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CHAPTER 4

SISTEM PEMASARAN
-
Lingkungan makro
ekstern
-
Lingkungan mikro
ekstern
-
Marketing mix
Dasar-Dasar Pemasaran
Hendra,SE.,MSi.
2

3.Core Concepts of
Marketing
Product or Offering
Product or Offering
Value and Satisfaction
Value and Satisfaction
Needs, Wants, and Demands Needs, Wants, and Demands
Exchange and Transactions
Exchange and Transactions
Relationships and Networs
Relationships and Networs
Target !arets " Segmentation
Target !arets " Segmentation
!areting #hannels
!areting #hannels
Suppl$ #hain
Suppl$ #hain
#ompetition
#ompetition
!areting En%ironment
!areting En%ironment
Simple Marketing System
F
i
g
u
r
e

1
.
2
Production #oncept
Production #oncept
Product #oncept
Product #oncept
Selling #oncept
Selling #oncept
!areting #oncept
!areting #oncept
#onsumers prefer products that are
widel$ a%aila&le and inexpensi%e
#onsumers fa%or products that
offer the most 'ualit$, performance,
or inno%ati%e features
#onsumers will &u$ products onl$ if
the compan$ aggressi%el$
promotes(sells these products
)ocuses on needs( wants of target
marets " deli%ering %alue
&etter than competitors
Company Orientations
Towards te Marketplace
MARKETING ENVIRONMENT

Marketing en!ironment"

Factors and forces outside of marketing!s direct control

"#ect management!s a$ility to de%elop and maintain

Successful transactions wit target customers

Mi#roen!ironment"

Forces close to te company

Tat a#ect its a$ility to ser%e customers

Ma#ro en!ironments"

&arger' societal forces tat a#ect te organi(ation!s


microen%ironment
$
What is Microenvironment?

Mi#roen!ironment) is te actors close to te


company wic will a#ect te a$ility to ser%e
customers.

Tey are)

Te Company

Suppliers

Marketing *ntermediaries

Customer Markets

Competitors

+u$lics
%
&igure '.(
What is Macro Environment?

Ma#ro en!ironment) te larger societal


forces tat a#ect te microen%ironment.

Tey are , ma-or forces)


1. .emograpic
2. /conomic
3. 0atural
1. Tecnological
2. +olitical
,. Cultural
)
&igure
'.2
Marketing 324
-Marketing Mi5
Marketing Mix
Product Price Place / Promotion
-Appearance
-Function
-production costs
-Cost based
-Competition based
-Consumer based
-Retailers
-Wholesalers
-Distribution
-Transportation
-Advertising
-Sales promotion
-Personal selling
Capable or solution Cost Convenience Communication
Figure 16-1 E*ements o+ marketing mix"
T,e &our Ps
T,e &our Ps
Marketing
Mix
Product
Price Promotion
Place
The Four Cs
Customer
Solution
Customer
Cost
Communication
Conven-
ience
Te Marketing Mi5 for
Ser%ices
What is Microenvironment?

Mi#roen!ironment) is te actors close to te


company wic will a#ect te a$ility to ser%e
customers.

Tey are)

Te Company

Suppliers

Marketing *ntermediaries

Customer Markets

Competitors

+u$lics
(
&igure '.(
The Company
7en designing te marketing plans' marketing managers must work
closely wit oter company departments' suc as8

to- management) sets te company!s mission' o$-ecti%es' $road


strategies and policies.

marketing manager) make te decisions a$out te strategies 9 plans


tat made $y top management.

.nan#e) :nding and using funds to carry out te marketing plans.

R / D ) focuses on design safe and attracti%e products

-ur#,asing) getting supplies and materials

o-erations) producing and distri$uting te desired ;uality and ;uantity of


te products

a##ounting) measure re%enues and costs to elp marketing know ow


well it is acie%ing its o$-ecti%es.
To sum up' all tese departments! plans and actions must think
customers and provide customer value and satisfaction.
('
Suppliers

Suppliers pro$lems can seriously a#ect


marketing' suc as supplies sortages or
delays' la$or strikes' or oter e%ents.

