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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 1


Rivier College
CS575: Advanced LANs

ATM Adaptation Layer





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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 2
ATM Adaptation Layer Functions
0 The ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) is designed to support different types of
applications and different types of traffic, such as voice, video, imagery, and
data
0 Its basic function is the enhanced adaptation of services provided by the
ATM layer to the requirements of the higher layer
0 It maps higher layer PDUs into the information field of the ATM cell
0 AAL is divided into the Convergence Sublayer (CS) and the Segmentation
and Reassembly (SAR) Sublayer
0 The Convergence Sublayer is service dependent and provides the AAL
services at the AAL-SAP
0 The functions of the SAR sublayer are segmentation of higher layer PDUs
into a suitable size for the information field of the ATM cell (48 octets) at the
transmitting end and reassembly of the information fields into higher layer
PDUs at the receiving end
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 3
ATM Adaptation Sublayers
0 Convergence Sublayer (CS):
- Handling lost/misdelivered cells
- Timing recovery
- Interleaving
0 Segmentation and Reassembly Sublayer (SAR):
- Split frames/bit stream into cells for transmission
- Reassemble frames/bit stream for receiving
- Support multiple protocols
Higher Layers
ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL)
Convergence Sublayer (CS)
Segmentation and Reassembly Sublayer (SAR)
ATM Layer (ATM)
Virtual Channel (VC)
Virtual Path (VP)
Physical Layer (PL)
Transmission Convergence Sublayer (TC)
Physical Medium Sublayer (PM)
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 4
AAL Protocols and Service Classes
0 To minimize the number of AAL protocols, ITU-T proposed a service
classification specific to the AAL
0 The classification was made with respect to the following parameters:
- Timing relationship between sender and receiver
= Related
= Not related
- Bit rate
= Constant bit rate
= Variable bit rate
- Connection mode
= Connection-oriented
= Connectionless
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 5
AAL Protocols and Service Classes (Concluded)
0 Four AAL protocols have been defined to support four AAL service classes
0 AAL service classes
- Class A
- Class B
- Class C
- Class D
0 AAL protocols
- AAL 1
- AAL 2
- AAL 3/4
- AAL 5
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 6
AAL Services


Connectionless
Date Transfer
Bit Rate
Connection
Mode
Examples
of

Services
Circuit
Emulation


Constant Bit
Rate
Video

and Audio
Constant Variable
Connection Oriented Connectionle
ss
Variable Bit
Rate Video

and Audio
Connection-
oriented
Data
Transfer
AAL
TYPE
AAL 1 AAL 2
AAL 3/4
AAL 5
Class A Class B Class C Class D
Related Not Related
Service
Timing
between
Source and
Destination
AAL3/4
AAL 5
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 7
AAL Type 1 Protocol
0 Supports Class A traffic, i.e., constant bit rate data with specific
requirements for delay, delay jitter, and timing, e.g., PCM voice, CBR
video, and emulation of T-carrier circuits (DS1, DS3)
0 Receives constant bit rate stream with a well defined clock from source
and delivers the same to the destination
0 Provides for timing recovery (using SRTS), synchronization, and
indication of lost information not recovered by AAL1
0 Summary of AAL 1 functions
- Segmentation and reassembly of user information
- Handling of cell delay variation
- Handling of cell payload assembly delay
- Handling lost and misinserted cells
- Recovery of sending clock frequency at receiver
- Checking and handling AAL PCI (header) error


