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CIRCULATING FLUIDISED BED

COMBUSTION
(CFBC)
Arrangement OF BOILER & ESP
Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion
Circulating Fluidized Bed

In a fluidized bed, if the solids are precipitated from
the air and returned to the bed, they will circulate
around a loop, this type of system is defined as a
circulating fluidized bed (CFB)


CIRCULATION
Circulation ratio 25-30
Separation Rate 99.5 %
Circulating fluidized bed can be
characterized as follows:

(1)Here is no longer distinct bed surface, unlike
bubbling fluidized bed , the solids are
suspended in the overall upper space of the
container.
(2)There is a strong back-mixing of bed
particles , clusters of particles are continually
formed and disintegrated , and move in all
direction.

Circulating fluidized bed can be
characterized as follows:
(3)The relative velocity between particles
and air is high , and depends on the bed
void age and circulated particles flow.
(4)The fluidizing velocity is 2~3 times that of
bubbling fluidized bed.


Circulating fluidized bed can be
characterized as follows:
(5)The pressure loss through the bed varies
with the fluidizing velocity and the mass
flow rate of particles;

(6)There is a thorough transverse particles
mixing.

(7)The strong particles back-mixing, the
external recirculation of particles and the
thorough transverse particles mixing lead to
a uniform temperature distribution within
the bed.
Circulating fluidized bed can be
characterized as follows:
Circulating fluidized bed can be
characterized as follows: :

(8)By changing the bed inventory, the
particles residence time in bed can be
controlled within minutes or hours.
(9)The fluidizing air is integrally in slug flow.
(10)The fluidizing air can be introduced to
the bed at different locations as required.
Classifications of CFB Boilers
CFB boilers differ mainly in the type of separator, in
the temperature at which the separator operates, and
in whether an external heat exchanger or not is
arranged.
(1)By Separator Type, CFB Boiler Can
Be Classified as :
1.CFB boiler with a cyclone separator, this type of
CFB boiler has found widest applications, the
cyclone separators have two types, cooled type
and insulated type, respectively.
2.CFB boiler with inertial separator.
3.CFB boiler with horizontal in-furnace separator.
4.CFB boiler with in-furnace vortex separator.
5.CFB boiler with combined separator.



1. CFB boiler with intermediate temperature separator
2. CFB boiler with high temperature separator.
3. CFB boiler with low temperature separator.
4. CFB boiler with combined separator (two stage
separator).
(2) By the Temperature at which
Separator Operates, CFB boilers Can
Be Classified as
CFBC -ADVANTAGES
Low combustion temp.
Fuel flexibility
Low grade fuel firing
Low Nox
Sox capture
High thermal h
No clinker


Dis Advantages of CFBC Boiler
Boiler capacity is difficult to be raised >1000
TPH in manufacturing and operating a CFB
boiler
High automation required.
Erosion Rate of Heating Surfaces is High

PARTS OF BOILER
Drum
Furnace
Cyclone
Loop Seal
Re heater
Super heaters
Economizer
APH
ESP
Refractory

Ash coolers
ID Fans
PA / SA Fans
Coal Feeders
Over Bed Burners
Under bed burner
J seal Fan
Bubble Caps
Bunker
Soot blower


Furnace
-Top supported
-Membrane walled
-Wing walls
for water panels
for super heaters
-Refractory lining
-SA injection
-PA from Bottom
-Section area: Upper
Lower

-Metal spray:
-Important measurements
Temperature
Inventory
Draining of bed
Solids circulation


PA
SA
Flue
SA
BUBBLE CAPS
CYCLONE
LOOP SEAL
Balancing the solids
Recirculation
Controlling Furnace t
Back shifting
Front seal air qty via rear
Erosion
Free downward expansion
Refractory critical


Seal air
Seal air
J SEAL Fan
rEFRACTORY
Plastic refractory
Abrasion resistant
refractory
Monolithic



Refractory Interface
TUBULAR AIR PREHEATER
COAL FEEDERS
COAL FEEDING
ASH COOLERS
ASH
CW
CW
ASH
Start up / Load Burners
Over Bed Burners
CFBC Different types
Interlocks
ID Fans trip J seal fans trip
J Seal trip SA trip PA trip
Furnace pressure very low ID trip
Furnace pressure very high SA trip
Bed temp low PA trip
Bed level low Ash cooler stop
Bed temp high Burners trip
Coal feeders trip
Drum level very low MFT



