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Forms of Advertising

Advertising Management
Who uses advertising?
• Several categories of organizations are
large users of advertising
• Among them are manufacturing, trading, &
service firms
• Also, non-profit & government agencies
• Advertising can also be classified
according to type or form
Principal means of classification

• By geographic spread, such as national,

regional, local, global
• By target group- consumer, industrial or trade
• By type of impact such as- primary or
selective demand advertising, direct or
indirect action advertising, and institutional
Geographic classification
• National Advertising: Some manufacturers
may think that the entire country
• They select media with a countrywide
• Among them are companies like HUL,
Ponds, Nestle,
Geographic classification
• Local Advertising
• Small firms restrict their business to state,
or regional level;
Geographic classification
• Global Advertising:
• Multinational firms treat the world as a
• Firms such as Sony, IBM, or Ford
advertise globally
Global Advertising
• Consumer Advertising
• Industrial Advertising
• Trade Advertising
• Professional Advertising
Consumer Advertising
• Consumer Advertising:
• Directed at buyers & consumers
• Consumer items are widely distributed
over a large geographic area, so
advertising is used as a tool
• Appeal directly to the direct consumer
Consumer Ads
Industrial Advertising
• Refers to those ads that are directed at
buyers of industrial products
• Includes machinery, equipment, industrial
• Due to the unique characteristics of
industrial buying, importance is lower than
consumer marketing
Trade Advertising

• Ads that are directed by the manufacturer

towards the distribution channel members-
wholesalers, retailers, distributors – is
called Trade Advertising
• Objective is to promote sales by
motivating to stock more or to attract new
retail outlets
Professional Advertising
• There are certain products for which the
consumers themselves are not
responsible for the buying choice
• The classic examples are pharmaceuticals
where the decision is made by doctors
while the consumers are the patients-
• Same for architects, electrical consultants,
builders etc
Professional Advertising
• Firms operating in such market segments
have to direct their advertising towards
these professional decision –makers
• Such advertising is called Professional
Categories of Advertising

Product To Global Advertising

Categories of Advertising
• Public Awareness Advertising
• Product Advertising- 3 Types
• Consumer Advertising
• Industrial Product Advertising
• Service Advertising
• Corporate Advertising
• Public Relation Advertising
Categories of Advertising
• Public Service Advertising
• Financial Advertising
• Global Advertising
• Internationalizing of Advertising
Public Awareness Advertising
• Mara Fizdale of US based agency- Leo
Burnett made a presentation at the 15th
Asian Advertising Congress at Bangkok.
• She says-” By its very nature, the
marketing of causes professionally called
public service advertising-PSA) is
Public Awareness Advertising
• ….It touches people’s deepest fears,
anxieties & Values”
Product Advertising
• Advertising is part of the marketing mix

• Marketing team decides on mix elements

to be used & in which proportion it is to be
blended into the marketing programmes

• Advertising’s specific role is of pre-selling

to the customers- existing & potential
Four Ps
• Four Ps
Product Advertising
• Amount of advertising depends on
components of Marketing mix
Product Advertising
• Various elements of promotion mix is to be
used- personal selling, POS, Coupons,
demonstrations, & trade shows
• Advertising ensures that important
functions lead to a successful marketing
programme for mass produced, mass
marketing goods
Product Advertising
• In industrial marketing advertising helps in
informing the prospects , enabling the
salesman get a hearing
• Marketing concepts can also be applied to
non-commercial ventures such as family
planning, adult literacy, polio drive
Pulse Polio- India
Product Advertising
• Even political candidates advertise
• Candidates Spending More on Cable
Product Advertising
• The product hold the key for success
• Consumers should derive satisfaction from
the product
• Consumer awareness can be created by
• Product positioning is essential
Product Advertising - 3 Types
• Pioneering Advertising
• Competitive Advertising
• Retentive Advertising
Product Advertising- Pioneering
• Attempt to stimulate primary demand of
the product category rather than a brand
• Product category like microwave ovens,
mosquito repellants, tourist places are first
• Educative in intent
• Appeals to his emotions as well as rational
Pioneering Advertising
• This is relevant in the introductory stage of
the PLC
Product Advertising- Competitive
• Selective demand of a specific product is
• The product is well established & has
reached the maturity stage in the PLC
• This is of two types- Direct & Indirect
Competitive Advertising
• Direct Type: Seeks to stimulate immediate
buying action
• Indirect Type: Here the benefits of the
product are emphasized in anticipation of
the consumer’s final action of buying
Product Advertising- Retentive
• The product is well established in the
• Its sales may decline later
• The customer has to be reminded about
the product to sustain loyalty
• It is a soft-sell approach where the buyer
is judged to continue using the product
Advertising- PLC
• Informative product advertising:
Introductory stage
• Mostly all new products are promoted this
• Basic objective: Create awareness about
its existence & availability
Advertising- PLC
• Persuasive Advertising: Aims at building
up demand for a specific product or brand
• Used in Growth & Maturity stage
• Competitive type of advertising
Advertising- PLC
• Reminder Oriented Product Advertising:
Aims at strengthening the previous
promotional activity by keeping the brand
name alive in the minds of the customer
Advertising- PLC
• It is used in the maturity stage as well as
Declining stage of the product
Types of Products
• Consumer- Durable & Non-durable
• TVs, Refrigerators, ACs- last for a long
• Shampoos, Soaps, Detergents- last for a
short time
• Industrial products- Plant machinery,
spare parts
Consumer Advertising

