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EQUILIBRIUM OF CONCURRENT COPLANAR


FORCE SYSTEMS
CONTENTS:
1] BASIC CONCEPTS:
(a) Definition & Conditions for Equilibrium
(b) Space Diagram & Free Body Diagram (FBD)
(c) A few guidelines for drawing FBD
2] NUMERICAL PROBLEMS:
(a) Solved Examples
(b) Exercise

EQUILIBRIUM OF CONCURRENT
COPLANAR FORCE SYSTEMS
Definition:-
If a system of forces acting on a body, keeps the body in a
state of rest or in a state of uniform motion along a
straightline, then the system of forces is said to be in
equilibrium.

ALTERNATIVELY, if the resultant of the force system is
zero, then, the force system is said to be in equilibrium.

T1
A coplanar concurrent force system will be in
equilibrium if it satisfies the following two conditions:

i) Fx = 0; and ii) Fy = 0

i.e. Algebraic sum of components of all the forces of the
system, along two mutually perpendicular directions, is
ZERO.


Conditions for Equilibrium of
Concurrent Coplanar Force System
X Y
T2
Graphical conditions for Equilibrium
Triangle Law: If three forces are in equilibrium, then, they
form a closed triangle when represented in a Tip to Tail
arrangement, as shown in Fig 1.(a).






Fig 1.(a)
F
1
Polygonal Law: If more than three forces are in equilibrium,
then, they form a closed polygon when represented in a Tip
to Tail arrangement, as shown in Fig 1.(b).
T3
Fig 1.(b)

F
2
F
3
F
1
F
1
F
5
F
4
F
3 F
2
F
1

If a system of Three forces is in equilibrium, then, each force
of the system is proportional to sine of the angle between the
other two forces (and constant of proportionality is the same
for all the forces). Thus, with reference to Fig(2), we have,





Note: While using Lamis theorem, all the three forces
should be either directed away or all directed towards the
point of concurrence.


LAMIS THEOREM
Sin
F
Sin
F
Sin
F
3 2 1


Fig (2)
F1
F3 F2
T4
Space Diagram(SPD):The sketch showing the physical
conditions of the problem, like, the nature of supports provided;
size, shape and location of various bodies; forces applied on
the bodies, etc., is known as space diagram.

Eg. Fig 3 (a) is a space diagram
SPACE DIAGRAMS & FREE BODY DIAGRAMS
Cable
P = 2kN
Sphere
30
wall
Weight of sphere = 0.5 kN
3 m
Fig 3 (a) SPD

T5
Free Body Diagram(FBD) : It is an isolated diagram of the
body being analyzed (called free body), in which, the body is
shown freed from all its supports and contacting
bodies/surfaces. Instead of the supports and contacting
bodies/surfaces, the reactive forces exerted by them on the free
body is shown, along with all other applied forces.

Eg. Fig 3 (b) is a Free Body Diagram.
P=2kN
30
T
Rw
T = Tension in the cable
Rw = Reaction of the wall
Note: Free Body Diagrams should
be NEAT, LEGIBLE & SUFFICIENTLY
BIG. Only the details required for the
analysis of the problem are to be
shown.
W=0.5kN

Fig 3(b)
T6
1) Tensile Force: It is a force trying to pull or extend the
body. It is represented by a vector directed away from the
body.

2) Compressive Force: It is force trying to push or contract
the body. It is represented by a vector directed towards the
body.

3) Reactions at smooth surfaces: The reactions of smooth
surfaces, like walls, floors, Inclined planes, etc. will be normal
to the surface and pointing towards the body.

4) Forces in Link rods/connecting rods: These forces will
be acting along the axis of the rod, either towards or away
from the body. (They are either compressive or tensile in
nature).
A Few Guidelines for Drawing FBD T7
5) Forces in Cables (Strings or Chords): These can only be
tensile forces. Thus, these forces will be along the cable and
directed away from the body.

6) Tension in cables on either side of a smooth pulley will
be equal in magnitude. (Eg. As shown in Fig)
40N
P =40N
T8
E 1:
EXERCISE PROBLEMS
1] A 10kN roller rests on a smooth horizontal floor and is
held by the bar AC as shown in Fig(1). Determine the
magnitude and nature of the force in the bar AC and
reaction from the floor under the action of the forces
applied on the roller. [Ans:FAC=0.058 kN(T),R=14.98 kN]
C
7kN
5kN
Fig(1)
A
45
30
E 2
2] A 1kN roller resting on a smooth incline as shown in
Fig (2) is held by a cable. If the tension in the cable is
limited to 0.518kN, determine the maximum inclination to
which the plane can be raised. [Ans: = 30
0
wrt Hz.]
15
Fig (2)

E 3
3] A 10 kN weight is suspended from a rope as shown in
Fig(3). Determine the magnitude and direction of the least
force P required to pull the rope, so that, the weight is shifted
horizontally by 0.5m. Also, determine, tension in the rope in
its new position. [Ans: P= 2.43 kN, = 14.48
0
; T= 9.7kN.]
2m
Fig(3).
10kN
P

4] Three spheres A, B, C of diameters, 500mm, 500mm,
800mm and weighing 4kN, 4kN, 8kN, respectively, are placed
in a trench as shown in Fig(4). Find the reactions at all contact
points. [Ans: F
AC
=4.62kN, R
A1
= 2.46kN, R
A2
= 7.16kN( )
FBC=?, RB1=?, RB2=? ( ) ]
B
70
A
C
650 mm
Fig(4).
E 4
70
5] Three cylinders A, B, C of diameters, 200mm, 200mm,
100mm and weighing 400N, 400N, 200N, respectively, are
placed in a trench as shown in Fig(5). Find the reactions at
all contact points. [Ans: FAB=257.11N, FAC=162.50N,
RA1= 459.62N, RA2= 460.06N, RB=306.42N, RC= 182.72N. ]

E 5
50
Fig(5).
40
B
C
A
E 6
6] Two rollers A and B of same diameter and weight 1000N,
600N, respectively, interconnected by a light weight rod are
placed on smooth planes as shown in Fig(6). Determine the
inclination of the rod and the reaction of the planes.
[Ans : = 23.41
0
,RA = RB = 923.7 N]
Fig(6).

30
30
B
A
E 7
7] Determine the value of P and the nature of the forces in the
bars for equilibrium of the system shown in Fig(7).
[Ans: P = 3.04 kN, Forces in bars are Compressive.]
Fig(7).
60
75
45
45
P
2kN
E 8
8] A cable fixed as shown in Fig(8), supports three loads.
Determine the value of the load W and the inclination of the
segment BC. [Ans: W=25kN, = 54.78
0
]
Loads are in kN
W
22.5 20
B
C
D
A
Fig(8)

60
30