Control logics Brief
Furnace pressure By ID fan ( VSC / Dampers)
Total air By PA + SA (VSC / Dampers)
O
2
By SA
Steam pressure By coal feeders (VFD) + fans
Bed level Ash coolers (VFD)
Bed inventory Coal + bed materials + limestone
Bed temperature Coal feeders (VFD)
Steam temp Attemperator / dampers cascade

Boiler Tube Failures
Availability and reliability of boiler
decreased with increased tube failures.

Tube failure results in forced outages and
hence direct impact on availability

Boiler Tube Failures - main cause of
forced outages in electric utility steam
generating boilers.

Boiler Tube Failures (22 Primary
Mechanisms)
Stress Rupture
Short Term Overheating
High Temperature Creep
Dissimilar Metal Welds

Fatigue
Vibration
Thermal
Corrosion
Water-side Corrosion
Caustic Corrosion
Hydrogen Damage
Pitting
Stress Corrosion Cracking

Erosion
Fly Ash
Falling Slag
Soot Blower
Coal Particle
Fire-side Corrosion
Low Temperature
Waterwall -
Coal Ash -
Oil Ash
Lack of Quality Control
Maintenance cleaning damage
Chemical excursion damage
Material Defects
Welding Defects


Short Term Overheating
Steam / Water
cooled tubes
Plugged by
debris, scale etc.
High Heat
Transfer /
Improper firing
Low
water/steam
flow due to poor
circulation /
upstream leak
Corrective Action
Prevent Blockage
Maintain Drum
level
Assure Coolant
flow
Reduce over firing
Redesign tubing to
promote flow
Relocation of
horiz. / inclined
tubes to avoid
film boiling
SHORT TERM OVERHEATING
High Temperature Creep
Typical Locations
Steam cooled
Tubes
Partially choked
Radiant Heat Zone
Gas Blockage
Incorrect Material
Material Transition
Higher stress due to
weld attachment
Corrective Action
RLA
Fluid flushing
Material up-
grades
Tube shielding

LONG TERM OVERHEATING
OVER HEATING, CREEP INCORRECT MATERIAL
OVERHEATING BULGING, SATELLITE SCALE CRACKING
OVERHEATING WATERSIDE DEPOSITS
LONG TERM OVERHEATING
WATERSIDE DEPOSTS &
DAMAGE DUE TO TUBE INSIDE TUBE
Dissimilar Metal Welds
Typical Locations
At SH / RH
dissimilar weld
joints :
Temperature /
Stress excursions
Corrective Action
Repair/Replacement
Relocating the weld
Use of Ni-base filler
Frequent inspection
Mechanism : 1. The formation of carbon depleted zone on the ferritic side of the
transition from the ferritic to austenitic structure is the initial step and any
treatment which enhances the formation of this zone will enhance the failure
probability.
2. The carbon depleted soft feerritic zone is constrained by the sorrounding harder
and stronger material and is subjected to strains induced by thermal expansion
mismatch, bending, vibration and pressure.
3. The strain accumulation in the carbon-depleted zone is relieved by creep at
elevated temperature.
4. Creep damage in the form of cavitation, grain boundary sliding and tearing
results in cracking in the carbon depleted zone along and adjacent to the weld
interface
DISSIMILAR METAL WELD FAILURE


Caustic Corrosion
Typical Locations
Water-cooled Tubes:
At flow disruptions
Horiz / inclined tube
High Heat flux zone
Flame impingement
zone
Probable Root Cause
Concentration of NaOH
from boiler water
chemicals
Feed water system
corrosion deposits
Condenser leakage
Temp. increase due to
internal deposits
Corrective Action

Control Boiler
Water Chemistry
Reduce corrosion
product ingress
Chemical cleaning
Reweld irregular
welds
Use T11 type steel
or rifled tube
CAUSTIC GOUGING STRATIFICATION
CAUSTIC GOUGING
Hydrogen Damage
Typical Locations
Water-cooled Tubes:
At flow disruptions
Horiz / inclined tube
High Heat flux zone
Flame impingement
zone
Probable Root
Cause
Concentration of acidic
salts and low pH water
chemistry
Condenser leakage and
ingress of corrosion
products
Feed water system
corrosion deposits
Chemical cleaning
contamination
Corrective Action
Control Boiler
Water Chemistry
Check corrosion
product ingress
Chemical cleaning
Replace affected
tubes
HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT


Fly Ash Erosion
Typical Locations
Gaps between tube banks
and duct walls.
Gas by-pass channels
Protrusions of rows.
Areas close to large ash
accumulation.
Probable Root Cause
Non-uniform, excessive
gas flow with fly ash
particles.
High ash coal with -
quartz.
Tube misalignment.
Corrective Action

Changing operating
conditions like
reduced load, low
excess air etc.
Protections like
shields, baffles etc.
Flow Model study


Fly Ash Erosion
Investigation
Information and data concerning the tube failure must be
gathered quickly before repair activities can begin.

Failure descriptions, operating conditions at the time of
failure, historical records, and tube samples must be acquired
and transferred to others who will conduct the investigation
while repairs are being performed.

Immediate corrective actions based on the initial results of
the investigation must be approved and implemented before
repairs are completed.

Follow-up corrective actions based on the complete results of
the investigation must be planned and implemented before
additional failures are experienced.

RECOMMENDATIONS
FLUE GAS (FLY ASH) EROSION
Extensive inspection of Economiser / LTSH / screen tubes/
re-heater for erosion prone areas,Verifying the condition of
existing shields and baffles, LTSH supply tube refractory
conditions.
Mapping of thickness and identifying areas / locations for
repair / replacement.
Baffling / shielding at the points of erosion prone areas to
the maximum extent possible.
Changing operating conditions like reduced load, low
excess air etc.
Flow model study.
RECOMMENDATIONS
SB STEAM EROSION
Ensure condensate free steam with a
minimum superheat of 15C at blower.
Necessary gradient/downward slope of the SB
piping is to be ensured. 1 per meter length of
pipe is to be maintained.
Through thickness survey of WW in the SB
location for three meter radius and replacing
the eroded tubes.
Ensuring wall blower nozzle alignment.
Temporary shielding / spraying.
Installing thermal drain system if not
available.
RECOMMENDATIONS
FALLING SLAG EROSION
Check the fuel characteristics for
fouling.
Change in fuel if warranted.
Tuning the boiler air regime for
optimised combustion to avoid fouling.
Welding of wear bars at the bottom
S-panel tubes to break the ash
boulders and to avoid direct hitting of
the tubes.
Increase tube wall thickness.
RECOMMENDATIONS
LONG TERM OVERHEATING (CREEP)
Maintaining & monitoring the metal temperature
within limits.
Ensuring adequate flow through tubes.
Following the start up curves for rate of firing.
Assessing the life thro' oxide scale thickness
/CRT by sampling to understand the extent of
overheating.
Tuning of boiler viz. Excess air, temp. Etc.
Material up-grades.
Strict quality control during tube replacements
to avoid foreign material entry.
RECOMMENDATIONS
SHORT TERM OVERHEATING
Ensuring adequate flow thro
tubes.
Preventing blockage.
Maintaining the drum level.
Reduce over firing.
Avoid foreign material entry
while
maintenance.

RECOMMENDATIONS
DMW JOINT FAILURE
Replacement of DMW Joints with
life > 1,00,000 hrs. of operation.
Replacement of DMW joints with
spool pieces fabricated at shop.
Relocating welds away from highly
stressed points.
RECOMMENDATIONS
HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT
WATER SIDE CORROSION / CAUSTIC
GOUGING.
Maintaining / monitoring the water
chemistry guidelines.
Avoiding corrosion products ingress.
Controlling copper deposition thro
condenser leakage.
Chemical cleaning of the boier whenever
deposit quantity is > 40 mg /cm
2