*n te sort run) sales %olume will drop

*n te long run) customer satisfaction will


drop

Supply cost increase price increase


company!s sales %olume drop
(0
Marketing nterme!iaries

<elp te company to promote' sell and distri$ute its


goods to :nal $uyers.
(. Rese**ers include wolesalers 9 retailers.
- Tey will $uy and resell mercandise. Company as to $e carefully
select
and partner wit resellers $ecause tose larger resellers 3Carrefour
and
=iant4 tey a%e enoug power to dictate terms and sut te
manufacturer
out of large markets.
2. P,1si#a* distri2ution .rms
- elp te company to store and sip goods' $alancing cost' deli%ery'
speed
and safety from its origin to teir destinations.
- Tese :rms work wit warehouse and transportation :rms
(3
Marketing nterme!iaries
3. Marketing ser!i#e agen#ies
- marketing researc :rms' ad%ertising agencies' media :rms'
and marketing consulting :rm
- elp te company to promote te products to te rigt
markets.
- Tose agencies must $e e5cellent in creati%ity' ;uality'
ser%ice and
price.
1. &inan#ia* Intermediaries
- $ank' credit companies' and oter $usinesses
- elp to :nance teir transactions and insure against te risks
wen
$uying and selling goods.
($
C"ST#MERS

Tere are 2 types of customer markets


(. 4onsumer Markets: indi%iduals and ouseolds tat
$uy goods and ser%ices for personal consumption
2. 5usiness Markets: $uy goods and ser%ices for using in
teir production process
. Rese**er Markets : $uy goods and ser%ices to resell
and make pro:t
'. 6o!ernment Markets: consist of go%ernment agencies'
tey will $uy goods and ser%ices to produce pu$lic
ser%ices or transfer goods and ser%ices to oters wo
need tem
0. Internationa* Markets: consist of consumers'
producers' resellers and go%ernments in oter countries.
(%
C#MPETT#RS

Company must a%e strategy to position


teir product o#erings against te
competitors.

Te strategy depends on te company!s


si(e.

&arge :rms wit dominant position in an


industry will use di#erent strategies tan
te smaller :rms.
()
P"$%CS

" group of people tat as a potential interest>impact on an


organi(ation!s a$ility to acie%e teir goals.

Tere are ? types of pu$lics' suc as)


(. &inan#ia* -u2*i#s8 in@uence te company!s a$ility to o$tain
funds' e.g. Aanks' in%estment ouses' and stockolders.
2. Media Pu2*i#s8 pro%ide news' features and editorial opinions'
e.g. 0ewspapers' maga(ines' radio and tele%ision stations.
. 6o!ernment -u2*i#s8 a#ect te company regarding te
product safety and te trut in ad%ertising' etc.
'. 4iti7en-a#tion -u2*i#s8 a#ect te company!s marketing
decision e.g. Consumer organi(ations' en%ironmental groups'
minority groups' and oters.
0. Lo#a* Pu2*i#s8 e.g. 0eig$orood residents and community
organi(ations.
3. 6enera* Pu2*i#s8 general pu$lic!s attitude towards te
products and acti%ities will a#ects te $uying.
$. Interna* Pu2*i#s' e.g. 7orkers' managers' %olunteers' and te
AO.. 7en employees feel good a$out te company' teir
positi%e attitude will spread to e5ternal pu$lics.
28
What is Macro Environment?

Ma#ro en!ironment) te larger societal


forces tat a#ect te microen%ironment.

Tey are , ma-or forces)


1. .emograpic
2. /conomic
3. 0atural
1. Tecnological
2. +olitical
,. Cultural
2(
&igure
'.2
&' (EM#)RAPHC E*+R#*ME*T

Demogra-,1) te study of uman


populations in terms of si(e' density' location'
age' gender' race' occupation' and oter
statistics.

Demogra-,i# en!ironment is te ma-or


interest to te marketers $ecause it deals
wit people and people make up markets.

" growing population means growing markets


if te markets a%e suBcient purcasing
power.
/.g. Cina Market - Csi5-pocket syndrome!
22
&' (EM#)RAPHC E*+R#*ME*T
(.a. 4,anging age stru#ture o+ t,e -o-u*ation
T,ere are *argest age grou-s "

