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TRANSFORMERS

Transformers
Transformers are used in the transmission
and distribution of electrical power.
They are used to change the voltage of
alternating current (a.c) with little lost in
energy.
An alternating current is current that flow
back and forth in periodic cycle.
A transformer usually has two electrical
conductor called the primary coil and the
secondary coil.


Chapter 8 : Generation of Electricity
The wire coil that receives the input voltage is called the primary
coil.
The wire coil that produces the output voltage is called the
secondary coil.
The electrical power is delivered from primary coil to the secondary
coil
The primary coil will creates a varying magnetic field around the
conductor when alternating electric current is fed through it
The secondary coil, which placed in the varying magnetic field
will produce electric current



Conductor
Primary
coil
Secondary
coil
a.c.
supply
Input
Output
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Chapter 8 : Generation of Electricity
The voltage produce in the secondary coil,
called the output voltage, depends on
(a) the input voltage
(b) the number of turns of the primary coil
and secondary coil.
The increase or decrease in the output
voltage of a transformer depends on the
number of turns on the primary and
secondary coils.
In a transformer, the voltage is greater on
the side with more turn.
Chapter
8.2
Transformers
a.c.
supply
Primary
coil
Secondary
coil
Output
voltage
a.c.
supply
Primary
coil
Secondary
coil
Output
voltage
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Step-up transformer
The output voltage is greater
than the input voltage
Step-down transformer
The secondary coil has fewer
turns than the primary coil
The output voltage is less
than the input voltage
The secondary coil has more
turns than the primary coil
Chapter 8 : Generation of Electricity
Chapter
8.2
Transformers
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Role of transformer
The electricity is generated as large values of current in power stations
When great amount of electricity is transmitted through the cable, it will loss a lot of
energy due to resistance in the cable
To reduce the loss of energy, the current flowing through the cable has to be reduced
In this case, a step-up transformer is used to increase the voltage so that the current that
flows can be reduced
A step-down transformer is used to reduce the voltage to a suitable lower voltage for the
consumers used

Chapter 8 : Generation of Electricity
Transformer are used to increase or decrease AC voltages and currents
in a circuit

There are two types of transformer, they are step-up transformer and
step-down transformer
Q.R.
8.2
Quick Refresh
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Chapter 8 : Generation of Electricity