You are on page 1of 31

1.

Structure and Approach



2. Reasoning, Argument and Analysis

3. Good Presentation

4. Effective Use of Sources

What do tutors look for
in written assignments ?
Structure and Approach
Is the evidence of planning and
organisation of material ?

Is there a logical structure, including an
introduction and conclusion ?

Does it consistently answer the
question ?
Reasoning, Argument and
Analysis
Clear engagement with key topics

Clear understanding of ideas

Examples of concepts presented by tutor

Arguments supported by evidence from
other reading

Thorough analysis within time / word limits

Development and presentation of your own
point of view, based on the above
Good presentation / style


Word-processed

Competent spelling and
grammar

Clear unpretentious
and succinct

Effective Use of Sources
Evidence of wider reading.
Selection of material that engages
with the questions topic(s).
Thorough research within time
and word limits.
Citations in essay.
References at end of essay.
Student concerns over referencing
Time consuming
Plagiarism worries
Conflict with finding own voice in assignments
Inconsistent tutor feedback
Problems identifying origin of ideas




Neville, C. (2009). Student Perspectives on Referencing. Unpublished paper delivered at Conference:
LearnHigher Skills Website Launch. University of Leeds, 23/01/09.
Staff concerns over referencing
High level language skills to weave others views
into your own writing.
The concept of ideas belonging to someone else
is alien to some educational cultures.
Students may write to the lecturers level of
knowledge.
Inconsistent tutor feedback.
Students may not really understand WHY theyre
referencing


SO WHY USE REFERENCES
IN ESSAYS & REPORTS?
To give the reader the source of facts and figures.
To refer the reader to the source of a quotation or
definition.
To give the reader the source of any significant
information you have summarised or paraphrased.
To acknowledge a specific writer who has influenced
your own thinking.
To add support to your own arguments or viewpoint.
So, youre demonstrating your understanding

YOU DONT NEED TO REFERENCE
Information drawn from a variety of sources to
summarise what has happened over a period of
time and when the summary is unlikely to be a
cause of dispute or controversy.
When stating or summarising generally undisputed
facts circulating freely in the public domain and
when there is unlikely to be any significant
disagreement with your statements or summaries
of these.
When pulling together a range of key ideas that
you introduced and referenced earlier.
PLAGIARISM
To knowingly take or use another persons
invention, idea or writing and claim it,
directly or indirectly, to be your own work.





Neville, C. (2006). References and Bibliographies, Effective Learning Service booklet, p.10,
University of Bradford, School of Management.


THERE ARE THREE MAIN FORMS
OF PLAGIARISM:
1. Copying, summarising or paraphrasing words
from a significant source straight into your
assignment without acknowledging the source.
2. Copying another students work and then
claiming or pretending it to be your own.
It is also plagiarism if you allow another student
to copy your work.
1. Colluding with other students and submitting
identical or near identical work.



HOW TO AVOID PLAGIARISM (1):
By summarizing in your own words, as best
you can, another persons work, and by giving
acknowledgement to that person in your
assignment.

This is done by citing your sources (a partial
reference) in the text of your assignments and
listing all your sources in a references section
at the end of the assignment.
HOW TO AVOID PLAGIARISM (2)

or, by using quotation marks in your
assignments to distinguish between
your words and the other persons
words.

Once again, you would acknowledge
your sources in your references.

REFERENCING
We use the HARVARD SYSTEM in the
School of Management
This involves citing the source (e.g. an
author or name of a source organisation)
as you write.
The HARVARD SYSTEM is relatively easy
to learn and use in assignments

Win a 25 book token
Send your comments online: How you feel about
referencing in assignments and if there are the big
issues or concerns for you.

For more details go to:
http://www.learnhigher.ac.uk/learningareas/referencing/home.htm
Scroll to the bottom of the page: Latest Additions

You can also find out about a
300 essay writing competition on the topic:
What is the point of referencing?


CITATIONS & REFERENCES
A citation is a partial
reference that you
include in the main
body of your
assignment.
A reference is the full
details of the source
that is included in the
References or
Bibliography section,
which you should
include at the end of
your assignment.
HARVARD SYSTEM: Basic Idea
Your Citation in the text will be a shortened or
partial reference, e.g. (Handy 1994)
Then, in your References or Bibliography
section at the end of the assignment, the
reference should be in a certain order:
1. Authors last name, then initials (or name of
organisation)
2. Date of publication
3. Title information (in full) (italics or underlined)
4. Publisher information (or website details)
EXAMPLE OF CITATIONS IN AN
ESSAY:
Although Handy (1994) has argued that education is the key to
economic success for individuals, organisations and nations, a
majority of adults in the UK have yet to be convinced or
persuaded of this argument. In 1999 only forty per cent of adults
had participated in any sort of formal learning in the previous
three years. Of these, a significant majority was from social class
groups A, B and C. Only a quarter of adults from semi-skilled or
unskilled work backgrounds had involved themselves in formal
education (Tuckett 1999). The consequences for people without
qualifications who lose their jobs are often serious. A study of
long-term unemployed people in Yorkshire found that sixty-one
per cent had no educational qualifications, and a significant
number of these had special learning needs.
(Y&HES 1998). There would appear to be a link too, between lack
of qualifications, poor health and a disengagement from
participation in political or civic life, and could aggravate the
situation of unemployment for the people concerned (Hagen
2002).
EXAMPLE OF A REFERENCES
SECTION AT END OF AN ASSIGNMENT:

