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Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA

April 2008
Oussama Akhdari
ROSI / INTPS / NAD / RASQ / International Radio support
2 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
3G Generation General Aspects
Introduction to UMTS
UMTS Radio Access Network
QoS Architecture
WCDMA Principles
Agenda
3 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
IMT 2000 Standards
IMT-2000 is a term used by the International Telecommunications Union
(ITU) to refer to many third generation (3G) wireless technology, that
provide higher data speed between mobile phones & base antennas.
ITU activities on IMT-2000 comprise international standardization,
including frequency spectrum & technical specifications for radio & network
components, tariffs and billing, technical assistance & studies on regulatory
and policy aspects.
IMT- DS

WCDMA/UTRA
FDD
Direct Spread
IMT- MC

CDMA2000
Multi-Carrier

IMT- TC

UTRA TDD
TD - SCDMA
Time - Code
IMT- SC

UWC - 136
Single-Carrier

IMT- FT

DECT
Frequency Time

IMT2000 Terrestrial radio interfaces
IMT- OFDM

WiMax
OFDMA

CDMA CDMA - TDMA
Paired Spectrum Paired/Unpaired Spectrum
TDMA TDMA - FDMA
Unpaired Spectrum Paired Spectrum
OFDMA
4 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
IMT 2000 Frequencies
Worldwide frequency plans for IMT-2000 bands already identified










Assigning a non IMT2000 spectrum would result in higher handset prices for 3G
systems complex circuitry to support international roaming across different
frequency bands.

Europe
China
Japan
Korea
North
America
ITU
Alloc.
5 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
3rd Generation Projects
3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project www.3gpp.org
- Present about 80% of the users within the World
- Technical specifications for the 3rd Generation Mobile System based on
the evolved GSM core networks and UTRA.
- Include a Technical Specification Group (TSG) for the GSM EDGE
Radio Access Network (GERAN).
- Responsible of GSM (2G) and UMTS (3G) including its evolution
HSDPA/HSUPA (3.5G)
- Evolution of HSPA / SAE (System Architecture Evolution) / Long Term
Evolution (LTE)
3GPP2 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 www.3gpp2.org
- Present about 20% of the Mobile users
- Working on AIE (Air Interface Evolution) / EV-DO Rev. C
IEEE 802.16 & WiMAX Forum
- Deployment very shy and limited to fixed WiMax (3.5 GHz)
6 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
3GPP Specification Series www.3gpp.org
7 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
3G Generation General Aspects
Introduction to UMTS
UMTS Radio Access Network
QoS Architecture
WCDMA Principles
Agenda
8 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access - UTRA
W-CDMA (UTRA FDD)
For the paired band
Uplink and downlink are separated in frequency
Chosen as the technology for UMTS publish, wide -area service
TD-CDMA (UTRA TDD)
For the unpaired band
Uplink and downlink are separated in time
Flexible time duration for uplink & downlink for asymmetrical
traffic
Chosen for private, indoor services in the unpaired TDD


FDD Mode TDD Mode
1900 1920 1980
FDD UL
TDD
UL/DL
TDD
UL/DL
MSS
UL
2010 2025
MSS
DL
2110 2170 2200
FDD DL
F
UL
F
DL
F
UL/DL
FDD Mode TDD Mode
1900 1920 1980
FDD UL
TDD
UL/DL
TDD
UL/DL
MSS
UL
2010 2025
MSS
DL
2110 2170 2200
FDD DL
1900 1920 1980
FDD UL
TDD
UL/DL
TDD
UL/DL
MSS
UL
2010 2025 1900 1920 1980
FDD UL
TDD
UL/DL
TDD
UL/DL
MSS
UL
2010 2025
MSS
DL
2110 2170 2200
FDD DL
F
UL
F
DL
F
UL/DL
9 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
UTRA FDD - Characteristics
Wide band code division multiple access W-CDMA multiple access
Frequency band Region 1 (Europe)
Uplink 1920 - 1980 MHz & Downlink 2110 - 2170 MHz
GSM bands: 900 (including E-GSM band) & 1800 bands
ARCEP provided authorization to OFR & SFR to reuse 900
spectrum for UMTS
Mobistar to launch UMTS900 during 2008
New bands attributed to UMTS @ 2.6 GHz (new auctions?)
Carrier Bandwidth
2x5 MHz (theoretical occupied bandwidth = Chip rate 3,84 Mcps)
Services
Both circuit and packet data & asymmetric bitrates
AMR Multi Rate
Wide Band AMR
Multi service possible
User Rate Up to 384 Kbits/s
FDD foreseen for Macro & Microcellular coverage for all Orange MCos.





10 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
3G vs. 2G Network services
A 3G networks has a very flexible air interface that can meet the
demands of both packet services and circuit switched voice or data.
11 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Frequency resources within 3G MCo
The standard resources allocation is 3 carriers per MCo
The resources allocation is country dependent (Local
Telecommunication authority strategy)
Uplink (MHz) Downlink (MHz) Total (MHz) Third carrier Available MHz Total (MHz)
Mobistar 1964.9 - 1979.7 2154.9-2169.7 215 MHz Yes (1 carrier is used) 1910-1915 15 MHz
Orange Spain 1935 - 1950 2125-2140 215 MHz Yes 1900-1905 15 MHz
Orange France 1964.9 - 1979.7 2154.9-2169.7 215 MHz Yes (2 carriers are used) 1910.1-1915.1 15 MHz
Orange Poland 1920.5 - 1935.3 2110.5 - 2125.3 215 MHz Yes 1915.1-1920.1 15 MHz
Orange Romania 1950.1 - 1964.9 2140.1 - 2154.9 215 MHz Yes (2 carriers are used) 1904.9 - 1909.9 15 MHz
Orange Slovekia 1920 - 1940 2110 - 2130 220 MHz Yes (2 carriers are used) 1900-1905 15 MHz
Orange Switzerland 1950 - 1965 2140 - 2155 215 MHz Yes 1905-1910 15 MHz
Orange UK 1969.7 - 1979.7 2159.7 - 2169.7 210 MHz
No (OUK granted only 2
carries, both used)
1904.9 - 1909.9 15 MHz
Mobinil (Granted) 1930 - 1935 2120 - 2125 25 MHz
Mobinil end 2010 1930 - 1940 2120 - 2130 210 MHz
Orange Reunion 1940.2 - 1945.2 2130.2 - 2135.2 25 MHz 1 carrier is available
Orange Carabe 1940.2 - 1945.2 2130.2 - 2135.2 25 MHz 1 carrier is available
Not Granted
Not Granted
MCo
UMTS FDD UMTS TDD
Not Granted 1 carrier is available
12 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
FT Group Supplier
FT Group 3G Referenced Suppliers for Access
Alcatel-Lucent
Huawei
Nokia Seimens Networks NSN













Orange Senegal 3G trial hold with Huawei
Mobistar Huawei ( ALU Swapped)
Orange Spain E/// & NSN
Orange France ALU & NSN
Orange Poland NSN & Huawei
Orange Romania Huawei
Orange Slovekia ALU
Orange Switzerland NSN
Orange UK NSN
Mobinil ( Egypt ) NSN & Huawei
Orange Reunion Huawei
Orange Carabe ALU
Orange Moldova Huawei
Cell Plus (Mauritius) Huawei
MCo Mco Suppliers
13 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
3G Generation General Aspects
Introduction to UMTS
UMTS Radio Access Network
QoS Architecture
WCDMA Principles
Agenda
14 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
WCDMA Access structure
15 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
UMTS radio access network
Node B
Radio base station like the BTS in
GSM
RF Processing (Modulation,
Coding, Interleaving, Spreading, de-
spreading)
RNC Radio Network Controller
Controls radio resources of several
Node Bs
Manage the Radio Access
Bearers for user data transport
Control user mobility
Supports the Iu interface to the core
network
RNS Radio Network Subsystem
Like BSS in GSM
UMTS Radio Access Network
Iu
Iur
UTRAN
Iub
RNS
RNS
NodeB
NodeB
RNC
NodeB
NodeB
RNC
16 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
RNC Roles: Serving, Drift, Controlling
RNC SRNC
Core Network
Node B Node B Node B Node B
Iu Iu
Iur
Iub
Iub
Iub Iub
C h a n n e l
4s a k d j f l l a d k s f j
a s l d f a d l k d
q w e r r t i u o d k l c .
s a k d j f l l a d k s f j
a s l d f a d l k d
q w e r r t i u o d k l c .
s a k d j f l l a d k s f j
a s l d f a d l k d
q w e r r t i u o d k l c .
UE
UTRAN
SRNS RNS
SRNC
Each connected mode UE is
controlled by a Serving RNC
(SRNC)
The SRNC terminates Iu
towards the CN
DRNC SRNC
Core Network
Node B Node B Node B Node B
Iu Iu
Iur
Iub
Iub
Iub Iub
C h a n n e l
4s a k d j f l l a d k s f j
a s l d f a d l k d
q w e r r t i u o d k l c .
s a k d j f l l a d k s f j
a s l d f a d l k d
q w e r r t i u o d k l c .
s a k d j f l l a d k s f j
a s l d f a d l k d
q w e r r t i u o d k l c .
UE
UTRAN
SRNS DRNS
Macro
Diversity
Combining/
splitting
function
DRNC
Inter RNC soft handover requires
a second RNC to be involved
Such an RNC lending resources
to an SRNC for a specific UE acts
as a Drift RNC (DRNC).
CRNC
Each RNC acts as
Controlling RNC (CRNC) for
the directly connected Node
Bs and their cells
The CRNC controls the radio
resources of its cells
CRNC CRNC
Core Network
Node B Node B Node B Node B
Iu Iu
Iur
Iub
Iub
Iub Iub
UTRAN
RNS RNS
17 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
UTRAN interfaces
Iur interface
logical interface between RNCs
Iur is a point-to-point interface between
two RNCs
allows more independent radio resource
management compared to GSM
RNC mobility (soft handover)
Data from the serving RNC is transferred
to the drifting RNC through the Iur
interface.
Iub interface
Interface between RNC and Node B
Allows the RNC & BTS to negotiate about
radio resources
Transports uplink & downlink transport
frames & O&M data
Manage Data & signaling Traffic
2 E1 required @ least when HSPA is
introduced
High Traffic Areas may need a higher IuB
capacity
UMTS Radio Access Network
Iu
Iur
UTRAN
Iub
RNS
RNS
NodeB
NodeB
RNC
NodeB
NodeB
RNC
18 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Core network - circuit switched
Iu - CS
for circuit switched services
MSC-Mobile Services switching
Center
switch for circuit switched (CS)
services
VLR-Visitor Location Register
register database for visitors of the
radio network
GMSC - Gateway MSC
switch from mobile network to
external networks for circuit
switched services
Core Network
CN
Iu-CS
GGSN SGSN
MSC/VLR GMSC
HLR
19 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Core network - packet switched
HLR - Home Location Register
permanent database of
subscriber data
Iu - PS
for packet switched services
SGSN - Serving GPRS Support
Node
switch for packet switched (PS)
services
GGSN - Gateway GPRS Support
Node
switch from mobile network to
external networks for packet
switched services
Core Network
CN
Iu-PS
GGSN SGSN
MSC/VLR GMSC
HLR
20 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Iu interface main Function
Establishing, maintaining, and releasing radio access bearers
Performing intra-system & inter-system handovers as well as SRNC
relocations
Transferring NAS signaling messages between UE & CN (direct transfer)
Location services - transfers requests from CN to RAN, and location
information from RAN to CN.
Simultaneous access to CS & PS core network domains for single UE
Paging the user, provides the CN with the capability to page user
equipment
Controlling the security by sending the security keys to RAN and by
Setting the operation mode for security functions
Reporting data volume
Controlling the tracing of the user equipment activity
21 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
3G Generation General Aspects
Introduction to UMTS
UMTS Radio Access Network
QoS Architecture
WCDMA Principles
Agenda
22 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
UMTS QoS Architecture
UMTS QoS is provided by the UMTS bearer service, which consists of
two parts:
Radio access bearer (RAB) service
Provides the confidential transport of user data between the UE and
CN with a QoS that is adequate for the negotiated UMTS bearer
Consists of a radio bearer (RB) service & a Iu bearer service

The RB service is realized in the radio link control (RLC) layer between
the SRNC & the UE, using UTRA FDD/TDD, while the Iu bearer service
provides transport between the UTRAN & CN

CN bearer service connects the UMTS CN with CN gateway to the
external network
23 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
CN = Core network
TE = Terminal Equipment
MT = Mobile Termination
UMTS QoS Architecture
TE MT UTRAN
CN Iu
EDGE
NODE
CN
Gateway
UMTS
End-to-End Service
TE/MT Local
Bearer Service
UMTS Bearer Service External Bearer
Service
UMTS Bearer Service
Radio Access Bearer Service
(RAB)
CN Bearer
Service
Backbone
Bearer Service
Iu Bearer
Service
Radio Bearer
Service (RB)
UTRA FDD/TDD
Service
(Radio Physical
Bearer Service)
Physical
Bearer Service
TE
TE MT UTRAN
CN Iu
EDGE
NODE
CN
Gateway
UMTS
End-to-End Service
TE/MT Local
Bearer Service
UMTS Bearer Service External Bearer
Service
UMTS Bearer Service
Radio Access Bearer Service
(RAB)
CN Bearer
Service
Backbone
Bearer Service
Iu Bearer
Service
Radio Bearer
Service (RB)
UTRA FDD/TDD
Service
(Radio Physical
Bearer Service)
Physical
Bearer Service
TE
24 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
UMTS QoS Architecture
The RAB is the service that the access stratum provides through its service
access points (SAP) to the non-access stratum (NAS) for transfer of user
data between the user equipment (UE) and the core network (CN)

