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Plant - I

Quality Improvement Team


Facilitator : Mr. E.Balaji - Sr.Manager (ME)
Leader : Mr. A.Ayyanar - Dy.Manager (QA)
Members:
Mr. Nithiya Kumar.P - Sr.Engr M E
Mr.Ganesan.G - Sr.Engr - Mfg
Mr. Saravanan.M - Engr - QA
Mr. Saravanakumar.R - Dy.Engr - QA
Mr. Sathishkumar.K - Sr.Engr -QA
Meeting frequency : Every Monday / 11:30 HRS 12:30 HRS
Plant - I
APPROACH :
STRUCTURED PROBLEM SOLVING - 7 STEPS :
1. IDENTIFY THE PROBLEM.

2. STUDY CURRENT SITUATION

3. ANALYSE DATA AND FIND OUT ROOT CAUSE

4. CHOOSE & IMPLEMENT SOLUTION

5. CHECK RESULTS

6. STANDARDISATION

7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE PLANS
Plant - I
Activity Chart:
Team Faciliator : E.Balaji
Team Leader: Mr. A.Ayyanar
Team Members : Nithi / Saravanan / Saravanakumar / Sathish/Ganesan
Plan/Actual
Week No. 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
P
A
P
A
P
A
P
A
P
A
P
A
P
A
PLAN ACTUAL UNDER PROGRESS
6
7
Observation
Standardization
2
3
4
5
Conclusion &
Future Plan
Action
Ultrasonic Test Elimination in Hyundai Exhaust patterns
REVL, PLANT-1
Jul'07 Sept'06
Activity Chart
Sl.
No
TARGET DATE :30.09.07
SUB:
PROJECT STARTED ON:14-06-2007
Aug'07
1
Sep'07
Check
Jun'07
Problem
Action Details
Analysis
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Team
Plant - I
Quality Improvement Team
On

Elimination of 100% Ultrasonic testing
for Hyundai Exhaust Valves

STARTED : J un 2007 TARGET FOR COMPLETION : Sep 2007
Plant - I
In the Month of Jan 2006 We received a Customer Complaint From
Our Customer Hyundai Motors Limited that Valve Breakage during
Assembly in Cylinder head in Pattern 40767 Bimetal Exhaust.
For that as a Counter measure we have introduced 100% Ultrasonic
testing as one of the Inspection sequences in Hyundai Line FID.
But Unfortunately It costs around Rs.1 per valve where we are
supplying around 100,000 valves per month
Since it is a Non value added activity we have planned to Eliminate it
in Future by doing process parameters optimization through Design Of
Experiments
Reason for doing QIT On Friction welding - Hyundai
Exhaust Patterns
1. Identify Problem
Plant - I
6
Head& stem
preparation
End touch
Bar Grinding
Upset &
Forging
Stress
Relieving
Straightening
Issue to M/c
shop
FINAL
INSPECTION
( Inclu UT )
Product Audit
Friction
Welding
DEFECT DETECTION
DEFECT OCCURRENCE
1. Identify Problem
Plant - I
ABOUT THE FRICTION WELDING PROCESS
Friction Welding is a completely mechanical solid
phase process in which heat is generated by friction
to produce a high integrity welded joint between
similar or dissimilar metals.


1. Identify Problem
Plant - I
ABOUT THE FRICTION WELDING PROCESS

movie
1. Identify Problem
Plant - I
Customer Complaints
0
1
2
3
4
5
Jan'07 Feb'07 Mar'07 Apr'07 May'07
No.of Complaints
2. Collection of Data
9
Zero Customer
Complaints Since
we do 100% UT
Plant - I
Data collection of UT Bad
218
192
80
38
105
3 0
50
100
150
200
250
March Apr May
i
n

N
o
s
40765 -40768
41385
Ultrasonic Test Rejections data last 3 months
2. Collection of Data
10
No production
(accumulated
valves moved)
40765 -40768 41385
March 218 38 474
Apr 192 105 489
May 80 3 163
Month
Part no
Total
Plant - I
3.Analysis:
LEVEL I - CAUSE & EFFECT DIAGRAM
PROCESS OPTIMIZATION
MACHINE
MATERIAL
METHOD
MAN
SOP
Adherence

