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Chapter 2

Laplace Transform
and its Applications
2 2
Laplace Transform and its
Applications

2.1 Definition of Laplace Transform
2.2 Properties of Laplace Transform
2.3 Inverse Laplace Transform
2.4 Convolution Integral
2.5 Application to Integro-differential
Equations
2.6 Circuit Element Models in s-domain
2.7 Circuit Analysis in s-domain
2.8 Transfer Functions
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Basic Motivation
Laplace transform converts differential
equations into algebraic equations, thus
making the solution process easier.

Just like phasors, Laplace transform is
used to transform the circuit from time
domain to frequency domain (s-domain),
obtain the solution, and apply inverse
transform to the result to go back to the
time domain.
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Significance for Laplace Transform:

(1)It can be applied to wider variety of
inputs than the phasor analysis.
(2)It provides an easy way to solve circuit
problems involving initial conditions.
(3)It is capable of providing us, in one
single operation, the total response of the
circuit comprising both the natural and
forced responses.
Basic Motivation
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2.1 Definition of Laplace Transform
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s has the dimensions of frequency.
Lower limit is taken as 0- to indicate time before t=0.
This helps to capture any discontinuity at time origin.

It is assumed that f(t) is ignored for t < 0.
(1)
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2.1 Definition of Laplace Transform
A function f(t) may not have a Laplace transform.
Integral in Eq. (1) must converge. The condition
for this is:

The region of convergence for the Laplace
transform is

In this region,F(s) exists.

as
For some real value
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2.1 Definition of Laplace Transform
All functions in circuit analysis satisfy the convergence
criterion and have Laplace transforms.

Thus, there is no need to specify any
c
o
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2.1 Inverse Laplace Transform
Definition:
Integration is performed along a straight line in
the region of convergence:

c 1 1
where ) , j ( o o e e o > < < +
This needs complex analysis, which is beyond the
scope of this syllabus.
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2.1 Laplace Transform
Generally, a look-up table is used for
obtaining the inverse Laplace transforms.
Functions f(t) and F(s) are regarded as a
Laplace transform pair where
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2.1 Examples of Laplace
Transform
Example 1:
Determine the Laplace transform of each of the
following functions shown below:
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Solution 1:
a) The Laplace Transform of unit step, u(t) is
given by
| |
}

= = =
0
1
1 ) ( ) (
s
dt e s F t u L
st
2.1 Examples of Laplace
Transform
12 12
Solution 1:
b) The Laplace Transform of exponential
function, e
-ot
u(t),o>0 is given by
0
1
( ) ( )
at t st
L e u t F s e e dt
s
o
o

(
= = =

+
}
2.1 Examples of Laplace
Transform
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Solution 1:
c) The Laplace Transform of impulse function,
(t) is given by
| |
}

= o = = o
0
1 ) ( ) ( ) ( dt e t s F t L
st
2.1 Examples of Laplace
Transform
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2.1 Examples of Laplace
Transform
Exercise 1:
Obtain the Laplace transform following functions:
2 2
2 2
10
) (
) (
e
e
e
+
+
s
s
b
s
a
) ( cos 10 ) (
) ( sin ) (
t u t b
t u t a
e
e
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2.2 Properties of Laplace
Transform
| | ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
s F a s F a t f a t f a L + = +
(A) Linearity:
If F
1
(s) and F
2
(s) are, respectively, the Laplace
Transforms of f
1
(t) and f
2
(t)
Example 2:
| | ( )
2 2
) (
2
1
) ( ) cos(
e
e
e e
+
=
(

+ =

s
s
t u e e L t u t L
t j t j
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| | ) (
1
) (
a
s
F
a
at f L =
(B) Scaling:
If F

(s) is the Laplace Transform of f

(t), then
2.2 Properties of Laplace
Transform
where a is a constant and a> 0.
Proof: Let x = at. Thus dx = a dt. Then
Hence,
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2.2 Properties of Laplace
Transform
| |
2 2
4
2
) ( ) 2 sin(
e
e
e
+
=
s
t u t L
Example 3:
(C) Time Shift:
If F

(s) is the Laplace Transform of f

(t), then
| | ) ( ) ( ) ( s F e a t u a t f L
as
=
Proof:
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2.2 Properties of Laplace
Transform
Hence,
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Example 4:
| |
2 2
) ( )) ( cos(
e
e
+
=

s
s
e a t u a t L
as
2.2 Properties of Laplace
Transform
(D) Frequency Shift:
If F

(s) is the Laplace Transform of f

(t), then
| | ) ( ) ( ) ( a s F t u t f e L
at
+ =

Proof:
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Example 5:
| |
2 2
) (
) ( ) cos(
e
e
+ +
+
=

a s
a s
t u t e L
at
2.2 Properties of Laplace
Transform
(E) Time Differentiation:
If F

(s) is the Laplace Transform of f

(t), then the
Laplace Transform of its derivative is
) 0 ( ) ( ) (

=
(

f s sF t u
dt
df
L
Proof:
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Exercise 2:
| |
2 2
) sin(
e
e
+
=
s
u(t) t L
2.2 Properties of Laplace
Transform
Do it yourself!
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2.2 Properties of Laplace
Transform
Laplace transfom of derivative of any order of f(t)
can be obtained by repeated application.
For example, Laplace transform of the derivative
of second order can be derived as:
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) (
1
) (
0
s F
s
dt t f L
t
=
(

}
(F) Time Integration:
If F

(s) is the Laplace transform of f

(t), then the
Laplace Transform of its integral is
2.2 Properties of Laplace
Transform
Proof:
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2.2 Properties of Laplace
Transform
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2.2 Properties of Laplace
Transform
Example 6:
| |
1
!
+
=
n
n
s
n
t L
| |
1
!
+
=
n
n
s
n
t L
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| |
ds
s dF
t tf L
) (
) ( =
(G) Frequency Differentiation:
If F(s) is the Laplace Transform of f

(t), then the
derivative with respect to s, is
2.2 Properties of Laplace
Transform
Proof:
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2.2 Properties of Laplace
Transform
| |
2
) (
1
) (
a s
t u te L
at
+
=

Thus,
Exercise 3:
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2.2 Properties of Laplace Transform
(H) Time Periodicity:
A periodic function can be represented as the sum of
time shifted functions.
=
+
+
+
+

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2.2 Properties of Laplace Transform
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2.2 Properties of Laplace Transform
Thus,
F
1
(s) is the Laplace transform of f(t) defined over
one period only
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2.2 Properties of Laplace Transform
Exercise 4:
Find the Laplace transform of this periodic function.
) e 1 ( s
e 1
s 5
s 2

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(I) Initial and Final Values:
The initial-value and final-value properties allow
us to find the initial value f(0) and f() of f(t)
directly from its Laplace transform F(s).
Initial-value theorem
) ( lim ) (
0
s sF f
s
=
Final-value theorem
2.2 Properties of Laplace Transform
(0) lim ( )
s
f sF s

=
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2.2 Properties of Laplace Transform
Proof for Initial value theorem:

( ) (0) 0
lim
s
sF s f

= (

(0) ( )
lim
s
f sF s

=
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2.2 Properties of Laplace Transform
Example 8:
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2.2 Properties of Laplace Transform
Proof for Final value theorem:

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2.2 Properties of Laplace Transform
Conditions for Final Value Theorem
(1) All poles of F(s) must have negative real parts.
(2) Final value theorem does not apply in finding
the final values for sinusoidal functions.
Example 9:
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2.2 Properties of Laplace Transform
Example 10: