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10/7/2014 360 Chapter 5 Transformers 1

EEE 360
Energy Conversion and
Transport
George G. Karady & Keith Holbert

Chapter 5
Transformers
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Lecture 10
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Transformers
Figure 5.22 Single phase transformer construction
A) Core type B) Shell type
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5.3.1 Ideal Transformer
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Transformers
5.3.1 Ideal transformer
Winding resistances are zero, no leakage inductance and iron loss
Magnetization current generates a flux that induces voltage in both
windings









I
m
V
p
E
p
E
s
= V
s
u
m
2
e
m p
p
N
E
u
=
2
e
m s
s
N
E
u
=
Fig 5.23 Current, voltages and flux
in an unloaded ideal transformer
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Transformers
5.3.1 Ideal transformer
Loaded transformer








I
m
+ I
p
V
p
E
p
E
s
Load
V
s
I
s
u
s
u
p
u
m
Figure 5.24 Currents and fluxes in a loaded ideal transformer
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Transformers
5.3.1 Ideal transformer
Turn ratio is:



The input and output complex powers are equal





s
p
s
p
E
E
N
N
T = =
* *
I E S S I E
s s s p p p
= = =
p
s
s
p
I
I
E
E
T = =
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Transformers
5.3.1 Ideal transformer









Figure 5.25 Equivalent circuit of an ideal transformer
I
s
I
p
= I
s
/T

E
s
= V
s
V
p
= E
p
= T E
s
V
p
E
p
T
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Transformers
5.3.1 Ideal transformer
Transferring impedances through a transformer



S
S
S
S
P
P
P
I
V
I
V
I
V
Z
2
T
T
T
=
|
.
|

\
|
= =
load P
Z Z
2
T =
V
ac
Z
load
T
V
P
V
S
I
P
I
S
a) Original circuit with ideal
Figure 5.26 Thvenin
equivalents of transformer
circuit
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Transformers
5.3.1.1 Transferring impedances through a
transformer
V
ac
T
2
Z
load
V
P
I
P
V
ac
/T
Z
load
V
S
I
S
b) Equivalent circuit when secondary
impedance is transferred to primary side
and ideal transformer eliminated
(c) Equivalent circuit when primary source is
transferred to secondary side and ideal
transformer eliminated
Figure 5.26 Thvenin equivalents of
transformer circuit
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5.3.2 Real transformer
Transformer
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Transformers
5.3.1 Real transformer








Figure 5.30 Leakage flux in the real transformer
u
m
u
p_leakage
u
s_leakage
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Transformers
Figure 5.31 Equivalent circuit of a real
transformer
I
s
I
p
V
p
E
p
T
V
s
E
s
R
c
X
m
I
m
X
p
R
p
X
s
R
s
I
st
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Transformers
Figure 5.32 Modified equivalent circuit of
a real transformer
I
p
V
p
X
p
R
p
E
p
T
E
s
I
st
V
s
X
st
R
st
R
c
X
m
I
m
I
s
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5.3.4 Determination of
transformer parameter by
measurement
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Transformers
5.3.4 Determination of transformer parameter
by measurement
Open circuit test
Provides magnetizing reactance and core loss resistance
Obtain components are connected in parallel

Short circuit test
Provides combined leakage reactance and winding
resistance
Obtain components are connected in series
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Transformers
Short Circuit Test
X
p
R
p
X
s
R
s
I
sh_s
V
I W
V
sh_s
P
sh_s
Figure 5.35
Equivalent circuit for
short circuit test,
measurement at the
secondary side
X
s
R
s
I
sh_s
V
I W
V
sh_s
P
sh_s X
p
/ T
2
R
p
/ T
2
Figure 5.36 Simplified
equivalent circuit for
short circuit test
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Transformers
5.3.1 Short Circuit Test








Figure 5.37 Simplified circuit for
calculation of series impedance
X
e_s
R
e_s
I
sh_s
V
I W
V
sh_s
P
sh_s
s
p
s e
R
T
R
R + =
2
_
s
p
s e
X
T
X
X + =
2
_
Primary and
secondary
impedances
are combined
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Transformers
Short circuit test evaluation
R
e_s
P
sh_s
I
sh_s
2
:= Z
sh_s
V
sh_s
I
sh_s
:=
X
e_s
Z
sh_s
2
R
e_s
2
:=
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Transformers
Open circuit test
V
I
X
p
R
p
X
m_p
R
c_p
X
s
R
s
W
V
o_p
I
o_p
P
o_p
Figure 5.38 Equivalent circuit for open circuit test, measurement at the
primary side.
V
I
X
m_p
R
c_p
W
V
o_p
I
o_p
P
o_p
Figure 5.39 Simplified
equivalent circuit
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Transformers
Open circuit test evaluation
R
c_p
V
o_p
( )
2
P
o_p
:=
Y
o_p
I
o_p
V
o_p
:=
X
m_p
1
Y
o_p
2
1
R
c_p
2

:=
2 2
1 1
X R
+ = Y
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Transformers
Equivalent circuit obtained by measurement
Figure 5.40 Equivalent circuit for a real transformer resulting
from the open and short circuit tests.
X
m_p
R
c_p
X
e_s
R
e_s
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Exercises using MAT CAD