Low Clamping Pressure
Spindle speed high
/ low
Burn off high low
Skill of
operator
Hardness variation
OL Variation
Microstructure
variation
Load cell
Malfunctioning
Speed Variation
Upset Force High / low
Timer Variation
Bar mix up
Friction Force High / low
Elimination of Stress
relieving
Plant - I
3.Analysis:
MICRO CRACK OCCURANCE
MACHINE
MATERIAL
METHOD
MAN

Spindle speed high / low
Burn off high / low
Upset Force High / low
Friction Force High / low
Elimination of Stress
relieving
LEVEL II - CAUSE & EFFECT DIAGRAM
Setting parameters
Plant - I
3.Analysis:
VALIDATION OF POSSIBLE CAUSES
# Factor
Significant/
Insignificant Remarks Tools to be used
1
Elimination of Stress
relieving Significant To be studied
Trial & Error
Method
2 Setting Parameters Significant To be studied
Through Design of
Experiments
Plant - I
Stress
Relieving
ADDED OPERATION
3.Analysis:
Trials conducted in ETA Friction welding M/c No. 2127:
Sequence of operation is modified by adding stress relieving at the temp of
580- 600 deg after friction welding to eliminate induced stress during welding
Plant - I
3.Analysis:
Objective To Add Stress relieving operation
Observation One out of 77089 valves found with micro crack in UT
Result Hence To drop the stress relieving idea and go for
DOE to optimize the setting parameters
Trial summary:
Period of One month , ie 77089 of valves have been
absorbed by adding stress relieving operation
1 out of 77089 valves has been found with presence of
micro crack in weld joint.
Plant - I
Design of Experiments
on
Optimise process Parameters Setting
in
FRICTION WELDING OPERATION
3.Analysis:
Plant - I
Listing of Process Factors.
3.Analysis:
Friction Force.
Upset Force.
Set Burn off length.
Soft Force.
Soft Force Time.
Spindle Speed.
Stem material Hardness
Head material hardness
Head Length
Stem Length
Plant - I
Listing of Experimental Factors & Non Experimental Factors:
3.Analysis:
Experimental Factors Non Experimental Factors
Upset Force
Friction Force
Set Burn off length
Spindle Speed
Stem material Hardness
Head material hardness
Head Length
Stem length
Soft Force
Soft force time.
Plant - I
# Factors
1 Upset Force A1 A2
2 Friction Force B1 B2
3 Set Burn off length C1 C2
4 Spindle Speed D1 D2
Two levels
Experimental Level selection
3.Analysis:
Response Variables

1. Micro structural analysis Crack free

2. Tensile strength min.700N/sq.mm

3. HAZ on Head and stem
Plant - I
Experimental Factors
Friction Force 0.356 0.415
Upset Force 0.712 1.03
Spindle Speed 2100 2300
Set Burn off length 4 4.5
Levels
Type of Experiment:

Full factorial Experiment is selected since no. of factors is less ie .4.