The RAB provides transport of user data with the quality of service (QoS)
adequate to the UMTS bearer service negotiated on the non-access stratum.
This service is based on the characteristics of the radio interface and is
maintained for a moving user equipment

A bearer service includes all aspects to enable the provision of a contracted
QoS. These aspects are the control signaling, user plane transport, and QoS
management functionality

The UMTS operator offers the UMTS bearer service, which provides the
UMTS QoS.
25 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
QoS Classes
There are four different QoS classes (or traffic classes) for UMTS
bearer service and radio access bearer service:
conversational
streaming
interactive
background

The main distinguishing factor between these classes is how delay
sensitive the traffic is.
Conversational class is meant for traffic that is very delay sensitive,
while background class is the most delay insensitive traffic class.
RNC manages the QoS requirements.
Data Integrity
sensitive
+
Delay
sensitive
-
+
-
Data Integrity
sensitive
+
Data Integrity
sensitive
+
Delay
sensitive
-
+
Delay
sensitive
-
+
Data Integrity
sensitive
+
Data Integrity
sensitive
+
Delay
sensitive
-
+
Delay
sensitive
-
+
--
Data Integrity
sensitive
+
Data Integrity
sensitive
+
Delay
sensitive
-
+
Delay
sensitive
-
+
26 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
QoS Classes
Traffic classes provide the means for the network to differentiate between
end-to-end user applications according to their required traffic
characteristics.

The purpose is to offer good quality connections for both real time & non-
real time traffic between MS and the background data networks.

The radio interface is the main capacity limiting factor & must be planned
& controlled to achieve the required system performance

Error correction and delay is managed and prioritized to ensure good
quality connections.
27 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Application Groups
Traffic class Conversational Class Streaming class Interactive class Background class
Fundamental
characteristics
Conversational RT
. Preserve time
relation (variation)
between information
entities of the stream
. Conversational
pattern (stringent &
low delay)
. Streaming RT
. Preserve time
relation (variation)
between information
entities of the stream
. Interactive best
effort
. Request response
pattern
. Preserve payload
content
. Background best
effort
. Destination is not
expecting the data
within a certain time
. Preserve payload
content
Example of the
application
Voice Streaming video Web browsing
Background
download of emails
Service classes and priorities are one of the main differences between 2G
and 3G. Priorities are obtained from CN.

WCDMA RAN uses the QoS parameters obtained from CN to optimize
the use of radio resources. In GSM BSS, packet-switched traffic is always
lower priority traffic, using only whatever resources are available.
28 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
3G Generation General Aspects
Introduction to UMTS
UMTS Radio Access Network
QoS Architecture
WCDMA Principles
Agenda
29 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
WCDMA Transmitter
The WCDMA transmitter looks similar to the TDMA transmitter, with
the synchronization, control/signaling and multiple user data channels.
In a WCDMA transmitter, neither time nor frequency is used to separate
different users, but codes in an operation known as spreading.
30 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Multiple Access Techniques
FDMA Frequency Division Multiple
Access
uses band pass for carrier signal which
are non-overlapping in the frequency
domain
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
carrier signals are non overlapping in
the time domain

CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
spreads the signal over the entire
available bandwidth by using codes
with good correlation properties
F Fr re eq qu ue en nc cy y
T Ti i m me e
P Po ow we er r
O On ne e U Us se er r
F Fr re eq qu ue en nc cy y
T Ti i m me e
P Po ow we er r
U Us se er r
Power
Time
Frequency
One User
Carrier 1 Carrier 2
31 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
W-CDMA No Frequency reuse
W-CDMA = Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
Users are separated with code sequences: spreading / despreading
technique
All users are transmitting simultaneously on the same frequency
In FDD mode, different frequencies are used on uplink and downlink