Carrying out the in-situ hydrogen
embrittlement survey.
Replacing the affected tubes
RECOMMENDATIONS
FALLING SLAG EROSION
Check the fuel characteristics for
fouling.
Change in fuel if warranted.
Tuning the boiler air regime for
optimized combustion to avoid fouling.
Welding of wear bars at the bottom
S-panel tubes to break the ash
boulders and to avoid direct hitting of
the tubes.
Increase tube wall thickness.
RECOMMENDATIONS
HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT
WATER SIDE CORROSION / CAUSTIC
GOUGING.
Maintaining / monitoring the water
chemistry guidelines.
Avoiding corrosion products ingress.
Controlling copper deposition thro
condenser leakage.
Chemical cleaning of the boiler whenever
deposit quantity is > 40 mg /cm
2

Carrying out the in-situ hydrogen
embrittlement survey.
Replacing the affected tubes
RECOMMENDATIONS
INTERNAL / O
2
PITTING
Ensuring proper operation of de-
aerator.
Control feed water oxygen levels to <7
ppb.
Preservation of the boiler during short
/long outages by dry / wet
preservation methods.
Conclusion
Determination of the correct failure mechanism is a complex
process which can involve many individuals and
organizations. Technical specialists in metallurgy, chemistry,
combustion, and boiler design are often called in to assist in a
failure investigation. The plants personnel must provide the
initial information on the failure and boiler conditions prior to
the failure. The plants operating records and failure
histories must be in order so that pertinent data may be
extracted. The plants management and technical staff must
follow up on the failure investigation and implement the
corrective actions required to correct the problem.
Safety Appurtenances In Boiler
Pressure gauge & Test connection

Safety Valves (Drum & Super-heater)

Blow down valve

Drum Level Water Gauge Glasses

Stop Valve in Steam line

Stop & Check Valves in Feed Line

Necessity of Safety valve
It prevents the boiler pressure from going above a safe pre-determined
pressure, by opening, to allow the excess steam to escape into the
atmosphere when the set point is reached. This guards against a
possible explosion from excessive pressure.

Each Boiler must have one S.V, the minimum size being a inch
valve for miniature boilers & a inch valve for others. A Boiler with
more than 500 Sq.ft of heating surface & an electric boiler with a power
input of over 500 KW should have two or more Safety valves.
Capacity of Safety valve

In any case , SV capacity must be such as to discharge all
the steam the boiler can generate without allowing
pressure to rise more than 6 % above the highest pressure
at which any valve is set & in no case more than 6 %
above the maximum allowable working pressure.

All the Safety valves used on Steam boilers must be of
Direct Spring Loaded type.
Definition of Safety Relief valve

It is an automatic pressure-relieving device actuated by the
pressure upstream of the valve & which opens by pop
action, with further increase in lift of the valve, when
pressure increases over popping pressure.

It thus combines the feature of pop action & further lift with
pressure increase.

Number of Safety Valves requirement

Each Boiler requires at least one SV, but if the heating surface exceeds 500 Sq.ft, the boiler
must have two or more Safety relief valves.

When not more than two valves of different sizes are mounted singly on the boiler, the
smaller valve must not be les than 50 % in relieving capacity of the larger valve.

Every super-heater attached to a boiler with no intervening valves between the super-
heater & boiler requires one or more safety valves on the super-heater outlet header.With
no intervening stop valves between the super-heater & boiler, the capacity of the safety
valves on the super-heater may be included in the total required for the boiler, provided the
safety valve capacity in the boiler is at least 75 % of the aggregate SV capacity required for
the Boiler.

Ex- If a boilers steaming capacity is 100 tons, a minimum of two valves are required
on Boiler with a total relieving capacity of 75 % of (100 Tons) I.e 75 tons. The
super-heater would then require a SV with a capacity of (100 75) tons
i.e 25 Tons.

Sequence of Safety valves Blowing

The super-heater safety valves should always be set at a
lower pressure than the drum safety valve ,so as to ensure
steam flow through the super-heater at all times. If the
drum safety valve blows first, the super-heater could be
starved of cooling steam, leading to possible super-heater
tube overheating & rupture.


Re-heater Safety valves :

The capacity of re-heater safety valves can not be included in
the total safety valve capacity required for the boiler & super-
heater. The relieving capacity of re-heater safety valve must not
be less than 15 % of the required total on the header. The total
capacity on the re-heater must be at least equal to the
maximum steam flow for which the re-heater is designed . One
SV must be on the re-heater outlet.

Installation of Safety valves:
Every safety valve shall be connected so as to stand in an up-
right
position with spindle vertical.