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CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

Types
Approaches
DEFINITION OF CONFLICT
• Chaotic, negative, harmful,disagreement?
• PROCESS in which
• Perception of one party being negatively
affected…
• On an issue of importance to the perceiver
Views on Conflict
• TRADITIONAL-seen as dysfunctional outcome resulting
from poor communication, lack of openness & trust
between people, failure of managers to be responsive to
needs & aspirations of employees.
• HUMANISTIC- As natural & inevitable outcome in any
group.
• INTERACTIONISTIC-a positive force that is necessary
for a group effectiveness-keeps it viable, self critical &
creative.
Functional vs Dysfunctional Conflict

– FUNCTIONAL WHEN CONFLICT SUPPORTS GOALS OF


GROUP & IMPROVES ITS PERFORMANCE
– DYSFUNCTIONAL WHEN HINDERS GROUP
PERFORMANCE & CAN BE OF THREE TYPES

• TASK CONFLICT- OVER CONTENT & GOALS OF WORK


• RELATIONSHIP CONFLICT
• PROCESS CONFLICT -OVER HOW WORK GETS DONE
CONFLICT PROCESS

• FIVE STAGES
• I. POTENTIAL OPPOSITION OR INCOMPATIBILITY
• II COGNITION & PERSONALIZATION
• III INTENTION
• IV BEHAVIOR
• V OUTCOMES
PROCESS-Stage I
Incompatibility
• Conditions.
– Dysfunctional Communication.
– Structure in terms of size, degree of specialization, role
clarity & centralization of authority, leadership style,
degree of dependence between groups.
– Personal variables.
This stage indicates presence of conditions that create
opportunities for conflict to arise.
PROCESS Stage II
Perception & Awareness

• PERCEIVED CONFLICT –awareness by 1 or more


parties of the existence of conditions that create
opportunities for conflict to arise. Not personalized.
• FELT CONFLICT-getting emotionally involved in a
conflict creating anxiety, frustration or hostility.

This is the stage where conflict issues get defined & parties
decide what the conflict is all about. It also brings forth the
emotional linkages to the issue.
PROCESS Stage III Intentions

• Conflict Handling Intentions.


– COMPETING Desire to satisfy one’s interest
Regardless of impact of other party to the conflict.
– COLLABORATING Desire to satisfy fully concerns of all parties.
– AVOIDING Desire to withdraw or suppress a conflict.
– ACCOMODATING willingness to place opponent’s interests
above own.
– COMPROMISING Willingness to give up something.
DIMENSIONS OF CONFLICT HANDLING
INTENTIONS

ASSERTIVE
COLLABORATING

COMPETING

COMPROMISING

AVOIDING

ACCOMODATING
UNASSERTIVE

UNCOOPERATIVE COOPERATIVE
PROCESS Stage IV
Behavior
• VISIBLE, OVERT ATTEMPTS TO IMPLEMENT ONE’S
INTENTIONS. DYNAMIC PROCESS OF INTERACTION
ANNIHILATORY
CONFLICT OVERT EFFORTS TO DESTROY THE OTHER PARTY
AGGRESSIVE PHYSICAL ATTACKS
THREATS & ULTIMATUMS
ASSERTIVE VERBAL ATTACKS
OVERT QUESTIONING OR CHALLENGING OF OTHERS
MINOR DISAGREEMENTS OR MISUNDERSTANDINGS

NO CONFLICT

CONFLICT INTENSITY CONTINIUM


PROCESS Stage V Outcomes
• FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES –IMPROVES QUALITY OF
DECISIONS, STIMULATES CREATIVITY & INNOVATION, ENCOURAGES
INTEREST & CURIOSITY, OPEN COMMUNICATION, TRANSPARENCY,
FOSTERS ENVIRONMENT OF SELF EVALUATION & CHANGE

• DYSFUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES DISSOLVE COMMON


TIES, DISCONTENT , DESTRUCTION OF GROUP
STAGE I STAGE II STAGE III STAGE IV STAGE V

PERCEIVED INCREASED
CONFLICT CONFLICT GROUP
HANDLING PERFORMANCE
INTENTIONS OVERT
ANTECEDENTS CONDITIONS •COMPETING CONFLICT
•COMMUNICATION •COLLABORATING •BEHAVIOR
•STRUCTURE •COMPROMISING •REACTION
•PERSONAL VARIABLES •AVOIDING
•ACCOMODATING DECREASED
FELT GROUP
CONFLICT PERFORMANCE