Frequency Planning
No Frequency Planning
All cells are assigned
the same frequency
All cells within a
given cluster are
assigned different set
of frequencies
32 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Spread spectrum technique
The user bits are coded with a unique sequence (code).
The bits of the code are called chips and the chip rate is higher than the
user bit rate

Time
Domain
Bandwidth = 3.84 Mhz for UMTS
Code Ci(t)
Resulting spread signal
Di (t) = Si (t) x Ci(t)
Bit
1
Bit
2

Source signal Si (t)
before spreading
Frequency
Domain
Narrowband signal
Bit Rate =Rb
Chip Rate =Rc = 3.84 Mcps in UMTS
Chip Rate =Rc
Spreading Factor
SF =Rc/Rb
33 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Channelization coding
34 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Spreading Example
Spreading with a spreading factor of 4 is shown in the Figure below.
35 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Spreading / Despreading
In the receiving path, despreading
is achieved by auto-correlation with
the same code
Due to low cross-correlation
properties with other codes, the
received signal energy is increased
compared to noise and other signal
interference
The gain due to despreading is
called processing gain
Example for PS 128 Kbps:
dB
kbps
kcps
Rate Bit User
Rate Chip
PG 77 . 14 30
128
3840

36 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Spreading / Despreading
The figure shows the properties of the Channelization (Orthogonal) codes.
37 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Spreading example
De-spreading applied to
another user with a different
spreading code
Increase the data rate by 8
corresponds to a widening of
the occupied spectrum of the
spread user data signal
38 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Channelization codes
Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) are used for channelization
for spreading

The codes are mutually orthogonal, if they are synchronized in the time
domain
Codes are taken from the OVSF code tree
O The code tree corresponds to different discrete Spreading Factor
O (SF) levels, SF=1, 2, 4, 8(n2)
O SF: 4 - 512 is allowed in the WCDMA DL
O SF: 4 - 256 is allowed in the WCDMA UL

Following codes are not allowed to be used:
Codes between a used code and the code tree root
Codes following a used code


39 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Spreading codes: OVSF code tree
SF = 1 SF = 2
SF = 4 SF = 8
U
p

t
o

S
F

=

2
5
6

SF = 1 SF = 2
SF = 4 SF = 8
U
p

t
o

S
F

=

2
5
6

40 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
OVSF : Orthogonality property
Codes free
Codes used
41 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Uplink and Downlink Channelization Code Usage
Downlink: Channelization Codes used to distinguish data channels
coming from each cell



Uplink: Channelization Codes used to distinguish data channels
coming from each User Equipment, UE
42 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Spreading and scrambling codes
Spreading codes (channelization codes)
used to differentiate mobiles and services
different lengths (spreading factor) according to service in UMTS
Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) in UMTS
Scrambling codes
To distinguish between User Equipments in uplink
To distinguish between cells in downlink
DL UL
Node B
Spreading
OVSF
(Service/ user identifier)
Scrambling
PN
( Cell identifier)
Descrambling
Despreading
UE
Descrambling Despreading
Spreading
OVSF
(Service identifier)
Scrambling
PN
(User identifier)
43 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
The CDMA Cocktail Party
What do YOU hear
A) If you only speak Japanese?
B) If you only speak English?
C) If you only speak Italian?
D) If you only speak Japanese, but the
Japanese-speaking person is all the way
across the room?
E) If you only speak Japanese, but the
Spanish-speaking person is talking very
loudly?
44 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Scrambling Coding
45 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
SC: Scrambling Code
Downlink Scrambling Code
SC#2
SC#0
SC#1
SC#116
SC#114
SC#115
RNC
SC#2
SC#0
SC#1
SC#2
SC#0
SC#1
SC#2
SC#0
SC#1
SC#116
SC#114
SC#115
SC#116
SC#114
SC#115
SC#116
SC#114
SC#115
RNC
Downlink scrambling code
The number of codes used in the downlink is restricted to 8192 in
Total to speed up the process for the UE to find the correct
scrambling code.
512 of these are primary codes (the rest are secondary codes, 15 codes
per primary).
The primary codes are divided into 64 code groups each group
containing 8 different codes.
One code per cell (sector/carrier) : Configurable by operator
Only the primary scrambling code is used for all Common Channels



46 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Modulation
Graphical representation of an QPSK modulated signal









