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Satellite Communications

Systems:
Systems, Techniques and
Technologies, 5
th
edition.
Gerard Maral, Michel
Bousquet
John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
Chapter 5
Uplink, Downlink and
Overall Link
Performance;
Intersatellite Links
Chapter 5: Uplink, Downlink and Overall
Link Performance; Intersatellite Links
Our goal:
Tools to evaluate link
budget
Link performance
from origin to
destination station
Overview:
configuration of a link
antenna parameters
radiated/received power
noise power spectral density
individual link performance
influence of the
atmosphere/mitigation
overall link performance with
transparent/regenerative
satellite
multibeam antenna coverage
intersatellite link performance



Chapter 5: roadmap (1/4)
5.1 Configuration of a link
5.2 Antenna parameters
gain, radiation pattern and angular beamwidth,
polarisation
5.3 Radiated power
effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP), power flux
density
5.4 Received signal power
Power captured by the receiving antenna and free space
loss
Example 1: Uplink received power
Example 2: Downlink received power
Additional losses

Chapter 5: roadmap (2/4)
5.5 Noise power spectral density at the receiver
input
The origins of noise, noise characterisation, noise
temperature of an antenna
System noise temperature
5.6 Individual link performance
Carrier power to noise power spectral density ratio at
receiver input
Clear sky uplink/downlink performance
5.7 Influence of the atmosphere
Impairments caused by rain, other impairments, link
impairmentsrelative importance
Link performance under rain conditions
Chapter 5: roadmap (3/4)
5.8 Mitigation of atmospheric impairments
Depolarisation mitigation, attenuation mitigation, site
diversity, adaptivity, cost-availability trade-off
5.9 Overall link performance with transparent
satellite
Characteristics of the satellite channel
Expression for (C/N
0
)
T
Overall link performance for a transparent satellite
without interference or intermodulation
5.10 Overall link performance with regenerative
satellite
Linear satellite channel without interference
Non-linear satellite channel without interference
Non-linear satellite channel with interference
Chapter 5: roadmap (4/4)
5.11 Link performance with multibeam antenna
coverage vs monobeam coverage
Advantages of multibeam coverage
Disadvantages of multibeam coverage
5.12 Intersatellite link performance
Frequency bands
Radio-frequency links
Optical links
Configuration of a Link
uplinks: from the earth
stations to the satellites
downlinks: from the
satellites to the earth
stations
radio frequency modulated
carriers
intersatellite links: between
the satellites


Configuration of a Link
Quality of service (QoS) for
the connection between the
end users
baseband signal-to-noise ratio
(S/N) analogue communication
bit error rate (BER) digital
communication
QoS depends on the
individual link performance
C/N
0
(Hertz)

C: the received carrier
power
N
0
: the noise power
spectral density

Configuration of a Link
Transmitter (T
x
)
G
T
transmit antenna gain in the direction of the
receiver
P
T
power radiated by the transmitter in the
direction of the receiver
EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power)
EIRP = P
T
G
T
(W)

Configuration of a Link
Receiver (R
x
)
G
R
receive antenna gain in the direction of the
transmitter
C power of the modulated carrier at the receiver
input
T system noise temperature (all sources of noise in
the link contribute to it)
Conditions the noise power spectral density N
0


Configuration of a Link
Receiver (R
x
)
C/N
0
the link performance can be calculated at the
receiver input
G/T (Figure of merit) receiver performance measure
G overall receiver gain
Path loss (L)

Chapter 5: roadmap (1/4)
5.1 Configuration of a link
5.2 Antenna parameters
gain, radiation pattern and angular beamwidth,
polarisation
5.3 Radiated power
effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP), power flux
density
5.4 Received signal power
Power captured by the receiving antenna and free space
loss
Example 1: Uplink received power
Example 2: Downlink received power
Additional losses

Gain
The gain of an antenna is the ratio of the power
radiated (or received) per unit solid angle by the
antenna in a given direction to the power radiated (or
received) per unit solid angle by an isotropic antenna
fed with the same power
G
max
the gain is maximum in the direction of maximum
radiation (the electromagnetic axis of the antenna, also
called the boresight)
G
max
= (4/
2
)A
eff
= c/f
c speed of light, 3 10
8
m/s
f frequency of the electromagnetic wave
A
eff
effective aperture area of the antenna
In geometry, a solid angle (symbol: ) is the two-dimensional
angle in three-dimensional space that an object subtends at a
point. It is a measure of how large the object appears to an
observer looking from that point. In the International System of
Units (SI), a solid angle is a dimensionless unit of
measurement called a steradian (symbol: sr).
Source: Wikipedia
Gain
Antenna with a circular aperture or reflector of
diameter D and geometric surface A = D
2
/4
A
eff
= A = (D
2
/4)
efficiency of the antenna
G
max
= (4/
2
)A
eff