POTENTIAL OPPOSITION COGNITION INTENTIONS BEHAVIOR OUTCOMES


OR INCOMPATIBILITY & PERSONALIZATION
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT

• USE OF RESOLUTION AND


STIMULATION TECHNIQUES TO
ACHIEVE THE DESIRED LEVEL OF
CONFLICT
CONFLICT RESOLUTION TECHNIQUES

• PROBLEM SOLVING • Face to face open discussions


• SUPERORDINATE GOALS • Creating shared goals
• EXPANSION OF RESOURCES • Create win-win situations
• AVOIDANCE
• Withdraw or suppress
• SMOOTHING
• Playing down differences
• COMPROMISE
• AUTHORITATIVE COMMAND • Giving up something of value
• ALTERING THE HUMAN • Using formal authority
VARIABLE • Training for attitudinal change
• ALTERING THE STRUCTURAL
VARIABLES
• Changing formal structure&
interaction patterns
WHEN TO USE DIFFERENT CONFLICT
RESOLUTION APPROACHES
APPROACH WHEN

DOMINATING IMPORTANT ISSUES, SURE OF BEING


RIGHT, BENEFIT OUTWEIGHS
DRAWBACK OF POSSIBLE NEGATIVE
FEELINGS BY DOMINATED GROUP
ACCOMODATING DISPUTES THAT ARE OF FAR GREATER
IMPORTANCE TO THE OTHER GROUP
THAN THEY ARE TO YOUR GROUP

PROBLEM SOLVING WHEN BOTH GROUPS ARE WILLING TO


INVEST TIME & EFFORT TO REACH A
RESOLUTION THAT MAXIMIES
OUTCOME

AVOIDING TEMPORARY EXPEDIENT TO BUY MORE


TIME
COMPROMISING MIDDLE GROUND –BACK UP APPROACH
WHEN ALL APPROACHES FAIL TO
RESOLVE ISSUE
INTER GROUP CONFLICT
CONSEQUENCES OF CONFLICT
CAUSES OF INTER
DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT RESOLUTION
GROUP CONFLICT
•Interdependence WITHIN GRP BET GRP APPROACHES
•Pooled •Cohesiveness Distorted perception Dominating
•Sequential •Autocratic leadership-stereotyping Accommodating
•Reciprocal •Focus on activity Dec in comm. Problem solving
•Goal differences •Emphasis on loyalty Avoiding
•Mutually exclusive
compromising
•Limited resources Inter group
•Diff time horizons
conflict Positive movement
•Perceptual differences
CONSEQUENCES OF towards org
•Status in congruency FUNCTIONAL CONFLICT
goals
•Inaccurate perceptions •Awareness of problem
•Different perspectives •Search for solutions
•Change & adaptation
•Innovation
survival of org
CONFLICT STIMULATION
TECHNIQUES

• COMMUNICATION • Using ambiguous or threatening


messages
• BRINGING IN OUTSIDERS • With values conflicting with
group
• Realigning work groups,
• RESTRUCTURING
ORGANIZATION altering rules , interdependence

• Designating a critic to argue


• APPOINTING DEVIL’S
against majority positions
ADVOCATE
NEGOTIATION
• PROCESS
• BETWEEN 2 PARTIES
• IN EXCHANGE F GOODS OR SERVICES
• ATTEMOPT TO AGREE UPON THE
EXCHANGE RATE FOR THEM
BARGAINING STRATEGIES

• DISTRIBUTIVE BARGAINING- SEEKS TO


DIVIDE UP A FIXED AMAOUNT OF RESOURCES: A WIN –
LOSE SITUATION

• INTEGRATIVE BARGAINING-SEEKS ONE


OR MORE SETTLEMENTS THAT CREATE WIN- WIN
SITUATION
DISTRIBUTIVE VS INTEGRATIVE BARGAINING

Bargaining Distributive Integrative


Characteristic Characteristic Characteristic

Available resources Fixed amount of resources Variable amount of resources


to be divided to be divided
Primary motivations I win , you lose I win, you win

Primary interests Opposed to each other Convergent or congruent to


each other
Focus of relationships Short term Long term
NEGOTIATION PROCESS

Preparation & Planning

Definition of ground rules

Clarification & Justification

Bargaining & Problem Solving

Closure & Implementation