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Drilling Process

This is the operation of making a circular hole by removing a

volume of metal from the workpiece by a rotating cutting tool
called drill.
Drilling removes solid metal from the work piece to produce a
circular hole.
Before drilling, the hole is located by drawing two lines at right
angle and a center punch is used to make an indentation for the
drill point at the center to help the drill in getting started.
A suitable drill is held in the drill machine and the drill machine is
adjusted to operate at the correct cutting speed.
The rotating drill is made to feed into the workpiece .
Boring Process
This operation is carried out using cutting tools with only one
cutting edge, where enlarging a hole by means of adjustable is
A boring tool is employed using turning machine.
A twist drill has three
principal parts:
(i) Drill point or dead center
(ii) Body
(iii) Shank
Drills are made of high
speed steel. High speed
steel is used for about 90
per cent of all twist drills.
For metals more difficult
to cut, HSS alloys of high
cobalt series are used.
Twist Drill
Drilling Machines
1. Base
2. Pillar
3. Worktable
4. Motor
5. Hand wheel
6. Quill
7. Spindle
8. Depth stop
9. Stop/start
10. Drill guard
Drilling Machine
Drilling Machines
Radial Drill
Upright Drill
Bench Drill
Drilling Machines
Upright Drill:
It is a heavy duty type of drilling machine normally
incorporating a geared drive spindle head. This
type of drilling machine is used on large hole-
producing operations that typically involve larger
or heavier parts.
The upright drill allows the operator to hand feed
or power feed the tool into the workpiece.
The power feed mechanism automatically advances
the tool into the workpiece.
Some types of upright drill are also manufactured
with automatic table-raising mechanisms.

Drilling Machines
Drilling Machines
Drilling Machines
Radial Drill:
It allows the operator to position the spindle directly
over the workpiece rather than move the workpiece to
the tool.
The design of the radial drill press gives it a great deal
of versatility, especially on parts too large to position
Radial drills offer power feed on the spindle, as well as
an automatic mechanism to raise or lower the radial
The wheel head, which is located on the radial arm can
also be traversed along the arm, giving the machine
added ease of use as well as versatility. Radial arm drill
presses can be equipped with a tilting table.

Types of Twist Drill
Tool holding
Drill chuck
Safety chuck key
Drift in drill spindle
Removing a drill from drill machine
For large diameters a 'hole saw' can be used. The advantage
of this type of drill bit is that the blade can be changed to
give different sizes of diameter.
Hole Saw
Reaming Process
Reaming is performed by means of a cutting tool called reamer
Reaming operation is performed by means of a multitooth tool
called reamer. Reamer possesses several cutting edges on outer
This process serves to make the hole smooth, straight and accurate
in diameter..
Other operations
Counter Boring: is the operation of enlarging the end of a hole
cylindrically, as for the recess for a counter-sunk rivet.
Counter sinking: This is the operation of making a cone shaped
enlargement of the end of a hole. This is done for providing a seat
for flat headed
Counter boring Counter sinking
Principal components of a shaper
Shaper is a reciprocating type of machine tool in which the ram
moves the cutting tool backwards and forwards in a straight line.
The basic components of shaper are shown below.