1 Modulation Symbol represents 2 data bits
Modulation efficiency = 2 bits/symbol
47 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Filtering
Filtering allows the transmitted bandwidth to be significantly reduced
without losing the content of the digital data improves the spectral
efficiency
Raised-Cosine Data Filter







occupied bandwidth = symbol rate x (1+ )
48 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Near-Far-Problem
Illustration Example: Up to around 80 dB attenuation between UE1
and UE2
If UE1 and UE2 transmitted with the same power, UE1 would jam
UE2 : so-called near-far effect
Solution : power control
Need for an efficient power control able to fight against slow AND
fast fading!
O
O
UE 1
UE 2
Before despreading
After despreading
49 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Power control
In UMTS FDD, all users are sharing the same frequency band

W-CDMA requires power control to minimize the level of interference
(interference-limited system)

Power control is applied on both uplink and downlink

Power control minimizes the transmission power to match the quality
target for each radio access bearer service
+ No one should get more power than necessary to reach the required
QoS
+ Avoids near-far problem on uplink
+ Minimizes waste of common power resource on downlink
50 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Interference limiting system
Thanks to spreading / despreading
+ Desired signal is raised
+ Interference signals are kept low








The level of interference must be controlled to allow the decoding of the
received signal
spreading spreading Despreading Despreading
B B
Channel Channel
W W
Thermal Noise Thermal Noise
B B
Processing
gain
spreading spreading spreading spreading Despreading Despreading Despreading Despreading
B B
Channel Channel
W W
Thermal Noise Thermal Noise Thermal Noise Thermal Noise
B B
Processing
gain
B B
Processing
gain
51 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Interference limited
When the number of users in the cell increases, the interference level
increases (noise rise), the required received power at the base station to
reach a given E
b
/N
t
(quality) increases









For high interference level, the required received power becomes
infinite: power control is unstable pole capacity









Coverage and capacity are linked in CDMA systems
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Number of simultaneous users per sector
I
n
t
e
r
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

l
e
v
e
l

r
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

t
o

N
o
i
s
e

l
e
v
e
l

(
d
B
)
52 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Cell breathing
Considering the limitation of maximal transmit power, the increase
of required received power due to high traffic will lead to decrease
the cell range





The cell coverage decreases when the traffic increases : so-called
cell breathing phenomenon

Coverage and capacity are linked in CDMA systems
53 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Deployed intersite distance
Load control
In order to avoid power control instability and coverage holes due to high
traffic level the level of interference received by a base station should be
controlled by means of admission and load control algorithms
54 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Other W-CDMA particularities
No frequency reuse pattern

Scrambling code planning required
+ 512 scrambling codes in W-CDMA

Soft-handover capability

RAKE receiver
SC#116
SC#114
SC#115
SC#2
SC#0
SC#1
55 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Mobile connected to more than one
base station during handover procedure
Called softer handover for sector
cells of the same site
Soft Handover for Dedicated
Channels (circuit and packet data)
Hard Handover
+ HS-DSCH
+ Inter-frequency handovers
+ Inter-RAT Handovers
Soft Handover i
Macrodiversity
Received
Pilot
Signal
Node-B 2

3 dB
Node-B 1

Same carrier
RNC
56 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Soft Handover ii
Advantages
+ Avoids link failure during handover, make before break handover
+ Reduces the interference level by decreasing the required UE
transmit power
+ Increases downlink quality thanks to macro-diversity at the UE
receiver level

Drawbacks
+ Increases the required number of traffic channels
+ Can create too much downlink interference : trade-off on the
percentage area of soft-handover

57 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
RAKE receiver
Reflections, diffractions, attenuations caused by obstacles will lead to
multipath





RAKE receiver is a spread-spectrum receiver that is able to track and
demodulate resolvable multipath components : takes benefit of multipath
diversity

In W-CDMA, with 3.84 Mcps, a RAKE receiver will be able to
discriminate multipath having delays higher than one chip duration (0.26
s)
58 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
The RAKE Receiver
CDMA Mobile Station RAKE Receiver Architecture
Each finger tracks a single multipath reflection
Also be used to track other base stations signal during soft
handover
One finger used as a Searcher to identify other base stations
Finger #1
Finger #2
Finger #N
Searcher Finger



Combiner




Sum of
individual
multipath
components
Power measurement
of Neighboring
Base Stations
59 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
The RAKE Receiver
1/2-chip delay

To Viterbi
Decoder
Composite Received Signal
PN, Walsh Codes
1/2-chip delay
1/2-chip delay
A
i

A
i

A
i

Correlator
Correlator
Correlator
Equal Combining, ML Combining,
or Select Strongest
time
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
-2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3 + Interference
+ Interference
+ Interference
60 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
RAKE receiver ii
It combines the delayed replicas of the transmitted signal to improve
reception quality : time-diversity technique

+ Identify the delay positions on which significant energy arrives and
allocate correlation receivers (RAKE fingers) to those peaks

+ Within each correlation receiver, track the changing phase and
amplitude values and correct them (thanks to pilot symbol estimation)

+ Combine the demodulated and phase-adjusted symbols across all
active fingers and present them to the decoder for further processing
(maximal ratio combining)

61 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Spreading Spectrum Advantages
The wideband transmission has the advantage of being less sensitive to
frequency selective interference and fading.




