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# G

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Determine stresses and strains
of circular shafts subjected to
twisting couples or torques.
TURBINE exerts torque
T on the shaft at A.
SHAFT transmits the
torque to the generator at B.
GENERATOR creates an
equal and opposite torque
T.
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( )
0 '
1
x c c
M T T T dF
dA EQ

= = + =
=

}
}
Net of the internal shearing stresses is an
internal (or resisting) torque, equal and
opposite to the applied torque:
Although the net torque due to the shearing
stresses is known, the distribution of the
stresses is not.
Distribution of shearing stresses is statically
INDETERMINATE must consider shaft deformations.
Unlike the normal stress due to axial loads, the distribution
of shearing stresses due to torsional loads cannot be
assumed uniform.
Net Torque Due to Internal Stresses
dF dA
dT dF
t

=
=
c-c
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Torque applied to shaft produces shearing
stresses on the faces perpendicular to the
axis.
The existence of the axial shear components is
demonstrated by considering a shaft made up of axial
slats.
Conditions of equilibrium require the
existence of equal stresses (axial shear
components) on the faces of the two
planes containing the axis of the shaft.
The slats slide with respect to each other when equal
and opposite torques are applied to the ends of the
shaft.
Axial Shear Components
0
V
F =

0
a
M =

( ) ( )
xz zx
dydz dx dxdy dz t t =
xz
t
zx
t
viewed from top
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FROM OBSERVATION, the angle of
twist | of the shaft is proportional to the
applied torque T and to the shaft length L.
L
T

|
|
When subjected to torsion, every cross
section of a circular shaft remains plane and
undistorted.
Cross-sections of noncircular (non-axisymmetric)
shafts are distorted when subjected to torsion.
Cross-sections for hollow and solid circular shafts
remain plain and undistorted because a circular
shaft is axisymmetric.
Shaft Deformations: Need for axisymmetric shaft
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Consider an interior section of the shaft.
As a torsional load is applied, an element
on the interior cylinder deforms into a
rhombus.
Shear strain is proportional to twist and
' B
L
|
=
Since the ends of the element remain
planar, the shear strain is related to
angle of twist | {old notes u }.
Shearing Strain
'
tan
tan
B
B B
AA c
L L
c
L
|

|

= =
~ =
' B

' C
'
'
B B
B B
L c c
|

= = =
C
' C
C
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( )
2
J
T dA dA dA T
c c c
t t
t

t
| |
= = = =
|
\ .
} } }
' ' B B B
L c
|
= =
( )
0: M
T dA t
=
=

}
s
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r

s
t
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e
s
s
,

t

shear strain,
' ' B B B
G G
c c
t

t = =
shear stress vs.
shear strain vs. angle of twist
' B
c
t t

=
G t =
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2
max
max
max

T dA dA
c
T J
c
Tc
J
T
J
t
t
t
t

t
= =
=
=
=
} }
The results are known as the elastic torsion
formulas,
The shearing stress varies linearly with
the radial position in the section.
Elastic Torsion Formula
' B B
c

=
T external torque applied
the axis
J polar moment of inertia
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Recall that the angle of twist and
maximum shearing strain are related,
L
c|
=
max
In the elastic range, the shearing strain
and shear are related by Hookes Law,
JG
Tc
G
= =
max
max
t

## Equating the expressions for shearing

strain and solving for the angle of twist,
JG
TL
= |
Angle of Twist: Constant Load & Cross-section
max
Tc c
JG L
|
= =
EQ 1
EQ 2
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section changes along the length, the
angle of rotation is found as the sum of
segment rotations

=
i i i
i i
G J
L T
|
Angle of Twist: Varying Loads and Cross-section
positive
negative
( )
( )
0
L
T x
d dx
J x G
| =
} }
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Which cross section is more effective in

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Ductile materials generally fail in
shear.
When subjected to torsion, a ductile
specimen breaks along a plane of maximum
shear, i.e., a plane perpendicular to the shaft
axis.
Brittle materials are weaker in
tension than shear.
When subjected to torsion, a brittle
specimen breaks along planes perpendicular
to the direction in which tension is a
maximum, i.e., along surfaces at 45
o
to the
shaft axis.
Failure Modes: Ductile vs. Brittle Materials
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Based on the free-body diagram of the
shaft,
Divide the shaft into two components
which must have compatible
deformations,
Statically Indeterminate Shafts
FBD
0 120
120
x AC CB
AC CB
M T T Nm
T T Nm
= = +
+ =

/
/ / /
0
0
0
B A
A AC B CB
B A C A B C
AC CB
AC CB
A B
AC CB
T L T L
J G J G
L L
T T
J J
|
| | |
=
= = + = +
| | | |
+ =
| |
\ . \ .
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Power transmission shaft
performance specifications
are:
power
speed (angular velocity)
Designer must select shaft
material and cross-section to
meet performance
specifications without
exceeding allowable shearing
stress.
Design of Transmission Shafts
{ }
{ }
Work T Nm
dW d Nm
Power T
dt dt s
Power T
|
|
e
=
= =
=
where T torque in Nm
e - angular velocity in rad/sec
P power in Nm/s or watts
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Determine torque applied to shaft at
specified power and speed,
2
2
P T f T
P P
T
f
e t
e t
= =
= =
Find shaft cross-section which will
not exceed the maximum allowable
shearing stress,
( )
( ) ( )
max
max max
4
3
max
4 4
2 1
2 2 max
1
2
solid shafts
2
hollow shafts
2
Tc J T P
J c
c
J P
c
c c
J P
c c
c c
t
t t e
t
t
et
t
et
= = =
= = =
= =
Design of Transmission Shafts
f- frequency of revolution
(units: rev / sec or hertz
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Sample Problem No 1
A solid aluminum alloy rod BC of 40-mm diameter is attached
to the rigid lever AB and to the fixed support at C. The vertical
force P applied at A causes a small displacement A of 10 mm
at point A. Based on the shear stress-strain diagram for a
specimen obtained from the same aluminum alloy material,
determine the following: a) angle of twist in a 250-mm length
of the rod, b) magnitude of the external load P applied on the
lever at A that caused the rod to twist such amount.
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Sample Problem No 1
A solid aluminum alloy rod BC of 40-mm diameter is attached to the rigid
lever AB and to the fixed support at C. The vertical force P applied at A
causes a small displacement A of 10 mm at point A. Based on the shear
stress-strain diagram for a specimen obtained from the same aluminum
alloy material, determine the following: a) angle of twist u in a 250-mm
length of the rod, b) magnitude of the external load P applied on the lever
at A that caused the rod to twist such amount.
A = 10 mm
u
TL
JG
u =
T
J
J
T
r
t
t
=
=
G
G
t
t

