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FUNDAMENTALS OF

RESEARCH I
Meaning of Research
Research is derived from a French word Researcher
meaning to search back.

Research in common context refers to a search for
knowledge.

It can also be defined as a scientific and systematic
search for gaining information and knowledge on a
specific topic or phenomena.

Research is the attempt not only to collect the
information but also establish link among various facts
and then seek explanation with the unordered events or
evidences

Definitions of Research
Research is a systematized effort to gain new
knowledge.
- Redman and Mory

Research comprises of defining and redefining
problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions;
making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last
carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether
they fit the formulating hypothesis.
- Clifford Woody
Objectives of Research
The research may be to understand or become familiar with
some phenomena or to get to know more in depth about it
E.g. Different aspects of human physiology.

To clearly reveal the characteristics of an individual or a situation
or a group like a society .
E.g. Frequency of shopping, preferences of people etc.

To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with
which it is associated with something else.
E.g. Explanation for depletion of ozone in the air.

To test a hypothesis about the casual relationship between
variables being studied.
E.g. The reasons for Child labor in India.
Objectives of Research
To obtain new insights into the problems.

To study the needs, wants and expectations of people.

To maintain objective in scientific pursuit and avoid
personal bias.

To study current problems and opportunities for suitable
follow-up actions.


Qualities of a good Research
Logical
Systematic
Defined set of Rules
Adopts creative thinking and rejects guess work
Verifiable
Directed towards real situation
Checks validity and reliability of data carefully
Uses both Quantitative and Qualitative studies
Significance/ Importance of Research

Research calls for a thorough understanding and practical
solution

Research on existing theories and concepts help us identify
the range and applications of them.

Provides guidelines for solving problems

To enable the government in making policies E.g. Budget
preparation requires analysis of needs and desires of people.

To exercise better control over issues/ phenomena
Limitations of Research
Problems of subjectivity and bias

Faulty data collection

Prediction only approximate

Lengthy and time consuming

Costly exercise

Shortage of qualified researchers
Types of research

Basic / Pure / Fundamental Research is undertaken for
the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in
practice.
Not necessarily problem oriented
Discovery of new theory / refinement of existing
theory.
Carried on with the view to make generalizations.
E.g. Inventions like steam engine, EDP, telecomm.
Types of research

Applied research is carried on to find solution to a real
life problem requiring an action or policy decision.
Problem oriented
Action directed
It seeks an immediate and practical result
Also known as decisional research
E.g. Marketing research carried on for developing a
new market





Types of research
Descriptive research is a fact finding investigation with
adequate interpretation.
Undertaken to know the characteristics of certain
groups such as age, sex, occupations, income or
education.
The objective of descriptive research is to answer the
who, what, when, where and how of the subject
under study/ investigation.
It focuses on particular aspects or dimensions of the
problem studied
Used for some definite purpose
E.g. Consumption behavior of people in a village

Types of research
Historical research is study of past record and other
information sources
Its main objective is to draw explanations and
generalizations from the past trends in order to understand
the present and to anticipate the future surveys
It is fact finding study
It involves collection of data directly from a population
It requires expert and imaginative planning, careful analysis
and rational interpretation of the findings
E.g. Studying the current labor in India based on past labor
union movements in the Indian economy, to formulate the
Indian labor policy.

Types of research
Exploratory Research is used to generate information
and knowledge about topics not specifically defined. It is
a type of research conducted because a problem has not
been clearly defined.
It is a preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about
which the researcher has little or no knowledge.
To see what is there rather than to predict the
relationships that will be founded
E.g. Doctors initial investigation of a patient suffering
from an unfamiliar disease.

Types of research
Experimental Research is to assess the effects of
particular variables on a phenomenon by keeping the
other variables constant or controlled
To determine whether and in what manner variables
are related to each other
The factor , which is influenced , by other factors is
called a dependent variable, and the other factors ,
which influence it are known as independent variables
E.g. Agricultural productivity (i.e.) is a dependent
variable and the factors such as soil fertility, irrigation,
quality of seed etc. which influences the yield are
independent variables.


Types of research
Ex-post facto is a research after the happening
of the event- Ex- post- factor.
It is an enquiry for situations that have already taken
place.
E.g. Research undertaken by the company to find the
reason for the failure of the companys product.
E.g. Finding the causes of landslide accidents in the
country.


Types of research

Case Study is an in-depth comprehensive study of a
person, a social groups , an episode, a process.
This approach is of special significance when the
researcher desires to obtain substantial detail about
the issue or when he does not know exactly what he is
looking for or is trying to find important clues & ideas
concerning a current research problem.
E.g. a study of the financial health of a business
undertaking