The power density of the spectrum is decreased several times and the
transfer of information is still possible even below background noise.

CDMA is very spectrum efficient due to the possibility of reusing each
carrier in each cell.

High Capacity in comparison with GSM

Soft handover is required in WCDMA.
62 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Spreading Spectrum Drawbacks
The power levels of all UEs transmissions received at the BS must be
equal if the bit rates are equal and therefore fast power control is
necessary

As UEs in soft handover mode require resources of more than one cell,
the system capacity may be reduced.
63 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
an exchange!
based on discussions!
share our experiences
any questions?
lets discuss!
64 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Back UP
65 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Logical channels i
PCCH - Paging control Channel (DL)
+ DL Paging information

BCCH - Broadcast Control Channel (DL)
+ DL System control information
+ e.g. Cell identity, UL interference level

CCCH - Common control Channel (UL/DL)
+ For transmitting control information between the network and UEs
The CCCH is commonly used by UEs having no RRC connection and
after cell reselection
+ e.g. initial access (RRC connection request, cell update)
66 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Logical channels ii
CTCH - Common Traffic Channel (DL)
+ channel to transfer dedicated user information to all or a group of
UEs
+ e.g. SMS Cell broadcast

DCCH - Dedicated Control Channel (UL/DL)
+ transmits dedicated control information between UE and UTRAN
+ e.g. measurement reports, radio bearer setup

DTCH - Dedicated Traffic Channel (UL/DL)
+ The DTCH carries user data
+ e.g. speech, Fax, video, web, ...
67 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
DL Transport Channels i
BCH - Broadcast Channel
+ For broadcasting of system information over entire cell
+ no power control, fix bit rate

PCH - Paging Channel
+ association with Page Indicator Channel PICH, to support efficient
sleep mode procedures
+ must be broadcast over entire cell

FACH - Forward Access Channel
+ Common DL channel used for transmission of
control information
small amount of packet data
+ open loop power control
68 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
DL Transport Channels ii
DCH - Dedicated Channel
+ DCH is the only Dedicated Transport Channel
+ Channel dedicated to one UE
+ Supports
Fast Power Control, variable bit rate, SHO, transmit diversity,
beam forming

DSCH - Downlink Shared Channel
+ Similar to the FACH
+ Carries dedicated user data and/or control information
+ Always associated with a downlink DCH (with SF of 256)
+ DSCH supports
sharing between different users
no SFH, but Fast PC due to associated DCH
69 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
UL Transport Channels
RACH - Random Access Channel
+ carries control information or small amounts of packet data
e.g. for initial access or non-real-time dedicated control or traffic
data
+ transmitted over entire cell supported by open loop power control
CPCH - Common Packet Channel

+ Similar to DSCH in DL, used for transmission of bursty data traffic
+ possibility to
transmit over part of the cell (beam forming)
change rate fast
fast power control
+ initial risk of collision, but collision detection (CD/CA-ICH)
+ is shared by the UEs in a cell -> common resource

DCH - Dedicated Channel (same as for UL)
70 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Physical Channels
Channels without connection to transport channels are called Stand-
alone channels

All Stand-alone channels exist in DL only

Stand alone channels are
+ CPICH Common Pilot Channel
+ SCH Synchronization Channel (Primary & Secondary)
+ AICH Acquisition Indication Channel
+ PICH Paging Indicator Channel
+ CSICH CPCH Status Indicator Channel
+ CD/CAICH Collision Detection / Channel Assignment
Indicator Channel
71 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
DL Physical Channels - CPICH
CPICH - Common Pilot Channel
+ Primary CPICH (PCPICH)
SF=256, predefined bit/symbol sequence, fixed channelization code
Scrambled with the primary scrambling code
Only one PCPICH per cell
Used for level measurements & channel estimation
The PCPICH is the phase reference for all DL physical channels
Transmitted over the entire cell

