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Atoms, Molecules and Ions

ATOMS
Daltons Atomic Theory (1808)
1. Each element is made up of tiny particles called atoms.
2. All atoms of a given element are identical, having the
same size, mass and chemical properties. The atoms of
one element are different from the atoms of all other
elements.
3. Compounds are formed when atoms of different
elements combine with each other. A given compound
always has same relative numbers and types of atoms.
4. A chemical reaction involves reorganization of the
atoms-changes in the way they are bound together. The
atoms themselves are not changes in a chemical
reactions.
2
2.1
Daltons Atomic Theory
8 X
2
Y 16 X 8 Y +
Cathode Ray Tube
Cathode Ray Tube

Thompsons Model of Atom
(Plum Pudding Model)
Spherical cloud of
positive charge
electron
1. atoms positive charge is concentrated in the nucleus
2. proton (p) has opposite (+) charge of electron (-)
particle velocity ~ 1.4 x 10
7
m/s
(~5% speed of light)
(1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry)
(a)
(b)
(a) The expected results of the metal foil experiment if Thompsons model
were correct
(b) Actual results
e
-
charge = -1.60 x 10
-19
C
Thomsons charge/mass of e
-
= -1.76 x 10
8
C/g
e
-
mass = 9.10 x 10
-28
g
Measured mass of e
-

(1923 Nobel Prize in Physics)
mass p = mass n = 1840 x mass e
-

Protons and electrons are the only particles that have a charge.
Protons and neutrons have essentially the same mass.
The mass of an electron is so small we ignore it.
Atomic number (Z) = number of protons or electrons
Mass number (A) = number of protons + number of neutrons
= atomic number (Z) + number of neutrons
Isotopes are atoms of the same element (X) with different
numbers of neutrons in their nuclei
X
A
Z
H
1
1
H (D)
2
1
H (T)
3
1
U
235
92
U
238
92
Mass Number
Atomic Number
Element Symbol
Atomic number, Mass number and Isotopes
6 protons, 8 (14 - 6) neutrons, 6 electrons
6 protons, 5 (11 - 6) neutrons, 6 electrons
Do You Understand Isotopes?
How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in C
14
6
?
How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in C
11
6
?
PERIODIC TABLE
PERIODIC TABLE
A systematic catalog of
elements.
Elements are arranged in
order of atomic number.
The rows on the periodic
chart are periods.
Columns are groups.
Elements in the same group
have similar chemical
properties.

Groups
These five groups are commonly referred to by
these names
Period
G
r
o
u
p

A
l
k
a
l
i

M
e
t
a
l

N
o
b
l
e

G
a
s

H
a
l
o
g
e
n

A
l
k
a
l
i

E
a
r
t
h

M
e
t
a
l

Transition metals
MOLECULE & ION
A molecule is an aggregate of two or more atoms in a
definite arrangement held together by chemical forces
H
2
H
2
O NH
3
CH
4

A diatomic molecule contains only two atoms
H
2
, N
2
, O
2
, Br
2
, HCl, CO
A polyatomic molecule contains more than two atoms
O
3
, H
2
O, NH
3
, CH
4

Ions
When atoms lose or gain electrons, they become
ions.
Cations are positive and are formed by elements on the
left side of the periodic chart.
Anions are negative and are formed by elements on the
right side of the periodic chart.
Ionic Bonds
Ionic compounds (such as NaCl) are generally
formed between metals and nonmetals.
An ion is an atom, or group of atoms, that has a net
positive or negative charge.
cation ion with a positive charge
If a neutral atom loses one or more electrons
it becomes a cation.
anion ion with a negative charge
If a neutral atom gains one or more electrons
it becomes an anion.
Na
11 protons
11 electrons
Na
+

11 protons
10 electrons
Cl
17 protons
17 electrons
Cl
-

17 protons
18 electrons
2.5
A monatomic ion contains only one atom
A polyatomic ion contains more than one atom
Na
+
, Cl
-
, Ca
2+
, O
2-
, Al
3+
, N
3-

