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# IEEE Rural Electric 2009

## Testing Numerical Transformer

Differential Relays
Steve Turner
Beckwith Electric Co., Inc.
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Commissioning versus Maintenance Testing

Types of Transformer Differential Protection:
Restrained Phase Differential
High Set Phase Differential
Ground Differential
INTRODUCTION
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Topics:
Transformer Differential Boundary Test
(Commissioning)
Ground Differential Sensitivity Test
(Commissioning/Maintenance)
Harmonic Restraint for Transformer Inrush
(Maintenance)
INTRODUCTION
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Commissioning

Common Practice:
Test all numerical relay settings
verify settings properly entered
Easily facilitated using computer
automate test set & store results
Hundreds of tests are possible
numerical relays have many settings

Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Commissioning

Final Goal
Ensure the transformer is properly protected
for the particular application
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
R
G
46
Typical Distribution Transformer
46: Negative-Sequence Overcurrent Element
(sees ground faults through bank)
R
G
: Grounding Resistor
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

R
G
46
E
+
Z
T
Z
T
Z
T
3R
G
46
I
2
Sensitive setting for ground fault -
overreach for phase-to-phase fault
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Transformer Differential Characteristic
Boundary Test
I
2
I
1
87
Y Y
Y
Y
I
1
= Winding 1 per unit current (A, B or C-phase)

I
2
= Winding 2 per unit current (A, B or C-phase)
3 elements per function (A, B & C-phase)

* Simulate Through Current
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Differential Characteristic
Operating Equations
I
d
= |I
1
I
2
|, Differential Current
I
r
= |I
1
| + |I
2
|, Restraint Current
2
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Differential Characteristic
I
d
I
r
Minimum
Pickup
(per unit)
X
Y
% =
Y
X
*100%
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Differential Characteristic
I
d
I
r
Minimum
Pickup
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Matrix
I
d
I
r
[ ]
=
1 -1

[ ]
*
I
1
I
2
[ ]
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Inverted Matrix
I
1
I
2
[ ]
=
1
- 1
[ ]
*
I
d
I
r
[ ]
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays

Differential Characteristic
Test Current Equations
I
1
= 0.5*I
d
+ I
r
, Winding 1 Test Current (per unit)
I
2
= -0.5*I
d
+ I
r
, Winding 2 Test Current (per unit)
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Differential Characteristic
Test Points
I
d
I
r
Minimum
Pickup
Minimum Pickup = 0.2 per unit
Slope = 28.6%
1 2
3
4
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Differential Characteristic
Test Points (Per Unit)
I
d
I
r
I
1
I
2
1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.2

0.2 0.7 0.8 0.6

0.4 1.4 1.6 1.2

0.6 2.0 2.3 1.7
2
3
4
TABLE 1
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Delta-Wye Differential Characteristic
I
2
I
1
87
Y
Y
Y
I
1
= Winding 1 per unit current (A, B or C-phase)

I
2
= Winding 2 per unit current (A, B or C-phase)
3 elements per relay (A, B & C-phase)

* Simulate Through Current
DAB
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Delta-Wye Differential Characteristic
(Relay Internally Compensates Test Currents)
I
A1
relay
= I
A1
/TAP1
DAB WINDING
I
B1
relay
= I
B1
/TAP1
I
C1
relay
= I
B1
/TAP1
I
A2
relay
= (I
A2
- I
B2
)/(TAP2*SQRT(3))
WYE WINDING
I
B2
relay
= (I
B2
- I
C2
)/(TAP2*SQRT(3))

I
C2
relay
= (I
C2
- I
A2
)/(TAP2*SQRT(3))
TAP# =
MVA#
kV#
LL
*CTR#*SQRT(3)
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Delta-Wye Differential Characteristic
(Single-Phase Test for A-Phase Element)
I
d
I
r
I
1
I
2

0.2 0.7 0.8 0.6
2
From TABLE 1:
I
A1
= I
1
*TAP1
I
A2
= I
2
*TAP2*SQRT(3)
I
A1
test
= 0.8*TAP1
I
A2
test
= 0.6*TAP2*SQRT(3)
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Ground Differential Element
Sensitivity Test
Directionality

(I
0
vs. I
G
)
Ground Fault Location along Windings
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Ground Differential Element
Directional Element
+90
o
-90
o
I
G I
0
Disabled if |3I
0
| less than 140 mA
(Improves Security for CT saturation during external faults)
Internal External
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Ground Differential Element
Pickup
Operate When:
|3I
0
I
G
| > Pickup
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Ground Differential Element
Sensitivity Test
Power System Parameters:
Source Impedance (Varies)
X
T
= 10%
R
F
(Varies)
Ground Fault Location (5% from Transformer Neutral)
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
87GD Sensitivity
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
Source Impedance
F
a
u
l
t

R
e
s
i
s
t
a
n
c
e
IG = 200 mA IG = 500 mA IG = 1 Amp
Ground Differential Element
R
F
Coverage vs. Source Strength
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Ground Differential Element
Pickup Setting
Pickup > Unbalance
Directional Element Disabled if 3I
0
Low
I
G
R
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
I
G2
= 0.3 Amps @ 177
o
3I
0
(2)
= 0.136 Amps @ 58
o
(Threshold = 0.14 Amps)
|CTCF*3I
0
(2)
I
G2
| = 0.75 Amps

Original Pickup = 0.3 Amps
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
I
G2
CTCF*3I
0
(2)
INTERNAL
EXTERNAL
I
OP
New Pickup = 1.0 Amps
Directional Element
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush
Waveform Sources:
Events from Numerical Relays
Events from Digital Fault Recorders
Simulate using Transient Software
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush
2
nd
Harmonic Restraint
Cross Phase Blocking
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush
Auto-Transformer Model
wye wye
delta
13.2 kV
345 kV

230 kV
W
1
W
2

W
3

600 MVA Auto-Transformer (Tertiary Winding DAC)
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Auto-transformer Characteristics
Z
HM
= 0.01073 per unit
Z
HL
= 0.04777 per unit
Z
ML
= 0.03123 per unit
2
ML HL HM
Z Z Z
= 0.0140 per unit
2
HL ML HM
Z Z Z
= -0.0029 per unit
2
HM ML HL
Z Z Z
CTR
W1
= 1200:5 (wye connected)
CTR
W2
= 2000:5 (wye connected)
Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush
Auto-Transformer Model
Z
H
=
Z
M
=
Z
L
=
= 0.0340 per unit
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush
Auto-Transformer Model
TAP1 =
600 MVA
345 kV * 240 * SQRT(3)
TAP2 =
600 MVA
230 kV * 400 * SQRT(3)
= 4.18
= 3.77
Minimum Pickup* = 0.5 per unit
Slope = 25%
*Original Pickup = 0.45 per unit
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush
Energize Bank with Heavy A-Phase Residual Flux
Total Phase Current
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush
Energize Bank with Heavy A-Phase Residual Flux
2
nd
Harmonic Phase Current
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Even Harmonic Restraint

I
even
= (I
2
2
+ I
4
2
)
1/2
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush
Energize Bank with Heavy A-Phase Residual Flux
4
th
Harmonic Phase Current
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Even Harmonic Restraint during Inrush
A-Phase Current (Winding 2)
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
CONCLUSIONS
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
Transformer Differential Boundary Test
(Commissioning)
Ground Differential Sensitivity Test
(Commissioning/Maintenance)
Harmonic Restraint for Transformer Inrush
(Maintenance)
CONCLUSIONS
Testing Numerical Transformer Differential Relays
QUESTIONS