+ Secondary CPICH (SCPICH)
SF=256, arbitrary channelization code
Zero, one or several SCPICH per cell
Not necessarily transmitted over entire cell
72 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
DL Physical Channels - SCH
SCH - Synchronization Channel
+ Time multiplexed with PCCPCH
first 256 chips of slot SCH, rest PCCPCH
+ Primary SCH
Consists of a a fixed 256 chips code ^ Primary Synchronization
Code (PSC)
The PSC is the same for every cell in the system
The PSC is repeated in each slot
+ Secondary SCH
Transmitted in parallel to the Primary SCH
In each of the 15 slots a different Secondary Synchronization Code
SSC is transmitted
The SSC sequence indicates the used downlink scrambling code set
(8 codes) out of 64 scrambling code groups
73 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
DL Physical Channels - Other Stand-Alone
AICH - Acquisition Indication Channel
SF256, Frame length 20ms ^ 5120 chips/slot
Used to confirm reception of (P)RACH
PICH - Paging Indicator Channel
SF=256, carries the paging indicators
associated with an SCCPCH to which a PCH transport channel is
mapped
Once a PI message has been detected on the PICH, the UE decodes
the next PCH frame transmitted on the SCCPCH whether there is a
paging message intended for it.
CSICH - CPCH Status Indication Channel
CD/CA-ICH - CPCH Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indicator
Channel
All CPCH related physical channels support the operation of the UL
CPCH transport channel
74 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
DL Physical Channels
DL Channels associated with a transport channel
+ PCCPCH - Primary Common Control Physical Channel
Used to carry the BCH
Time multiplexed with SCH
Fixed transmit power / fixed data rate
+ SCCPCH - Secondary Common Control Physical Channel
Used to carry the FACH or PCH / no fast power control
+ PDSCH - Physical Downlink Shared Channel
Carries DSCH
Not yet included in 3GR1.1
+ DPCCH - Dedicated Physical Control Channel
Pilot field, TFCI field, TPC field
+ DPDCH - Dedicated Physical Data Channel
carries real user data + Layer 3 signaling on DCCH
75 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
UL DPCH
UL Physical Channels
UL Channels associated with a transport channel
+ PRACH - Physical Random Access Channel
Carries RACH
open loop power control / collision risk
+ PCPCH - Physical Common Packet Channel
Carries CPCH
Fast power control on the message part / open loop for pre-ample
+ DPCCH - Dedicated Physical Control Channel
Pilot field, TFCI field, FBI field, TPC field
+ DPDCH - Dedicated Physical Data Channel
Carries real user data + Layer 3 signaling on DCCH
76 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Valid for all Dedicated Physical Channels
Existing in uplink or downlink
Possibility to use beam forming
Possibility to change rate fast on a frame basis (10 ms)
Fast power control (Closed Loop Power Control)

77 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
One radio frame, T
f
= 10 ms
TPC
N
TPC
bits
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #14
T
slot
= 2560 chips, 10*2
k
bits (k=0..7)
Data2
N
data2
bits
DPDCH
TFCI
N
TFCI
bits
Pilot
N
pilot
bits
Data1
N
data1
bits
DPDCH DPCCH DPCCH
DL Physical Channel Example
Example of physical channel structure: DL - DPDCH








Signaling information (DPCCH) is time multiplexed with DPDCH

78 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Pilot
N
pilot
bits
TPC
N
TPC
bits
Data
N
data
bits
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #14
T
slot
= 2560 chips, 10 bits
1 radio frame: T
f
= 10 ms
DPDCH
DPCCH
FBI
N
FBI
bits
TFCI
N
TFCI
bits
T
slot
= 2560 chips, N
data
= 10*2
k
bits (k=0..6)
UL Physical Channel Example
Example of physical channel structure: UL - DPDCH/DPCCH









DPCCH and DPDCH are in UL NOT time multiplexed, they are I/Q
multiplexed.

79 Groupe France Tlcom Introduction to UMTS & WCDMA / April 2008 /confidential/Oussama Akhdari
Use of DPCCH
On the DPCCH channel the following information is transmitted
+ Pilot field
Bit sequence known in the receiver and and used for radio channel
estimation
Optimal adaptation of RAKE receiver
+ TFCI field
Transport Format Combination Indicator
FBI field (UL DPCCH only)
Feed Back Information given by the UE to the Node B
for optimizing
closed loop transmit diversity mode (phase &
amplitude)
site selection diversity transmission (SSDT)
+ TPC field
Transmit Power Control
This field is used to transmit the power control commands to the
Node B (UL) or the the UE (DL).