So, No. of Experiments would be 2 ^ 4 = 16
No.of Experiments

Total No.of Experiments would be 2^ 4 is 16

No.of Replicates for each experiment is 30 Nos

3.Analysis:
Plant - I

Trial
No.
Notation A B C D
1 (1) 1 1 1 1
2 d 1 1 1 2
3 c 1 1 2 1
4 cd 1 1 2 2
5 b 1 2 1 1
6 bd 1 2 1 2
7 bc 1 2 2 1
8 bcd 1 2 2 2
9 a 2 1 1 1
10 ad 2 1 1 2
11 ac 2 1 2 1
12 acd 2 1 2 2
13 ab 2 2 1 1
14 abd 2 2 1 2
15 abc 2 2 2 1
16 abcd 2 2 2 2
Factors
Full Factorial Table
3.Analysis:
Plant - I
3.Analysis:
Physical Layout of the Experiment:
1 2 3 4 5 Head Stem
1 0.712 0.356 4 2100
2 0.712 0.356 4 2300
3 0.712 0.356 4.5 2100
4 0.712 0.356 4.5 2300
5 0.712 0.415 4 2100
6 0.712 0.415 4 2300
7 0.712 0.415 4.5 2100
8 0.712 0.415 4.5 2300
9 1.03 0.356 4 2100
10 1.03 0.356 4 2300
11 1.03 0.356 4.5 2100
12 1.03 0.356 4.5 2300
13 1.03 0.415 4 2100
14 1.03 0.415 4 2300
15 1.03 0.415 4.5 2100
16 1.03 0.415 4.5 2300
Trial
No.
Experimental Factors Response Variables
UF FF Burn off Speed
Tensile strength ( in N/sq.mm)
UT Result( A-Accepted
or R- Rejected )
HAZ survey
Plant - I
3.Analysis:
1 2 3 4 5 Avg
Head
( Max
0.5mm )
Stem
1 0.712 0.356 4 2100 1009 965 995 995 955 992 0.6 0.75
2 0.712 0.356 4 2300 1070 976 997 979 974 999 0.75 0.8
3 0.712 0.356 4.5 2100 992 1005 986 986 982 990 0.6 0.75
4 0.712 0.356 4.5 2300 873 959 987 989 990 960 0.6 0.75
5 0.712 0.415 4 2100 1026 1009 994 1012 1030 1015 0.6 0.85
6 0.712 0.415 4 2300 1012 888 990 976 976 969 0.6 0.75
7 0.712 0.415 4.5 2100 944 1055 941 1001 1033 990 0.6 0.9
8 0.712 0.415 4.5 2300 1007 992 1003 965 980 960 0.6 0.9
9 1.03 0.356 4 2100 917 965 910 985 1009 958 0.75 1
10 1.03 0.356 4 2300 998 1017 895 1015 980 981 0.8 0.9
11 1.03 0.356 4.5 2100 1024 1042 959 1021 953 1000 0.7 1
12 1.03 0.356 4.5 2300 1040 1028 1049 1003 1019 1028 0.75 1
13 1.03 0.415 4 2100 974 947 1024 1048 1037 1007 0.5 0.8
14 1.03 0.415 4 2300 1035 923 1031 1032 864 977 0.5 0.85
15 1.03 0.415 4.5 2100 991 977 973 1005 1007 991 0.5 0.9
16 1.03 0.415 4.5 2300 977 956 1003 990 935 973 0.6 0.9
Trial
No.
Experimental Factors Response Variables
UF FF Burn off Speed
Tensile strength ( Min 700 N/sq.mm)
UT Result( A-Accepted
or R- Rejected )
Accepted
Rejected
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
HAZ survey
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Accepted
Rejected
Rejected
Highlighted in
YELLOW are rejected
Plant - I
1.030 0.712
16000
12000
8000
4000
0
0.415 0.356
4.5 4.0
16000
12000
8000
4000
0
2300 2100
Upset Force
P
r
e
s
e
n
c
e

o
f

M
i
c
r
o

c
r
a
c
k

i
n

P
P
M
Friction Force
Burn Off Spindle Speed
Main Effects Plot for Presence of Micro crack
Data Means
3.Analyze & Interpret Results - Main Effects:
Plant - I
1.030 0.712
1000
975
950
925
900
0.415 0.356
4.5 4.0
1000
975
950
925
900
2300 2100
Upset Force
T
e
n
s
i
l
e

S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

i
n

N
/
s
q
.
m
m
Friction Force
Burn Off Spindle Speed
Main Effects Plot for Tensile strength
Data Means
3.Analyze & Interpret Results - Main Effects:
Plant - I
1.030 0.712
0.92
0.88
0.84
0.80
0.415 0.356
4.5 4.0
0.92
0.88
0.84
0.80
2300 2100
Upset Force
S
t
e
m

s
i
d
e

H
A
Z

i
n

m
m
Friction Force
Burn Off Spindle Speed
Main Effects Plot for Stem HAZ
Data Means
3.Analyze & Interpret Results - Main Effects:
Plant - I
1.030 0.712
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55
0.415 0.356
4.5 4.0
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55
2300 2100
Upset Force
H
e
a
d

