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Division of words based on phonological level:

1.syllables or segments
2.segments into their constituent phonological feature

Based on morphological level, words may contain more than one unit
that we may call pieces that are not divided into morphological

Stem is a word with its inflectional affixes

Macchin-a machine
Macchin-e machines
Macchin-ista machinist

Root is a word without its inflectional affixes.
Root can be a stem by adding morpheme

Butelk-a bottle Butelk-owa-d to bottle
Filtr filter filtr-owa-d to filter
Bial-y white Biel-i-d to whiten
Gluch-y deaf Gluch-n-d to become deaf
Thematic Vowel
Its not a part of a root, but its part of a word. It
has an important function to many Indo-
European languages.

Larg- o wide
Al-larg-a-re to widen
Al-larg-a-ment-o widening

Bound Morpheme
1. Prefix It appears before the root/stem
a) Al-
2. Suffix It appears after root/stem
a) -a
b) -ment
c) -o
3. Infix within a root
4. Circumfix combination of prefix and suffix

Allomorphy is the phenomenon that a morpheme has more that one

A morph is a particular phonological form of a morpheme.

Plural suffix has three pronounciation:
/s/ after nouns ending in voiceless consonant (cats /kats/)
/z/ after nouns ending in voiced consonant (dogs /dogz/)
/iz/ after nouns ending in a coronal sibilant (horses /horsiz/)
It happens when there is no phonlogical similarity between the
different forms of a lexeme.

Good better
Go went
Morphological Operation
Two types of Morphological operations are:
1. Compounding
2. Affixation

It is a process in which the stem and root of a
word are repeated
1. Full reduplication
2. Partial reduplication
Tonal Morpheme (suprafix)
It is the process in which we differ a word that has different class of
word by listening the tone

Singular Plural English
ba-du Ab-du My father (s)
Morphlogical Typology
It helps us to classify the language of the world that group language
based on their morphological structure.
Synthetic Language
It form words by giving affix of dependant morpheme to a root
Two types of it are:
1. Agglutinative languages: It contains several morpheme that can be
differ easily from one another.
2. Fusional language: It doesnt contain several morpheme that can be
differ easily from one another.