=
=
o
BC
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Sample Problem No 1
Based on the shear stress-strain
diagram for the aluminum alloy
material, determine the following: a)
angle of twist u in a 250-mm length of
the rod, b) magnitude of the external
load P applied on the lever at A that
caused the rod to twist such amount.

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Sample Problem No 2
For the solid shaft as shown, determine:
Torsional shearing stress at longitudinal axis.
Torsional shearing stress 10mm from the longitudinal
axis.
Torsional shearing stress at the outer surface of the shaft.
Maximum torsional shearing stress.
Rotational of plane B with respect to A.
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EXAMPLE No. 6

GIVEN:
The circular shaft AC
shown below is fixed to
rigid walls at A and C. The
solid section AB is made of
annealed bronze and the
of aluminum alloy 2024-T4.
A torque T = 30 kN m is
applied to the shaft. G
AB
=
45 GPa, G
BC
= 28 GPa

FIND:
max
in both the
bronze and aluminum
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EXAMPLE No. 6

GIVEN:
The circular shaft AC shown below is fixed to
rigid walls at A and C. The solid section AB is
made of annealed bronze and the hollow
section BC is made of aluminum alloy 2024-
T4. A torque T = 30 kN m is applied to the
shaft. G
AB
= 45 GPa, G
BC
= 28 GPa

FIND:
max
in both the bronze and aluminum
E Mx = 0 = Ta + Tc = 30,000
u
b/a
+
u
c/b
= 0 =
T
ab
L
ab
J
ab
G
ab
+
T
bc
L
bc
J
bc
G
bc
u
c/a
= 0
-
-
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EXAMPLE No. 5

GIVEN:
A solid steel shaft AB is
used to transmit 5 hp from
the motor M. The shaft
rotates at e = 175 rpm and
the steel has an allowable
shear stress of
allow
= 14.5
ksi.

FIND: The required
diameter of the shaft to the
nearest inch.
2
2
P T f T
P P
T
f
e t
e t
= =
= =
( )
( ) ( )
max
max max
4
3
max
4 4
2 1
2 2 max
1
2
solid shafts
2
hollow shafts
2
Tc J T P
J c
c
J P
c
c c
J P
c c
c c
t
t t e
t
t
et
t
et
= = =
= = =
= =
1 hp = 745.6999 watts (Nm/s)
= 550 ft lb / sec
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EXAMPLE No. 6

GIVEN:
The circular shaft AC
shown below is fixed to
rigid walls at A and C. The
solid section AB is made of
annealed bronze and the
of aluminum alloy 2024-T4.
A torque T = 30 kN m is
applied to the shaft. G
AB
=
45 GPa, G
BC
= 28 GPa

FIND:
max
in both the
bronze and aluminum
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Sample Problem No 3
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Shaft BC is hollow with inner and outer diameters
of 90 mm and 120 mm, respectively. Shafts AB
shown, determine (a) the minimum and maximum
shearing stress in shaft BC, (b) the required
diameter d of shafts AB and CD if the allowable
shearing stress in these shafts is 65 MPa.
SOLUTION:
Cut sections through
shafts AB and BC and
perform static
equilibrium analyses to
Apply elastic torsion
formulas to find
minimum and maximum
stress on shaft BC.
Given allowable shearing
stress and applied torque,
invert the elastic torsion
formula to find the
required diameter.
Sample Problem No 4
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SOLUTION:
Cut sections through shafts AB and BC and perform static
( )
CD AB
AB x
T T
T M
= =
= =

m kN 6
m kN 6 0 ( ) ( )
m kN 20
m kN 14 m kN 6 0
=
+ = =

BC
BC x
T
T M
Sample Problem No 4
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Apply elastic torsion formulas to find minimum and maximum
stress on shaft BC.
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
4 6
4 4 4
1
4
2
m 10 92 . 13
045 . 0 060 . 0
2 2

=
= =
t t
c c J
( )( )
MPa 2 . 86
m 10 92 . 13
m 060 . 0 m kN 20
4 6
2
2 max
=

= = =

J
c T
BC
t t
MPa 7 . 64
mm 60
mm 45
MPa 2 . 86
min
min
2
1
max
min
=
= =
t
t
t
t
c
c
MPa 7 . 64
MPa 2 . 86
min
max
=
=
t
t
Sample Problem No 4
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Given allowable shearing stress and applied torque, invert the
elastic torsion formula to find the required diameter.
m 10 9 . 38
m kN 6
65
3
3
2
4
2
max

= = =
c
c
MPa
c
Tc
J
Tc
t t
t
mm 8 . 77 2 = = c d