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Audio is a range of sound waves that can be heard by human
The audio media can help students who are poor in their
reading skills to get an overview without reading the lengthy
to train the students to build good listening skills, to speak fluently
and communicate effectively.

Active listening is an essential skill which enables the students to
understand the message and develop mutual understanding
between the sender and the receivers. This may result in effective
behavioral change and lead to team building.(Rogers & Farson,

Active listening involves the following habitual behavior:
a. Paying attention to the speaker or the teacher, including the
verbal and non-verbal language.
b. Actively participate in the communication by giving appropriate
c. Delay making any judgment before the speaker had finished
telling his story.

There are several categories of audio equipment based on
their respective function:
a. Audio recording equipment.
b. Output devices which enable us to listen to play back of the
audio production.
c. Storage devices which keep the audio production in the
reusable format.
d. Equipment or software which enables us to do audio

Types of recorder required
Analogue Magnetic tape recorder
Cassette recorder
Digital computer
Digital voice recorder iPod
MP3 recorder
Mobile phone
Multifunctional digital camera
need a microphone to input the audio signal into the audio recorder.
Types of microphone Its characteristics
Dynamic microphones

It is useful when the sound source is close and not too loud.
It is suitable for recording sound which pitch is
predominantly bass or mid-range, for example, the Pop
concert or rock n roll. It can be used to record sound
produced by musical instrument such as the percussion,
guitar and used in video camera. The output volume is low,
it is robust (tough) and its price is relatively cheaper as
compared to the other types of microphones.
Condenser microphones

This type of microphone is quite sensitive and more fragile.
It is able to pick up high frequency signals and distant
sound. It is able produces louder output.
It is suitable to be used for studio recording and for
orchestra performance.

Unidirectional microphones

Able to pick up sound from one direction only. Normally it
receives sound signal from the front part of the microphone.
Its pickup pattern can either be cardioids and Hyper
cardioids. It is useful when we need to eliminate the noise
from the surrounding environment.
Bi-directional microphones

It can pick up sound form the opposite direction, which is
ideal for dialogue or for meeting.
Omni directional microphones

It picks up sound from all direction and is ideal when there
is only one microphone to be shared by many speakers. It
may also be hang from the ceiling to receive sound signals
from the singers and the band.

Types of microphones according to its use.
It is normally used for the video camera.
It is attached to the body or on clothing.
Ideal for studio recording and on stage performance whereby the
artists need to move about frequently form place to place.
It enables the speaker to move freely in a wider area.
The loud speaker (speaker) enables the audience to hear
sound playback by the audio recorder.

There are three types of drivers in a speaker system:
a. Tweeter The driver which produces the high frequency
sound in the stereo speaker system. It is the smallest in size.
b. Midrange It reproduces sound in the middle frequency.
c. Woofer It reproduces sound in low frequency (bass). It is
the biggest driver in the system.

For the analogue sound format, the audio mixer combines and
controls the output of various audio signals in order to achieve
the desirable sound effects.

Whereas in the case of digital audio, the editor and mixer is
the computer application software which is able to remix and
edit the sound file according to ones need and preferences.

The sound file may be saved and edited repeatedly when need
The storage devices for analogue audio format are mainly the
magnetic tape and the audio cassettes.
The digital audio files may be saved in the computer
hardware such as the hard discs, audio discs, memory card,
optical discs like the CDs and DVDs.

1. Identify the objectives and learning outcomes
By referring to syllabus and standards, we can identify the objectives and standards, scopes of
the contents, the types of learning activities, and values which should be included in the
audio presentation.
2. Analyze the learners (or the target audience) - Bear in mind what
could be the prior knowledge, ability and preferences of the target audience
before we can identify the appropriate approach, style, the scope, examples
and elaboration which may effectively capture the students attention, arouse
their interest and convey the essential massage successfully.

3. Obtain the information (The topic, skills, content)and the relevant
resources (sound effects, background music, CDs, etc.)
4. Preparing the script
Clearly define the sequencing of the content, the relevant sound effects for a
particular scenario, when and how the background music should come in,
when to pause, phrases which needed emphasis and alike.
The script is a guide for the producer, the talents as well as the production
crews. It helps the team to visualize how to act out a scene, to pin point the
appropriate time to dub in the background music and/ or the sound effects
and so on and so forth.

Dialogue / Text Music Sound effect

Beep sound played repeatedly for 3 seconds.
You will hear a telephone conversation between a customer and
an agent at a company which ships large boxes overseas.

The sound of the telephone ringing and picking up of
the handset.
Actor A
Good morning, Packhams Shipping Agents. Can I help you?

Actor B
Oh yes, Im ringing to make enquiries about sending a large box, a
container, back home to Kenya from the UK.

Actor A
Yes, of course. Would you like me to try and find some quotations
for you?

Actor B
Yes, thatd be great.
Thank you.

Actor A
Well first of all, I need a few details from you.

Actor B

Actor A
Can I take your name?

Actor B
Its Jacob Mkere.

Actor A
Can you spell your surname, please?

Actor B
Yes, its M-K-E-R-E.
Fade in
The sound effect of someone typing with the
Based on selected topic under KSSR, create a script that
applying the usage of audio media. The script lasts within 3-5