= (4/
2
) (D
2
/4)
= (D/)
2

= (Df/c)
2


Expressed in dBi (the gain relative to an isotropic
antenna), the actual maximum antenna gain is:
G
max
, dBi = 10 log[(D/)
2
] = 10 log[(Df/c)
2
]
Gain
The efficiency of the antenna is the product of
several factors which take account of the illumination
law, spill-over loss, surface impairments, ohmic and
impedance mismatch losses, and so on:
=
i

s

f

z
...........
Illumination efficiency
i

Uniform illumination (
i
= 1) high secondary lobes
Attenuate the illumination at the reflector boundaries
(aperture edge taper)
Cassegrain antenna
Best compromise: illumination attenuation at the boundaries of 10
to 12 dB

i
of the order of 91%
Gain
Spill-over efficiency
s

Ratio of the energy intercepted by the reflector to the
total energy radiated by the primary source
Large view angle high spill-over efficiency
If illumination level at the boundaries becomes less with
large values of view angle then illumination efficiency
collapses
A compromise leads to a spill-over efficiency of the
order of 80%
Surface finish efficiency
f

Effect of surface roughness on the gain of the antenna
Actual parabolic profile differs from the theoretical one
A compromise must be found between the effect on the
antenna characteristics and the cost of fabrication
Gain
The effect on the on-axis gain is of the form:

f
= G = exp[-B(4/)
2
]
the root mean square (rms) surface error, i.e. the
deviation between the actual and theoretical profiles
measured perpendicularly to the concave face
B a factor, less than or equal to 1, whose value depends
on the radius of curvature of the reflector
The other losses, including ohmic and impedance
mismatch losses, are of less importance
Overall efficiency
The product of the individual efficiencies, is typically
between 55% and 75%


Gain
G
max
vs. D for different frequencies at = 0.6. A 1 m
antenna at 12 GHz has a gain of 40 dBi
Dividing the frequency
by 2 (f = 6 GHz)
reduces the gain by 6
dB, so G
max
= 34 dBi
Keeping frequency
constant (f = 12 GHz)
and increasing the size
of the antenna by a
factor of 2 (D = 2m)
increases the gain by 6
dB (G
max
= 46 dBi)
Radiation pattern & angular beamwidth
Radiation pattern variations of gain with direction
A circular aperture or reflector antenna this pattern has
rotational symmetry
The main lobe contains the direction of maximum
radiation
Side lobes should be kept to a minimum
P
o
l
a
r

c
o
o
r
d
i
n
a
t
e
s

C
a
r
t
e
s
i
a
n

c
o
o
r
d
i
n
a
t
e
s

Radiation pattern & angular beamwidth
P
o
l
a
r

c
o
o
r
d
i
n
a
t
e
s

C
a
r
t
e
s
i
a
n

c
o
o
r
d
i
n
a
t
e
s

Angular beamwidth angle defined by the directions
corresponding to a given gain fallout with respect to
the maximum value
3 dB beamwidth (
3 dB
) angle between the directions in
which the gain falls to half its maximum value
Radiation pattern & angular beamwidth
3 dB beamwidth (
3 dB
)
Related to the ratio /D by a coefficient whose value
depends on the chosen illumination law
Uniform illumination the coefficient has a value of
58.5
Non-uniform illumination attenuation at the
reflector boundaries,
3 dB
increases and the value
of the coefficient depends on the particular
characteristics of the law. The value commonly used
is 70 which leads to the following expression:

3 dB
= 70(/D) = 70[c/(fD)] (degrees)
Radiation pattern & angular beamwidth
3 dB beamwidth (
3 dB
)
In a direction with respect to the boresight, the
value of gain is given by:
G()
dBi
= G
max,dBi
12(/
3 dB
)
2
(dBi)
This expression is valid only for sufficiently small
angles ( between 0 and
3 dB
/2)

