seals
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70 Tandem Mechanical Seals
How control tank works:
The control tank is partially filled with lubricating oil on level higher than the stuffing box of the pump
The pumping ring takes suction from the tank and discharges into the tank. Creating a constant flow of lubricating oil to
and from the tank while the pump is in operation
Normal product leakage from the inner seal is carried to the tank in the oil stream, where it separates and flows to the
drain through orifice B
If the inner seal fail, product flow to the tank will exceed carrying capacity of orifice B and the level in the tank will rise,
actuating the high level control
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71 Tandem Mechanical Seals
If the outer (oil) seal fails, oil level in the tank will lower until it actuates the low level control
Additional control (orifice A and pressure switch) is included for units handling Butane or propane in
addition to other products
Normal leakage vents through orifice A, if the product seal fails, pressure will be created in the tank
because of low gas carrying capacity of orifice A and B. A tank pressure of 1.5 psi will actuate the
pressure switch
Level controls and pressure switch can be connected to a warning system or can be used to shut down
the pump
Mechanical Seals
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72 D-Type mechanical seal
It is a special seal design for boiler
feed pump
The maximum allowable
temperature on the D seal is 80 C
There are two main differences
between D-type and U-type in the
shape of the parts:
1. the flange design incorporates a
volute and has an inlet and outlet tap
(Port) completely like the pump
casing
2. The rotating face has a number of
slots in its outer diameter
When the pump running, the rotating
face acts as an impeller, forcing the
liquid to leave the flange via outlet
port. The liquid is then lead through
a cooler and returned to the seal via
flange inlet
Mechanical Seals
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73 D-Type mechanical seal
By circulating and thus cooling the product
as described, it is possible to run D-Type
seal on pumping temperatures much higher
than the maximum allowable temperature
As leakage across the seal faces will
automatically be made up by water
(product) from the pump it will be obvious
that a too high leakage rate cause stuffing
box temperature to increase
The use of the stuffing box neck bushing is
a must with D seals. This is not to build up
pressure in the box but to act as a kind of
heat barrier
A vent valve is very important at the highest
point in the system
The piping system should be as short as
possible, and bends should be avoided to
reduce the pressure drop
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
74 D-Type mechanical seal
The cooler should be mounted
approx 18-24 above the shaft
center line. The reason for this is
that very often boiler feed pumps
can be on standby, fully primed
and ready to run. The pump is
then full of hot water. By placing
the cooler as mentioned above,
the natural circulation will
happen. Thus the liquid
surrounding the seal is always
relatively cool
Usually D seals use tungsten
carbide faces, and this material
doesnt accept sudden change in
temperature. So we have to
remember: Coolers above Shaft
Center Line
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
75 Type GS Mechanical Seals
This is a special design to be used as the
secondary seal in tandem with the standard U
type
The tandem combination is of type GU seal
Also it can be used in tandem with a Q seal
(called GQ), and with QB seal and called
(GQB) or UZ seal and called GUZ
The GS seal can be used as a single gas seal
for a compressor or any other machine
handling gases such as Air, Helium, Nitrogen,
Carbon dioxide, propane, butane, hydrogen
sulfide, and oxygen or in wet gas vapors
In general, it can be used on compressors
handling corrosive or non-corrosive gases up
to 1000 psi and at surface speed up to 400
ft/second
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
76 Type GU Mechanical Seals
The GU seal is a combination of two
standard seals ( U and GS) and is a
typical example of a tandem
arrangement
Used for unattended pipelines where a
backup seal is required
Any leakage from the U seal enters the
GS seal cavity, as long as this is a
normal leak this will be drained off
through the orifice, installed in the GS
flange drain tap
In case the leakage on the U seal
increases beyond the capacity of the
orifice, the GS cavity will fill up and
finally pressure will start to build up.
When the pressure reaches a certain
setting a pressure switch is activated
sending an alarm signal to control room

Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
77 Type GU Mechanical Seals
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
78 GS type Seal ( BORG WARNER GAS SEAL)
Designed to seal dry gases
such as Helium, nitrogen and
oxygen that contain no
lubrication properties
It is a conventional mechanical
seal with a bearing included to
carry load imposed by the
spring and hydraulic forces
Rotating face is made usually
from hardened alloy steel,
stationary face is made from
graphite carbon


Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
79 Chapter
The Bellows Seals
4
Welded Metal bellows seals

Advantages

The advantages of stationary bellows seals comparing to rotating bellows seal

Potential Problems

Borg-Warner Bellows seals
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
80
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
81
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
82
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
83
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
84 Chapter
Mechanical Seals Special
Parts 5
The seal flange and seal flange bushing

Shaft sleeve

Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
85 Chapter
The Installation of a
Mechanical Seal 6
Determine if the pump or unit is in good enough condition to use a mechanical
seal (pre-installation checks)

Place the seal at its correct position (seal setting with respect to the seal
manufacturer instructions)

Assemble all components of the mechanical seal in correct manner and in correct
sequence

Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
86 Pre-installation checks
1. Shaft run out
Run out shouldnt exceed 0.002
0.05mm
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
87 Pre-installation checks
2. Concentricity of shaft
sleeve:
Shouldnt exceed 0.002
0.05mm
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
88 Pre-installation checks
3. Lateral or axial shaft
movement:
For roller type bearings:
normally not exceeds
0.002 0.05mm
For plain thrust bearings:
This can range from
0.010 to 0.025
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
89 Pre-installation checks
4. Radial Bearing tolerance:
Max allowable value is 0.002
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
90 Pre-installation checks
5. Measuring of stuffing box:
1 Stuffing box face run out:
acceptable run out is 0.001 per
1 of shaft diameter to a max
of 0.005
2 Concentricity of shaft in the
stuffing box:
Shouldnt exceed 0.001 per 1 of
shaft diameter up to a
maximum of 0.005
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
91 Pre-installation checks
6. Impeller Run-Out:
Allowable is 0.001 per 1 o
impeller diameter
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
92 Chapter
Environmental Control
7
Environmental controls are necessary to control dirt and heat, or to cool the seal
area and, under certain conditions, to keep the product away from the seal entirely
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
93 Chapter
Why Seals Fail?
8
1. The main reasons of seal failures
2. Seal failure due to faulty installation
3. Seal failure due to lack of auxiliaries
4. Pump condition as a cause of seal failure
5. Changed conditions
6. Wrong choice of materials
7. Fault in the seal parts from the manufacturer
8. Some shapes of failure in the mechanical seal parts
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
94 Why seals fail?
The main reasons of seal failures
Seal failure due to faulty installation
1. Improper seal setting
2. Gasket failure
3. Meeting faces not matching properly
Seal failure due to lack of auxiliaries
1. Cyclone separator
2. Orifices
3. Heat exchanger
4. Drain and venting lines
Pump condition as a cause of seal failure
1. Misalignment of faces
2. Shaft endplay
3. Abrasive particles
Changed conditions
1. Vaporizing and flashing across faces
2. Stuffing box pressure, temperature and gravity of product
Wrong choice of materials
Fault in the seal parts from the manufacturer
Some shapes of failure in the mechanical seal parts
Mechanical Seals
Firas Al-Zayadneh
95
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