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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 8
AAL Type 1 SAR-PDU
0 Consists of 1 octet header (PCI) and 47 octets of payload
0 Sequence Number (SN): A 1-bit Convergence Sublayer Indication
and 3-bit sequence count to detect deletion or misinsertion of cells
0 Sequence Number Protection (SNP): 3-bit CRC with even parity
for detecting and correcting SN error
SN SNP SAR-PDU Payload
4 bits 4 bits 47 Octets
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 9
AAL Type 1 Sequence Number and Sequence
Number Protection
0 The 4 bit RTS is transferred by the CSI bit in successive SAR-PDU
headers with an odd SN (SN = 1, 3, 5, 7)
0 For P format operations, the CSI value in SAR-PDU headers with
an even SN (SN = 0, 2, 4, 6) is set to 1
Cyclic Redundancy Check Even Parity
1 bit 3 bit
1 bit
3 bits
Convergence Sublayer
Indication (CSI)
Sequence Number (SN)
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 10
AAL Type 1 CS PDU
0 Two CS PDU formats
- Non-P format: No CS header (CS PCI), 47 octet user
information for transfer of unstructured data such as circuit
emulation of full DS1 or DS3
- P format: 1 octet header (Structure Pointer SP), and 46 octet
user information for transfer of octet-aligned data such as N x
64 kbps (e.g., fractional DS1) services
47 Octets AAL User Information
CS-PDU Non-P Format
CS-PDU P Format
46 Octets AAL User Information 1-Octet SP
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 11
AAL Type 2 Protocol
0 Designed to support Class B (VBR) traffic
0 Supports variable bit rate data where a strong timing relationship
between source and destination is required, e.g., VBR audio and
video
0 Data passed to AAL2 from higher layers at the source at fixed
intervals and must be passed to the destination at the same rate
0 The amount of data passed to AAL2 may vary with each transfer
0 Supports voice compression and silence suppression
0 Supports idle voice channel deletion
0 Supports multiple user channels with varying bandwidth on a
single ATM connection
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 12
AAL Type 2 Voice Application Examples
0 PBX-to-PBX trunking for compressed voice
0 ATM trunking on public-switched telephone network
0 ATM backbone for cellular systems and personal communications
services (PCS)
0 ATM backbone connectivity to packet telephone
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 13
PBX-to-PBX Connectivity
Compression
Silence Suppression
Packetization
PBX
PCM Voice
Compression
Silence Suppression
Packetization
PBX
PCM Voice
AAL
ATM
PHY

ATM Network

AAL
ATM
PHY
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 14
AAL Type 2 Packets
0 AAL2 provides bandwidth-efficient transmission of low-rate, short,
and variable-size packets for delay sensitive applications
0 AAL2 uses one ATM connection between two points to carry
packets from multiple native connections
0 The ATM payloads from successive cells of the ATM connection are
used as a byte stream on which packets from different native
channels, called logical link channels (LLCs), are packed without
regard to the cell boundaries
0 A channel identification (CID) field is used in the packet header to
identify the LLC to which a packet belongs
0 A length indicator (LI) field is used to identify the boundaries of
variable-length LLC packets
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 15
AAL Type 2 Protocol Sublayers
Service Specific Convergence Sublayer
(SSCS)
Common Part Sublayer (CPS)
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AAL 2 Common Part Sublayer
0 Defines an end-to-end AAL connection as a concatenation of AAL2
channels
0 Each AAL2 channel is a bi-directional virtual channel, with the
same channel identifier value for both directions
0 AAL2 channels are established over an ATM layer PVC, SPVC, or
SVC
0 Provides basic structure for identifying the users of the AAL
0 Assembling/disassembling the variable payload associated with each
individual user
0 Error detection and correction
0 Multiplexing multiple AAL channels (merging multiple streams of
CPS packets) onto a single ATM connection
0 Provides QoS through the choice of AAL-SAP for data transfer
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 17
AAL 2 Structure
SSCS-PDU Header
(if present)
SSCS-PDU Trailer
(if present)
SSCS-PDU Payload
SSCS-PDU
Packet Header
(PH)
Packet Payload
(PP)
Packet
Start Field
(STF)
CPS-PDU Payload
CPS-PDU
Cell Header Cell Payload
Service Specific
Convergence
Sublayer (SSCS)
Common Part
Sublayer (CPS)
ATM Layer
AAL-SAP
ATM-SAP
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 18
Format of AAL2 Packet
0 Channel Identification (CID): Uniquely identifies the individual user channel (LLC)
within the AAL2, and allows up to 248 (8 - 255) individual users within each AAL2
structure.
0 Length Indicator (LI): Identifies the length of the LLC packet associated with each
individual user, and assures conveyance of variable payload.
0 User-to User Indication (UUI): Provides a link between CPS and an appropriate
SSCS that satisfies the higher layer application. Different SSCS protocols may be
defined to support specific AAL2 user services, or groups of services. The SSCS may
also be null.
CID
8 bits
Information
1 to 45/64 octets
LI
6 bits
UUI
5 bits
HEC
5 bits
Packet Header (PH) Packet Payload (PP)
Packet
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 19
Format of AAL2 CPS-PDU
0 Packets are combined into CPS-PDU payload
0 The Offset Field (OSF) identifies the location of the start of the
remaining length of the packet that possibly started in the
preceding cell and is continuing in the current cell
0 Data integrity is protected by the Sequence Number (SN)
0 The Start Field is protected from error by a Parity bit (P)
0 When it is necessary to transmit a partially filled cell to limit
packet emission delay, the remainder of the cell is padded with all
zero octets
OSF
6 bits
CPS Information
SN
1 bit
P
1 bit
PAD
0 to 47 octets
Start Field CPS-PDU Payload
CPS -PDU
Cell Header
5 octets
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 20
AAL 2 Service Specific Convergence Sublayer
0 SSCS is the link between the AAL2 CPS and the higher layer
applications of the individual AAL2 users
0 Standards for SSCS are being developed in ITU-T and ATM Forum
0 A null SSCS satisfies most mobile voice applications
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 21
AAL Type 3/4 Protocol
0 Supports variable bit rate data where there is no timing
relationship between source and destination, e.g., X.25, frame
relay, and TCP/IP data
0 Supports Class C (connection-oriented) and Class D
(connectionless) traffic
0 Convergence sublayer divided into two parts:
- Common Part Convergence Sublayer (CPCS)
- Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS)
0 SSCS layer may provide assured or non-assured services, or may
be null
- Assured service provides retransmission of missing or
corrupted SSCS-PDUs and flow control is mandatory
- AAL-SDUs may be lost or corrupted for non-assured service
and flow control is optional
0 CPCS provides message mode or streaming mode services
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 22
AAL Type 3/4 Protocol Sublayers
Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS)
Common Part Convergence Sublayer (CPCS)
Segmentation and Reassembly Sublayer (SAR)
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 23
AAL Type 3/4 CPCS-PDU