Aa$y $oomers 3$orn 1D1, E 1D,14

=eneration F 3$orn 1D,2 E 1D?,4

=eneration G 3$orn 1D?? E 1DD24


6enerationa* Marketing"
*t!s peraps more e#ecti%e to create te products and
marketing
programs $ased on te lifestyle instead of $y te $irt date.
2
&' (EM#)RAPHC E*+R#*ME*T
(.2. Et,ni# Markets
- Some #ountries are mono-#u*tura* 9:a-an;, <,ereas t,e ot,ers are
mu*ti#u*tura*
9Ma*a1sia / Singa-ore;.
- Mu*ti#u*tura* #ountries ,a!e t,eir o<n s-e#i.# market #,ara#teristi#s, s-eak
di=erent
*anguages, #onsume di=erent #uisine, -ra#ti#e di=erent re*igions, et#.
(.#. 4,anging House,o*d Patterns
Marketers must pay attention to ouseold patterns to understand teir $uying a$its'
suc as types of apartments' appliances' furniture' si(e of food packages' etc.
(.d. 6eogra-,i# S,i+ts in Po-u*ation
Migratory mo%ements $etween and witin countries will a#ect te demand of ousing
and education. /.g. Te penomenon wen <ong Hong re%erted to Cina in 1DD? ad
created a uge migration to countries like "ustralia' Canada' Aritain' Singapore' and IS".
(.e. A 5etter > edu#ated and More ?,ite-4o**ar Po-u*ation
Te increasing num$er in educated people will lead to increase in te demand for ;uality
products' $ooks' maga(ines' tra%el' personal computers' and *nternet ser%ices.
2'
,' EC#*#MC E*+R#*ME*T

E#onomi# en!ironment"

Factors tat a#ect consumer $uying power


and spending patterns

Trends o+ interest"

Canges in income' continued spending $y


consumers

Consumer de$t le%els rising' sa%ings down

Canging spending patterns

Enge*@s *a<s"

amount spent on %arious categories canges


as income rises
20
,' EC#*#MC E*+R#*ME*T

E#onomi# en!ironment is te factors tat a#ect consumer


purcasing power and spending power.
-
Su$sistence economies) consume most of teir own agricultural and
industrial output.
-
*ndustrial economies) consume many di#erent kinds of goods.

In#ome Distri2ution
Countries are di#erent $ased on)
(. Industria* stru#tures wic di%ided into 1)
a. su$sistence economies e.g. &aos 3few opportunities for marketers4.
$. raw-material-e5porting economies e.g. Arunei 3oil4' good markets for
e;uipments'
tools' supplies' and lu5ury goods for te ric.
c. *ndustriali(ing economies e.g. *ndia 9 Cina 3new ric class 9 middle
classes4'
demands for new types of goods.
d. *ndustrial economies e.g. Japan' ric markets for all types of goods.
23
,' EC#*#MC E*+R#*ME*T
*n "sian countries' most ur$an people are ricer tan
tose rural.

4,anges In In#ome

*n 1DK6s' wit income growt ta5 reduction' rapid increases in


ousing %alues' make people $uy and $uy witout caution.

Lecession in 1DD6s $ecome te decade of Cs;uee(ed consumer!.


+eople repaying de$ts for teir spending in 1DK6s' increased in
ouseold and family e5penses' make people spend more
carefully and start sa%ing for college tuition fee and retirement.

*n 2666s' customers continue to spend carefully' terefore


marketers are looking forward to o#er ;uality products and good
ser%ice at a fair price.
2$
-' *AT"RA% E*+R#*ME*T

Natura* en!ironment"

=rowing sortages of raw


materials

*ncreased pollution

*ncreased go%ernment
inter%ention
2%
-' *AT"RA% E*+R#*ME*T
(.6ro<ing s,ortages o+ ra< materia*s"
e.g., air, <ater, rene<a2*e resour#es 9 +orests, +ood;, non-
rene<a2*e resour#es 9 oi*, #oa*, minera*s;.
2.In#reased Po**ution"
E.g., t,e dis-osa* o+ #,emi#a*s and nu#*ear <astes, non-
re#1#*ed -*asti# 2ott*es and ot,er -a#kaging materia*s #aused
21 industr1.
.In#reased go!ernment inter!ention"
More de!e*o-ed #ountries, t,e go!ernment insist on
en!ironmenta* Aua*it1, 2ut -oorer #ountries t,e1 do *ess
-er,a-s 2e#ause o+ *a#k o+ +unds or -o*iti#a* <i**.

To sum u-, #om-anies s,ou*d t,ink a2out a
,ea*t,1 e#onom1 2a*an#ed <it, ,ea*t,1
E#o*og1.
2)
4' TECH*#%#)CA% E*+R#*ME*T

0ew tecnologies create new markets and


opportunities.

0ew tecnology replaces older tecnology.

Companies need to keep up wit new tecnology


in order to a%e te products updated' oterwise
tey will miss te market opportunities.

