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PR PROCESS

1. Formative Research


Prida Ariani Ambar Astuti, S.Sos., M.Si
Management Public Relations Universitas
Pembangunan Jaya
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PR PROCESS
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Evaluation
Programming (Tactics)
Strategy (Objectives)
Research
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Programming, including all the methods of
communication used, is planned and
executed to carry out the objectives
PR PROCESS
To establish the basic elements of the
communication transaction
Objectives for the transaction are
established
Ongoing and follow-up evaluation is
conducted both to monitor and to measure
how well the program accomplished its
objectives
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1. FORMATIVE RESEARCH
PR PROCESS
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Three Aspects
All audiences to be targeted for
communication in the PR program
The opportunity or problem that
accounts for the program at this time
The client or organization for whom the
program is being prepared
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THE CLIENT
Background data about the client or
organization
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Financial status Reputation
Past & present PR
practices
PR SWOT
Product/services,
competitor, marketing,
legal, financial function,
location, delivery system,
suppliers, customers
(business)
Major donors (nonprofit)
Management's goals,
priorities, problem, how
PR program might help
accomplish the objectives
(mission organization)
Organization's culture,
and so on
(Hendrix, 2010)

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Three Aspects
All audiences to be targeted for
communication in the PR program
The opportunity or problem that
accounts for the program at this time
The client or organization for whom the
program is being prepared
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2014
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THE OPPORTUNITY / PROBLEM
Determining why the organization should
conduct a particular PR program at a
particular time
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PR PROGRAMS
Proactive Programs
Arise out of opportunities
Reactive Programs
Arise out of problems

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PROACTIVE
PROGRAM
a. arise out of
opportunities
b. like preventive
medicine
c. generally long
range & strategic
in nature


The Opportunity / Problem
REACTIVE
PROGRAMS
a. usually short
range
b. ending as soon
as immediate
problem is
cleared up


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Public Perception External
Environment
Internal
Environement
a. Performance
b. Niche
c. Structure
d. Internal
impediment
a. Supporters
b. Competitors
c. Opponents
d. External
impediment
a. Visibility
b. Reputation
The Opportunity / Problem
(Smith, 2005)
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THE AUDIENCES
Investigating the target audiences or publics
Identified & Segmented Audiences into their
Components
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AUDIENCES RESEARCH
Desired Data
(ready to assess informational needs for each public)
Targeting
Audience Identification
(to address public most effectively, we should segment each public,
become a separate public to be targeted for special messages)
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AUDIENCES IDENTIFICATION
Media Internal Community
Government Investor Customer
International
Special
Public
(Hendrix, 2010)
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MEDIA PUBLICS
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Mass Media Publics
Mass Media
Local
TV Stations
Radio Stations
National
Print Publications
Broadcast Networks
Wire Services
Specialized Media
Local
Trade, industry &
association
Organizational house &
membership
Ethnic
Publications of special
group
Specialized broadcast
programs & stations
National
General business
National trade, industry
& association
National organizational
house & membership
National ethnic
Publication of national
special groups
National specialized
broadcast programs &
networks
(Hendrix, 2010)
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INTERNAL PUBLICS
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Employee Publics
Management
Upper-level
Midlevel
Lower-level
Non-management
(Staff)
Specialists
Clerical
personnel
Secretarial
personnel
Uniformed
personnel
Equipment
operators
Drivers
Security
personnel
Other
Union
representatives
Other (Hendrix, 2010)
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COMMUNITY PUBLICS
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Community Publics
Community Media
Mass
Specialized
Community Leaders
Public officials,
Educators
Religious leaders,
Professionals
Executives, Bankers,
Union leaders
Ethnic leaders,
Neighborhood leaders
Community
Organization
Civic, Service
Social, Business
Cultural, Religious
Youth, Political
Special interest
groups, Other
(Hendrix, 2010)
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GOVERNMENT PUBLICS
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Government Publics
Federal
Legislative branch
Representative, staff,
committee personnel
Senators, staff,
committee personnel
Executive branch
President
White House staff,
advisers, committees
Cabinet officers,
departments, agencies,
commissions
State
Legislative branch
Representative,
delegates, staff,
committee personnel
Executive branch
Governor
Governors staff,
advisers, committees
Cabinet officers,
departments, agencies,
commissions
County
County Executive
Other
City
Mayor or city manager
City council
Other
(Hendrix, 2010)
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INVESTOR PUBLICS
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Investor Publics
Shareowners & Potential
Shareowners
Security Analysts &
Investment Counselors
Financial Press
Major wire services: Dow
Jones, Reuters Economic
Service
Major business magazines
Major newspaper
Statistical service
Private wire service: PR
News Wire, Business Wire
Security & Exchange
Commission (SEC) for
publicly owned companies
(Hendrix, 2010)
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CONSUMER PUBLICS
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Consumer Publics
Company Employees
Customers
Professionals
Middles class
Working class
Minorities
Other
Activist consumer
groups
Consumer Publication
Community Media
(mass & specialized)
Community Leaders
& organizations
(Hendrix, 2010)
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INTERNATIONAL PUBLICS
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International
Publics
Host country
media
Mass
Specialized
Host country
leaders
Public officials
Educators
Social leaders &
Cultural leaders
Religious
leaders
Political leaders
Professionals &
Executives
Host country
organizations
Business
Service
Social &
Cultural
Religious
Political
Special interest
Other
(Hendrix, 2010)
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SPECIAL PUBLICS
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Special Publics
Special Publics
Media consumed by
this public
Leaders of this public
Organizations
composing this public
Competitors
Suppliers
(Hendrix, 2010)
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TARGETING
1
The importance of a
potential public is
determined by its
degree of influence,
prestige, power or
perhaps need & by its
level of involvement
with the client or
organization.
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4 key questions to consider in
targeting & prioritizing
publics are :
Who is this public
(demographics,
psychographics, and so on)?

Why is it important to us?

How active or involved is
this public, relative to our
interest?

Which public are most
important to us, in priority
rank order?


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past & present audience behaviors relevant to
the client or organization
DESIRED DATA
public's level of information about the
organization
the image & other relevant attitudes held
about the organization & its product or sevice
researching the demographics
media habits
levels of media use ot each targeted audience,
etc.
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THANK YOU
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