OH
-
, CN
-
, NH
4
+
, NO
3
-

13 protons, 10 (13 3) electrons
34 protons, 36 (34 + 2) electrons
Do You Understand Ions?
How many protons and electrons are in ? Al
27
13
3+
How many protons and electrons are in ? Se
78
34
2-
2.6
A molecular formula shows the exact number of
atoms of each element in the smallest unit of a
substance
An empirical formula shows the simplest
whole-number ratio of the atoms in a substance
H
2
O H
2
O
molecular empirical
C
6
H
12
O
6
CH
2
O
O
3
O
N
2
H
4
NH
2

Structural formulas show the
order in which atoms are
bonded.
Perspective drawings also show
the three-dimensional array of
atoms in a compound.
ionic compounds consist of a combination of cations
and an anions
the formula is always the same as the empirical formula
the sum of the charges on the cation(s) and anion(s) in each
formula unit must equal zero
The ionic compound NaCl
Writing Formulas
Because compounds are electrically neutral, one
can determine the formula of a compound this
way:
The charge on the cation becomes the subscript on the
anion.
The charge on the anion becomes the subscript on the
cation.
If these subscripts are not in the lowest whole-number
ratio, divide them by the greatest common factor.
Formula of Ionic Compounds
Al
2
O
3

2 x +3 = +6 3 x -2 = -6
Al
3+
O
2-

CaBr
2

1 x +2 = +2 2 x -1 = -2
Ca
2+
Br
-

Na
2
CO
3
1 x +2 = +2 1 x -2 = -2
Na
+
CO
3
2-

Chemical Nomenclature
Ionic Compounds
often a metal + nonmetal
anion (nonmetal), add ide to element name
BaCl
2
barium chloride
K
2
O potassium oxide
Mg(OH)
2
magnesium hydroxide
KNO
3
potassium nitrate
Transition metal ionic compounds
indicate charge on metal with Roman numerals
FeCl
2
2 Cl
-
-2 so Fe is +2
iron(II) chloride
FeCl
3
3 Cl
-
-3 so Fe is +3
iron(III) chloride
Cr
2
S
3
3 S
-2
-6 so Cr is +3 (6/2) chromium(III) sulfide
Molecular compounds
nonmetals or nonmetals + metalloids
common names
H
2
O, NH
3
, CH
4
, C
60

element further left in periodic table
is 1
st
element closest to bottom of group is
1
st
if more than one compound can be
formed from the same elements, use
prefixes to indicate number of each
kind of atom
last element ends in ide
HI hydrogen iodide
NF
3
nitrogen trifluoride
SO
2
sulfur dioxide
N
2
Cl
4
dinitrogen tetrachloride
NO
2
nitrogen dioxide
N
2
O dinitrogen monoxide
Molecular Compounds
TOXIC!
Laughing Gas
An acid can be defined as a substance that yields
hydrogen ions (H
+
) when dissolved in water.
HCl
Pure substance, hydrogen chloride
Dissolved in water (H
+
Cl
-
), hydrochloric acid
An oxoacid is an acid that contains hydrogen,
oxygen, and another element.
HNO
3
nitric acid
H
2
CO
3
carbonic acid
H
2
SO
4
sulfuric acid
HNO
3
2.7
Nomenclature of Binary
Compounds
The less electronegative
atom is usually listed first.
A prefix is used to denote
the number of atoms of
each element in the
compound (mono- is not
used on the first element
listed, however.)
Nomenclature of Binary
Compounds
The ending on the more
electronegative element is
changed to -ide.


CO
2
: carbon dioxide
CCl
4
: carbon tetrachloride
Nomenclature of Binary Compounds
If the prefix ends with a or
o and the name of the
element begins with a
vowel, the two successive
vowels are often elided into
one:

N
2
O
5
: dinitrogen pentoxide