Smart companies will add teir marketing people


into teir L9. teams in order to make practical'
a#orda$le products.
8
.' P#%TCA% E*+R#*ME*T
T,e -ur-oses o+ t,is 2usiness *egis*ation are"
(. To -rote#t #om-anies +rom un+air #om-etition
/%en toug competitions are good in a way $ut if it creates
treats' ten it is needed to neutrali(e.
2. To -rote#t #onsumers +rom un+air 2usiness -ra#ti#es
Some companies are tend to make not a good ;uality
products' ceating troug te ad%ertisements' and
manipulate in te packaging and price statement.
. To -rote#t t,e interest o+ so#iet1 against
un#ontro**a2*e 2usiness 2e,a!ior.
" pro:ta$le $usiness acti%ities do not always guarantee a
$etter ;uality of life.
(
/' C"%T"RA% E*+R#*ME*T

4u*tura* en!ironment"
*nstitutions and oter forces tat in@uence)

Society!s $asic %alues' perceptions' preferences' and $ea%iors

Core $eliefs passed on troug family' reinforced $y


institutions' e.g. working' getting married' $eing onest' doing
carity' etc. Marketers ardly can cange tis $elief.

Secondary $eliefs are more open to cange' e.g. married in


early age' etc.

+eople!s %iews of)

Temsel%es' Oters' Organi(ations' Society' 0ature' Te


Ini%erse.
2

?,at is marketing mixB

Marketing mix refers to tose four elements


3product' price' promotion' and place4 of a :rm!s
marketing strategy wic are designed to meet
te needs of customers. Tese are often known
as te four M+sN.

Simply' to meet consumers! needs' $usinesses


must produce te rigt product' at te rigt
price' make it a%aila$le at te rigt place' and
let consumers know a$out it troug rigt
promotion.
Marketing 92;
Marketing 92;
-Marketing Mix
-Marketing Mix
Marketing 324
-Marketing Mi5
Marketing Mix
Product Price Place / Promotion
-Appearance
-Function
-production costs
-Cost based
-Competition based
-Consumer based
-Retailers
-Wholesalers
-Distribution
-Transportation
-Advertising
-Sales promotion
-Personal selling
Capable or solution Cost Convenience Communication
Figure 16-1 E*ements o+ marketing mix"
T,e &our Ps
T,e &our Ps
Marketing
Mix
Product
Price Promotion
Place
The Four Cs
Customer
Solution
Customer
Cost
Communication
Conven-
ience

Produ#t"
+roducts must $e ensured to meet te
needs of customers in terms of te
following aspects)
1. "ppearance
2. Function
3. Cost

Marketing 92;
Marketing 92;
-Marketing Mix" Produ#t
-Marketing Mix" Produ#t
Ta$le 16-1 &eatures o+ a -rodu#t to meet t,e needs o+
#ustomers
Aspects Brief explanations or examples
The appearance Color, sie, shape, etc! must meet the
consumer needs!
The "unction Able to be used
Convenient "or use
#eeting special needs o" customers
The cost Production costs must be lo$ enough to earn
some pro"it!
%igh cost, higher price!
Too high price, customers unli&el' to bu'!
Marketing 92;
Marketing 92;
-Marketing Mix" Produ#t
-Marketing Mix" Produ#t
Marketing 324
-Marketing Mi5) +rice

Pri#e)
Te pricing policy tat a $usiness
cooses is often a re@ection of te
market at wic it is aiming.
Te rigt price set must take into
account of production costs'
competitors! prices and consumers!
purcase a$ility and demand le%el.
Ta$le 16-2 *n@uences from te pricing factors
Factors Influences on the price of a product
High production costs %igh production costs $ould mean the high sale price
"or the goods supplied b' sellers!
High customer
demand
%igh customer demand $ill lead to the increased price
o" the goods or services! Suppliers are more $iling
to provide the goods or services as it is more
pro"itable "or them to suppl'!
Low prices charged by
competitors
(" the price o" the substitute product o""ered b'
competitors decreases, the demand "or a product
$ill be decreased as $ell!
Marketing 92;
Marketing 92;
-Marketing Mix" Pri#e
-Marketing Mix" Pri#e
Marketing 324
-Marketing Mi5) +rice

Attention" Hig,--ri#e strateg1

*n general' from te economic point of %iew' te


iger te price of a product is' te less ;uantity
demanded $y consumers. Or tere are few
$uyers wo would like to ig-price products.

<owe%er' in practice' a $usiness may carge a


ig price $ecause it is aiming to sell to tose
customers wo regard its products as uniAue
and ,ig, Aua*it1 altoug te production costs
are not ig. For e5ample' ig pricing strategy
is one of te marketing strategies for Cina
<aier.