REFERENCES
Hagen, J. (2002). Basic Skills for Adults.
Birmingham: The Guidance Council.
Handy, C. (1994). The Empty Raincoat. London:
Hutchinson.
Tuckett, A.(1999). Whos Learning What? The
Guardian 18/5/1999, p. 13.
Y&HES: Yorkshire and Humber Employment
Service (1998). Survey of Clients Aged 25+
Unemployed for Two Years or More. London:
Department for Education and Employment.

YOUR LIST OF REFERENCES:
You have just one list in alphabetical
order (using the last name of the author or
name of organisation)

You DONT have separate lists for
different types of source, e.g. books,
articles, internet sources etc you record
all your sources in one long list of
references
WHAT ARE REFERENCES &
BIBLIOGRAPHIES?

REFERENCES:
The sources of things
you have read (heard
or watched) and that
you want to refer to
specifically in your
essays or reports

BIBLIOGRAPHIES:
A list of everything
you have read for the
assignment, whether
or not you have made
specific reference to it
in your writing
A BOOK REFERENCE
1. Authors family name
or last name is listed
first, followed by his or
her initials
2. Next comes the year of
publication,
3. Third, the book title
4. Fourthly, the place it
was published,
5. Finally, the name of the
publisher

EXAMPLE OF A BOOK CITATION &
REFERENCE:
Citation in the text: (Handy 1994)

Full Reference at the end of the
assignment:
Handy, C. (1994). The Empty Raincoat:
Making Sense of the Future. London:
Hutchinson.
A BOOK CONTAINING A COLLECTION
OF ARTICLES BY DIFFERENT WRITERS
(a reader)
1. Last name/family
name of writer
2. Initials of writer
3. Date of publication
4. Title of chapter
5. Name(s) of editor(s)
6. Title of book)
7. Location of publisher
8. Name of publisher

EXAMPLE OF CITING REFERENCING A
CHAPTER FROM A READER
Citation in the text: (Chaplin 1989)

Full Reference :
Chaplin, J. (1989). Counselling and
Gender, in W. Dryden, D, Charles-
Edwards, & R. Woolfe, R. (eds.)
Handbook of Counselling in Britain.
London: Routledge.
CITING FROM ARTICLES IN JOURNALS
1. Last name/family
name, then initials
2. Year of publication
(in brackets)
3. Title of article
4. Name of journal
Volume or edition
number, or specific
date of publication
5. Page number (s)

EXAMPLE OF CITING & REFERENCING
AN ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL
Citation: (Patten 1988)

Reference: Patten, J. (1988). Crime: a
middle class disease? New Society , 84,
12-13.
REFERENCING ELECTRONIC
SOURCES (e.g. Internet)
If there is a person or
people named, give the
name(s) in same way as
before, e.g. last
name/family name first,
then initials
Title of any book or
heading given
Give full internet site
location (full www
address)
Date you went to the site

EXAMPLES OF CITING & REFERENCING
AN INTERNET SOURCE:
Citation in the text: (Ellison & Barry
2003)
Full Reference:
Ellison, P.T. & Barry, R.E. (2001).
Business English for the 21
st
Century, 2
nd

Edition,
http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbook
s/ellison/ (accessed 3
rd
October 2003).
INTERNET SOURCES (continued)
If a specific authors name(s) is not shown, then cite the
name of any publication shown & date of publication (if
given), You dont cite the website address.

In the References section start with the name of the
organisation, date shown on the site for publication (if
any), title of article/sub-heading of screen, then the full
URL address, and then date you went to the site, e.g.

Office for National Statistics (2002). The Jobs People
Do. www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=11,
(accessed 05/07/2004).
CITING & REFERENCING COURSE
NOTES

Citation: You would normally cite the lecturers
last name & year course notes were produced,
e.g. (Low 2004)

Reference:
Low, C. (2004). Marketing Communications,
from MA Course Manual, 2004/5, p.2. University
of Bradford, School of Management.