H
A
Z

i
n

m
m
Friction Force
Burn Off Spindle Speed
Main Effects Plot for Head HAZ
Data Means
3.Analyze & Interpret Results - Main Effects:
Plant - I
0.415 0.356 2300 2100
20000
10000
0
20000
10000
0
20000
10000
0
1.030 0.712
20000
10000
0
4.5 4.0
Upset Force
Friction Force
Burn Off
Spindle Speed
0.712
1.030
Force
Upset
0.712
1.030
Force
Upset
0.712
1.030
Force
Upset
0.356
0.415
Force
Friction
0.356
0.415
Force
Friction
0.356
0.415
Force
Friction
4.0
4.5
Off
Burn
4.0
4.5
Off
Burn
4.0
4.5
Off
Burn
2100
2300
Speed
Spindle
2100
Speed
Spindle
Spindle
Interaction Effect Plots for Presence for Micro Crack
3.Analyze & Interpret Results - Interaction Effects:
Plant - I
0.415 0.356 2300 2100
1000
990
980
1000
990
980
1000
990
980
1.030 0.712
1000
990
980
4.5 4.0
Upset Force
Friction Force
Burn Off
Spindle Speed
0.712
1.030
Force
Upset
0.712
1.030
Force
Upset
0.712
1.030
Force
Upset
0.356
0.415
Force
Friction
0.356
0.415
Force
Friction
0.356
0.415
Force
Friction
4.0
4.5
Off
Burn
4.0
4.5
Off
Burn
4.0
4.5
Off
Burn
2100
2300
Speed
Spindle
2100
Speed
Spindle
Spindle
Interaction Effect plots for Tensile Strength
3.Analyze & Interpret Results - Interaction Effects:
Plant - I
0.415 0.356 2300 2100
1.0
0.9
0.8
1.0
0.9
0.8
1.0
0.9
0.8
1.030 0.712
1.0
0.9
0.8
4.5 4.0
Upset Force
Friction Force
Burn Off
Spindle Speed
0.712
1.030
Force
Upset
0.356
0.415
Force
Friction
4.0
4.5
Off
Burn
2100
2300
Speed
Spindle
Interaction Plot for Stem HAZ
Data Means
3.Analyze & Interpret Results - Interaction Effects:
Plant - I
0.415 0.356 2300 2100
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.7
0.6
0.5
1.030 0.712
0.7
0.6
0.5
4.5 4.0
Upset Force
Friction Force
Burn Off
Spindle Speed
0.712
1.030
Force
Upset
0.356
0.415
Force
Friction
4.0
4.5
Off
Burn
2100
2300
Speed
Spindle
Interaction Effect Plots For HAZ Head
3.Analyze & Interpret Results - Interaction Effects:
There is correlation
between Upset force
& FF on HAZ head
Plant - I
INITIAL ANOVA TABLE
Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Adj MS F P
Upset Force 1 0.0014062 0.001406 0.001406 9 0.205
Friction Force 1 0.0689062 0.068906 0.068906 441 0.030
Burn Off 1 0.0014063 0.001406 0.001406 9 0.205
Spindle Speed 1 0.0076563 0.007656 0.007656 49 0.090
Upset Force*Friction Force 1 0.0351563 0.035156 0.035156 225 0.042
Upset Force*Burn Off 1 0.0014062 0.001406 0.001406 9 0.205
Upset Force*Spindle Speed 1 0.0001563 0.000156 0.000156 1 0.500
Friction Force*Burn Off 1 0.0076563 0.007656 0.007656 49 0.09
Friction Force*Spindle Speed 1 0.0014063 0.001406 0.001406 9 0.205
Burn Off*Spindle Speed 1 0.0001563 0.000156 0.000156 1 0.500
Upset Force*Friction Force*Burn Off 1 0.0001563 0.000156 0.000156 1 0.500
Upset Force*Friction Force*Spindle Speed 1 0.0014062 0.001406 0.001406 9 0.205
Upset Force*Burn Off*Spindle Speed 1 0.0039062 0.003906 0.003906 25 0.126
Friction Force*Burn Off*Spindle Speed 1 0.0039063 0.003906 0.003906 25 0.126
Error 1 0.0001563 0.000156 0.000156
Total 15 0.1348437
3.Analyze & Interpret Results
Plant - I
MODIFIED ANOVA TABLE
Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Adj MS F P
Upset Force 1 0.001406 0.001406 0.001406 0.57 0.463
Friction Force 1 0.068906 0.068906 0.068906 28.15 0
Upset Force*Friction Force 1 0.035156 0.035156 0.035156 14.36 0.003
Error 12 0.029375 0.029375 0.002448
Total 15 0.134844
3.Analyze & Interpret Results
Plant - I
Optimal Levels of predictions:-
4.Choose & implement Solution:-
From Final ANOVA Table, Change in levels of factor B and Interaction
effect of AB affects the Micro crack as well as HAZ
Parameters Values
Upset force 1.03 Tonnes
Friction Force 0.41 Tonnes
Set Burn Off 4.5 mm
Spindle speed 2100 rpm
Plant - I
With above process parameters, Trial batch of Qty
100000 valves of Hyundai Exhaust is under process &
results are being monitored .
Conduct Conformance Experiment
5. Check Results
Plant - I