• Most of the consumer goods are in a

competitive field- so have to engage in
• Both emotional & rational appeals
Rational Appeals In Advertising
• Some of the tactics typically used in marketing
communication that is framed upon the logical
approach include:
• Listing Product Benefits - To use this method
effectively, the advertisement must underscore
consumer benefits rather than product features.
• Convincing Proof - This approach is based upon
the premise, "Seeing is believing." Ads or
commercials take the form of a product
Emotional Appeals In Advertising
• Each of us enters the world as an irrational
• For infants, feelings are everything.
• Our earliest response is to nonverbal
communication. In the first years of life, mother's
smile is comforting.
• Thunder is threatening. Life is simple.
• Meanings are clear.
• Then we invest 12 years or more in formal
education to learn how to think rationally. By
adulthood, it has become a habit.
Emotional Appeals In Advertising
• However, rational thinking is an overlay on
the primal vocabulary that continues to
influence our decisions and behavior.
• So, we invest in a certain stock because
"it feels right." We vote for a candidate
because "he can be trusted."
• We make a critical business decision
based on our "gut feeling."
Emotional Appeals In Advertising
• Emotion-based advertising speaks the
primal (first; original;) tongue.
• It communicates through design and color.
Motion and stagecraft. Music and tonality.
• While the rational mind acts on logical
relationships, the primal mind seeks
symbolic relationships.
Emotional Appeals In Advertising
• Symbols are, indeed, the vocabulary of
emotional marketing.
• Just as we instinctively trust the person with a
warm, firm handshake, we have confidence in
the announcer with a smile in his voice.
• The best radio and voice-over announcers
understand this.
• They know just when to smile - even though
they're not on camera.
Emotional Appeals In Advertising
• The primal mind evaluates the photo in a magazine
advertisement or a televised image just as it would a real
life situation.
• We immediately recognize that the Marlboro man is a
rugged individualist because we see his tattoo.
• He controls his destiny as we would like to be in
command of ours.
• By emulating him, we, too, might find fulfillment.
• Emulating:(to try to equal or excel; imitate with effort to
equal or surpass: to emulate one's father as a concert
violinist. )
Dominant Mood

• Choosing the Dominant Mood

• (predominant; main; major; chief: Wheat is
the dominant crop of Punjab.)
• The term "dominant mood" describes where the
product's most important appeal resides on the
scale between rational and emotional.
• Once we select the dominant mood for our
brand, it will generally remain consistent
throughout all marketing communication.
Dominant Mood