Marketing 324
- Marketing Mi5) +lace

De.nition"
+lace refers to te means $y wic products
can $e distri$uted to te consumers. Te
product must get to te rigt place at te rigt
time.
.ecision making may $e $ased on te
following)
1. <ow te product is distri2uted -,1si#a**1'
suc as air' sea' rail' or road.
2. <ow te product is so*d, suc as troug
retailers' wolesalers' or direct mailing' etc.
Marketing 324
- Marketing Mi5) +romotion

De.nition"

+romotion refers to a num$er of promotional


metods' suc as ad%ertising' sales
promotion' competitions' and personal
selling' etc.

" $usiness must coose a metod of


promotion wic is te most e#ecti%e in its
particular market and for its own product.
For e5ample' TO ad%ertising may $e $etter
for te product wit a ig sales turno%er or
a wide appeal. Aut for ig-tecnology
macines or e;uipment' it is $etter to
coose personal selling metods.
Marketing 324
-Marketing Mi5

Cuestion +or 1our #riti#a* t,inking)


+lease guess wat eac of te four M+sN
on te side of $usiness represents on
te side of customers 3four Mfour CsN4 in
te marketing mi5P
Marketing 324
-Marketing Mi5

&a#tors +or making #,oi#es o+ marketing mix"


(. T,e t1-e o+ -rodu#t so*d, e.g. for ig tec.-e;uipment' te
$usiness needs to empasi(e te product and its ;uality rater
tan promotion.
2. T,e market so*d to, e.g. for consumer markets' promotion
may $e empasi(ed.
. T,e degree o+ #om-etition, e.g. if te competition is ig'
price is needed to $e empasi(ed in order to gain some
ad%antages in te market.
'. T,e -osition o+ t,e 2usiness in t,e industr1, e.g. if te
$usiness is large or te market leader' it as more freedom to
coose te market mi5.
0. T,e stage o+ -rodu#t *i+e #1#*e in <,i#, a -rodu#t is, e.g.
if te product is in te stage of introduction' of course'
promotion must $e empasi(ed...

Te Marketing Mi5 for
Ser%ices
Te Marketing Mi5

Te tools a%aila$le to a $usiness to gain


te reaction it is seeking from its target
market in relation to its marketing
o$-ecti%es

?+s E +rice' +roduct' +romotion' +lace'


+eople' +rocess' +ysical /n%ironment

Traditional 1+s e5tended to encompass


growt of ser%ice industry
+rice
+rice

+ricing Strategy

*mportance of)

knowing te
market

elasticity

keeping an eye
on ri%als
Image copyright: www.freeimages.co.uk
+roduct
+roduct

Metods used to
impro%e>di#erentiate
te product and increase
sales or target sales more
e#ecti%ely to gain
a competiti%e ad%antage
e.g.

/5tension strategies

Specialised %ersions

0ew editions

*mpro%ements E real or
oterwiseQ

Canged packaging

Tecnology' etc.
Image copyright: www.freeimages.co.uk
+romotion
+romotion

Strategies
to make te
consumer aware
of te e5istence of
a product
or ser%ice

0OT -ust
ad%ertising
+lace
+lace

Te means $y wic products and


ser%ices get from producer
to consumer and were tey can $e
accessed $y te consumer

Te more places to $uy te product and te


easier it is made to $uy it' te $etter for te
$usiness 3and te consumerP4
People
+eople

+eople represent te $usiness

Te image tey present can $e important

First contact often uman E wat is te lasting


image tey pro%ide to te customerP

/5tent of training and knowledge


of te product>ser%ice concerned

Mission statement E ow rele%antP

.o sta# represent te desired culture


of te $usinessP
+rocess
+rocess

<ow do people consume ser%icesP

7at processes do tey a%e to go


troug to ac;uire te ser%icesP

7ere do tey :nd te a%aila$ility


of te ser%iceP

Contact

Leminders

Legistration

Su$scription

Form :lling

.egree of tecnology
+ysical /n%ironment
+ysical /n%ironment

Te am$ience' mood or pysical


presentation of te en%ironment

Smart>sa$$yP

Trendy>retro>modern>old fasionedP

&igt>dark>$rigt>su$duedP

Lomantic>cic>loudP

Clean>dirty>unkempt>neatP

MusicP

SmellP
Te Marketing Mi5

5*end o+ t,e mix de-ends u-on"

Marketing o$-ecti%es

Type of product

Target market

Market structure

Li%als! $ea%iour

=lo$al issues E culture>religion' etc.

Marketing position

+roduct portfolio

+roduct lifecycle

Aoston Matri5