3 dB
= 70[c/(fD)] Df/c = 70/
3 dB

G
max
= (Df/c)
2
= (70/
3 dB
)
2

For

= 0.6
G
max
= 29000/(
3 dB
)
2

Radiation pattern & angular beamwidth
G
max
vs.
3 dB
for three values
of efficiency
Radiation pattern & angular beamwidth
3 dB beamwidth (
3 dB
)
For

= 0.6
G
max
= 29000/(
3 dB
)
2

10log G
max
= 10log[29000/(
3 dB
)
2
]
G
max , dBi
= 44.6 20log
3 dB
(dBi)

20log
3 dB
= 44.6 G
max , dBi

log
3 dB
= 2.23 G
max , dBi
/20
log
3 dB
= log10
2.23
log10
Gmax , dBi /20
log
3 dB
= log170 log10
Gmax , dBi /20


3 dB
= 170/[10
Gmax , dBi /20
] (degrees)




Radiation pattern & angular beamwidth
3 dB beamwidth (
3 dB
)
G()
dBi
= G
max,dBi
12(/
3 dB
)
2
(dBi)
Differentiating with respect to
dG()/d = 24/(
3 dB
)
2

Or
G = [ 24/(
3 dB
)
2
]
G gain fallout in dB at angle degrees from the
boresight, for a depointing angle degrees about
the direction
The gain fallout is maximum at the edge of 3 dB
beamwidth ( =
3 dB
)
G = 12 /
3 dB

Polarisation
Wave radiated by an antenna Two components
Electric field and magnetic field
They are orthogonal and perpendicular to the direction of
propagation of the wave
They vary at the frequency of the wave
By convention, the polarisation of the wave is defined
by the direction of the electric field
Polarisation
In general, the direction of the electric field is not
fixed; i.e., during one period, the projection of the
extremity of the vector representing the electric field
onto a plane perpendicular to the direction of
propagation of the wave describes an ellipse; the
polarisation is said to be elliptical
Parameters characterising polarisation:
direction of rotation (with respect to the direction
of propagation): right-hand (clockwise) or left-hand
(counter-clockwise)
axial ratio (AR): AR = E
max
/E
min
, that is the ratio of
the major and minor axes of the ellipse. When the
ellipse is a circle (axial ratio = 1 = 0 dB), the
polarisation is said to be circular. When the ellipse
reduces to one axis (infinite axial ratio: the electric
field maintains a fixed direction), the polarisation is
said to be linear;
inclination of the ellipse
Polarisation
Two waves are in orthogonal polarisation if their
electric fields describe identical ellipses in opposite
directions
Two orthogonal circular polarisations described as right-
hand circular and left-hand circular (the direction of
rotation is for an observer looking in the direction of
propagation)
Two orthogonal linear polarisations described as
horizontal and vertical (relative to a local reference)
Frequency re-use by orthogonal polarisation
Two polarised antennas must be provided at each end
One antenna which operates with the two specified
polarisations
mutual interference due imperfections of the antennas/
depolarisation of the waves by the transmission medium

Polarisation
Polarisation
Two orthogonal linear polarisations
a, b the amplitudes, assumed to be equal, of the electric
field of the two waves transmitted simultaneously
a
c
, b
c
the amplitudes received with the same polarisation
a
x
, b
x
the amplitudes received with orthogonal
polarisations
Polarisation
Some definitions:
Cross-polarisation isolation: XPI = a
C
/b
X
or b
C
/a
X

XPI (dB) = 20 log(a
C
/b
X
) or 20 log(b
C
/a
X
) (dB)
Cross-polarisation discrimination (when a single
polarisation is transmitted): XPD = a
C
/a
X

XPD (dB) = 20 log(a
C
/a
X
) (dB)
In practice, XPI and XPD are comparable and are often
included in the term isolation.
For a quasi-circular polarisation characterised by its
value of axial ratio AR, the cross-polarisation
discrimination is given by:
XPD = 20 log[(AR + 1)/(AR - 1)] (dB)
Conversely, the axial ratio AR can be expressed as a
function of XPD by:
AR = (10
XPD/20
+ 1)/(10
XPD/20
- 1)
The antenna is thus characterised for a given
polarisation by a radiation pattern for nominal
polarisation (copolar) and a radiation pattern for
orthogonal polarisation (cross-polar)
Cross-polarisation discrimination is generally maximum
on the antenna axis and degrades for directions other
than that of maximum gain

Polarisation