• Marlboro: Come to where the flavour is

• Now you can find more kilometers in every
Industrial Product Advertising
• Industrial advertising is much smaller than
consumer advertising
• An industrial product is bought after an
elaborate purchase process affected by a
number of variables
• Complicated advertising
Industrial Product Advertising
• Field of advertising directed at commercial
business customers.
• The advertised products are raw
materials, components, or equipment
needed in the production or distribution of
other goods and services.
Industrial Product Advertising
• The end-product is a combination of many
manufactured & bought out parts
• Many components lose their identity in the
• Most common objectives are:
Industrial Product Advertising
• To inform
• To bring orders
• To stimulate queries
• Empanel company name
• To access top brass- difficult to reach
• Motivates distributors
• Build corporate image
Industrial Product Advertising
• Basic appeals used are rational
• The appeals to patronize is emotional
• Copy gives facts & figures
• Specific & gives evidence
Industrial Product Advertising
• Prepared in the form of messages in trade
journals, & press
• Other media used are product catalogues,
• catalogue is a bound book or booklet
show products
• brochure - a pamphlet that has more
information about a product, event, or
service than a catalog has.
• leaflet is a single sheet printed on one or
both sides and often folded
• insert - loose ad inserted into an
newspaper or magazine.
• pamphlet - usually not bound. Can be a
leaflet or multiple pages
• flyers - are leaflets that are handed out
instead of mailed or inserted.
Catalogue & Brochure- Difference
• There are many types of catalogs.
• Some industries are dominated by catalogs-
for example, more than 50% of gardening-
supply sales are made through catalogs.
• Catalogs are also widely used for industrial
and office supplies, such as computer
accessories, stationery, and educational
• Some industrial catalogs are intended for
use by sales representatives and contain
a complete listing of all products sold by
that company.
• This type of catalog does not have strong
promotional copy or design relative to
consumer catalogs.
• Some catalog houses go to great lengths
to attractively present their goods, using
elaborate photographic techniques and
Printing terms
Service Advertising
• Services are activities, benefits, or
satisfactions offered for sale
• They are intangible, inseparable, variable
& perishable.
• They require strict quality control, supplier
credibility, & adaptability
Service Advertising
• Personalizes services like
• laundry, hair grooming, beauty salon,
automotive repairs,
• when advertise place greater emphasis on
the institution offering it
• & the advantages in patronizing them
Service Advertising
• The advertisers may project a congenial
atmosphere, quickness of service,
economy, exclusiveness, status
• Luxury hotels & airlines attach great
significance to service with a smile,
courtesy, thoughtfulness, & claim that they
offer a home away from home
Service Advertising
• Banks advertise about the teller system,
personalized banking, computer banking
• Hospitals may talk about location &
Institutional Advertising
• Advertising intended to promote a company or
organization rather than its products; also
called Corporate Advertising.
Institutional Advertising
• The institution presents its story to create
an image in the minds of the target
• May present its views on a national cause,
like prevention of blindness, & the efforts it
has taken to help the cause
Institutional Advertising
• It may list its social contributions or may
emphasize its social contributions
• It may stress on the mission of the
organization & its philosophy
• Institutional Advertising is indirect, subtle,
& affects our basic attitudes
Terms of Advertising
Institutional Advertising
• Company may build on its history & may
build its awareness around it
Institutional Advertising
• The ad copy may be directed to a potential
market, or any of the interest groups like
employees, shareholders, govt.,
• Institutional advertising cultivates or tries
to promote a spirit of friendliness towards
it among the public
• Aims at building a positive image or its
internal & external customers
Institutional Advertising
• It does not attempt to sell anything directly
• The advertising is integrated to public
relations of the organization
• It can be informative, persuasive, or
• This advertising gives the face/image to
the company
Institutional Advertising
• Main objectives:
• To make the company known
• Make its products/services known
• Achievements known
• Values known
• Make its socio-political, economic or moral
statements known
Institutional Advertising
• Establishes a relationship
• Example: Taj Group
• A new hotel is trying to create an identity;
how can it be done? What is the role of
relationship marketing in marketing a hotel
Receptivity to Institutional
• The information is hardly relevant to many
• Recall rates are low
• Self-praise
• It asks for no action- only approval
• Difficult to evaluate
• Can have major impact- considered nice,
rather than necessary
Trends- Institutional Advertising
• Used to harness investor support
• Has become means to an end- end being
public issue
• Smaller companies go for corporate
advertising for getting visibility
• This trend was started in the 80s by RIL
for its branded issue Khazana
Trends- Institutional Advertising
• The high stakes make a pre-issue
campaign essential
Public Relation Advertising
• It is a part of institutional marketing
Public Relations
• Public relations (PR) is the practice of
managing the communication between an
organization and its publics.
• Public relations gains an organization or
individual exposure to their audiences
using topics of public interest and news
items that do not require direct payment.
Public Relations
Common activities include speaking at
conferences, working with the press, and
employee communication.
Public Relations
Because public relations places exposure
in credible third-party outlets, it offers a
third-party legitimacy that advertising does
not have.
Public Relations
• PR can be used to build rapport with
employees, customers, investors, voters,
or the general public.
• Almost any organization that has a stake
in how it is portrayed in the public arena
employs some level of public relations.
• There are number of related sister
disciplines all falling under the banner of
Corporate Communications, such as
Analyst relations, Media Relations,
Investor Relations,
Internal Communications or
Labor Relations.