4-octet header and 4-octet trailer

CPI Common Part Indicator
Btag Beginning Tag
BASize Buffer Allocation Size
PAD Padding
AL Alignment
Etag End Tag
Length Length of CPCS-PDU Payload
CPI Btag BASize CPCS-PDU Payload PAD AL Etag Length
0 - 3 1

1

2

1

1

2

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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 24
AAL Type 3/4 SAR-PDU





2-octet header, 44-octet payload, and 2-octet trailer

ST Segment Type
SN Sequence Number
MID Multiplexing Identifier
LI Length Indication
CRC-10 CRC Code
SN MID SAR-PDU Payload LI CRC-10 ST
2 bits 4 bits 10 bits 352 bits 10 bits 6 bits
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 25
AAL Type 5 Protocol
0 AAL5 is a simple and efficient AAL (SEAL) to perform a subset of the
functions of AAL3/4
0 The CPCS-PDU payload length can be up to 65,535 octets and must use PAD
(0 to 47 octets) to align CPCS-PDU length to a multiple of 48 octets

PAD Padding
CPCS-UU CPCS User-to-User Indicator
CPI Common Part Indicator
Length CPCS-PDU Payload Length
CRC-32 Cyclic Redundancy Chuck
CPCS-PDU Payload PAD CPI Length
1 2
4
0 - 47
CPCS
UU
1
CRC-32
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 26
AAL Type 5 SAR-PDU
PAD
CPCS-PDU
Trailer
CPCS-PDU
SAR-PDU
Payload
CPCS-SDU
SAR-PDU
Payload
SAR-PDU
Payload
SAR-PDU
Payload
SAR-PDU
Payload
SAR-
PDU
SAR-
PDU
SAR-
PDU
SAR-
PDU
SAR-
PDU
CPCS-PDU Payload
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 27
AAL Type 5 Protocol (Concluded)
0 The CPCS-PDU is divided into 48 octets SAR-PDUs
0 Since CPCS-PDU is 48-octet aligned, there is no need for a length
field in the SAR-PDU
0 The AAL5 SAR-PDU is 48 octets of data with no overhead of SAR-
PDU header or trailer
0 The PTI field of the cell header identifies the beginning or end of the
CPCS-PDU
- PTI = 0X1: End-of-Message (EOM)
- PTI = 0X0: Beginning-of-Message (B0M), or Continuation-of-
Message (COM)
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CS575 ATM Adaptation Layer 28
W. Stalling, Local and Metropolitan Area Networks, 6
th
edition,
Prentice Hall, 2000, Chapter 11
References
W. Stalling, Data and Computer Communications, 6
th
edition,
Prentice Hall, 2002, Chapters 11-12
A. Wu, Advanced Local Area Networks, Lectures & Slides, Rivier
College, 2001.