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ES 13: Stress and Strain Concepts, Material Properties
Determining Magnitude of Member Deformation
Consider axially loaded members
CE and BF with the following
known parameters:
material properties
modulus of elasticity E
section properties length
L, cross section A
=
=
=
i
P
A
L
E
o
o
c
o c
Stress Concepts
Strain Concepts
Material Properties
= = =
PL
L L
E AE
o
o c
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ES 13: Axially Loaded Members
Elastic Deformation of an Axially Loaded Member
Consider a bar, which has a cross-sectional area that gradually
varies along its length, L
1. establish the stress and strain in the element:
( )
( )
P x
d
A x dx
o
o c = =
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ES 13: Axially Loaded Members
Elastic Deformation of an Axially Loaded Member
1. establish the stress and strain in
the element:
( )
( )
P x
d
A x dx
o c
o
= =
2. using Hookes law, determine relation b/w stress and strain
( )
( )
( )
( )
P x P x
d
E E d dx
A x dx A x E
o
o
c o = = =
} }
3. integrate
( )
( )
0
L P x
dx
A x E
o =
}
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ES 13: Axially Loaded Members
Elastic Deformation: Varying X-section and Load
o = displacement of one point on the bar relative to another point
L = distance between the points
P(x) = internal axial force at the section, located a distance x from
one end
A(x) = cross-sectional area of the bar, expressed as a function of x
E = modulus of elasticity
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
L P x P x
d
E E dx
A x dx A x E
o o c
o
= = =
}
CASE 1: Member having
varying internal force
and cross-sectional
area
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ES 13: Axially Loaded Members
Elastic Deformation: Constant X-section and Load
Sign convention:
positive: elongation tensile force
negative: contraction compressive force
( )
( )
0
L P x
dx
A x E
o =
}
CASE 2: Single segment having
constant load and cross-
sectional area
0
L
P PL
dx
AE AE
o o = =
}
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ES 13: Axially Loaded Members
Elastic Deformation: Varying X-section and Load
( )
( )
0
L P x
dx
A x E
o =
}
CASE 3: Several
segments having
(different but
constant) cross-
sectional area and
subjected to
different load
0
L
P PL
dx
AE AE
o o = =
}
0
1
AB BC CD
AB BC
d d d
BC CD AB
d d
AB BC CD
n
BC BC CD CD i i AB AB
i
AB BC CD i
P P P
dx dx dx
A E A E A E
P L P L PL P L
A E A E A E AE
o
o o
=
= + +
= + + =
} } }

1
n
i i
i
i
PL
AE
o
=
=

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1. Determine the
internal forces in
each bar
2. unlock the bars
by removing the
pin at B
3. visualize the
deformation in each
element due to the
respective internal
forces
4. reintroduce joint /
pin, visualize rigid
body rotation
ES 13: Axially Loaded Members
System of Axially Loaded Members
B
B
B
( )
( )
( )
" T,elongates
"' C,contracts
"" C,contracts
BA
BC
BD
BB
BB
BB
o
o
o
=
=
=
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1. Determine the internal
forces in each bar
2. unlock the bars by
removing the pin at B
3. visualize the
deformation in each
element due to the
respective internal
forces
4. reintroduce joint / pin,
visualize rigid body
rotation
5. based on the
intersection, determine
displacement of B
ES 13: Axially Loaded Members
System of Axially Loaded Members
BD
BA
x
y
o
o
=
=
BA
T
BC
T
BD
T
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The truss consists of three members, each made from A-36
steel and having a cross-sectional area of 0.75 in sq.
Determine the greatest load P that can be applied so
that the roller support at B is not displaced more than
0.03 in.
ES 13: Axially Loaded Members
Problem No 1

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The truss consists of three members, each made from A-36 steel and having a
cross-sectional area of 0.75 in sq. Determine the greatest load P that can
be applied so that the roller support at B is not displaced more than 0.03
in.
ES 13: Axially Loaded Members
Problem No 1

0 16 16sin 60
0.86603
0
0.86603
0.86603
0
+ = =
= |
+ | = = +
=
= +
+ = = +
=
=

o
A V
V
V V V
V
V
H H
H
H
ccw M B P
B P
F B A
A P
A P
F P A
A P
A P
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The truss consists of three members, each made from A-36 steel and having a
cross-sectional area of 0.75 in sq. Determine the greatest load P that can
be applied so that the roller support at B is not displaced more than 0.03
in.
ES 13: Axially Loaded Members
Problem No 1

0: 0.86603
0: 0.86603
0:
+ = = |
+ | = = +
+ = =

A V
V V
H H
ccw M B P
F A P
F A P
0 sin 60
0 cos 60
0.5
+ | = =
=
+ = =
=

o
V V BC
BC
o
H BC BA
BA
F B F
F P
F F F
F P
FBD of joint B
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The truss consists of three members, each made from A-36 steel and having a
cross-sectional area of 0.75 in sq. Determine the greatest load P that can
be applied so that the roller support at B is not displaced more than 0.03
in.
ES 13: Axially Loaded Members
Problem No 1

,max
3
{ : , }
200 29, 000
12
0.5 16
1
0.03
1000
0.75 . . 29 10
. . 1
6796.88
= =
= =
| |

|
\ .
=
| |

|
\ .
=
BA
B AB
steel
F L
d units in lbs
AE
E GPa ksi
in
P ft
ft
in
kip lb
sq in
sq in kip
P lb
o
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An aluminum rod has a diameter of 30 mm and supports
the load shown. Determine the displacement of end A
with respect to end E. Neglect the size of the coupling.
ES 13: Axially Loaded Members
Problem No 2

+
8kN
4kN
2kN
0kN
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An aluminum rod has a diameter of 30 mm and supports the load shown.
Determine the displacement of end A with respect to end E. Neglect the
size of the coupling.
ES 13: Axially Loaded Members
Problem No 2

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
/
1 1
aluminum
/
1
2
9 2
3
2
9 2
3
/
{ : , }
73.1
1
8000 4 4000 2 2000 2 0 2
0.03
73.1 10 /
4
36 10
0.03
73.1 10 /
4
0.697 10 0.697
= =
=

= =
=
=
+ + (

=
| |

|
\ .

=
| |

|
\ .
= =

n n
i i
A E i
i i
i i
n
A E i i
i
A E
FL
d units in lbs
AE
E GPa
d FL
AE
N m
N m
d mm
o
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Consider a system of two pinned end bars AB and CB (that
is vertical) subject to single horizontal force P applied at
pin B. Bar AB has an area A
1
, length L
1
, and Young
modulus E
1
. The corresponding quantities for bar CB
are A
2
L
2
and E
2
. Determine the horizontal and vertical
components of displacement of pin B.
ES 13: Axially Loaded Members
Problem No 3

0 cos 45
1.414
0 sin 45

+ = = +
=
+ | = =
=

o
H BA
BA
o
V BC BA
BC
F F P
F P
F F F
F P
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Consider a system of two pinned end bars AB and CB (that is vertical) subject to single
horizontal force P applied at pin B. Bar AB has an area A
1
, length L
1
, and Young
modulus E
1
. The corresponding quantities for bar CB are A
2
L
2
and E
2
. Determine
the horizontal and vertical components of displacement of pin B.
ES 13: Axially Loaded Members
Problem No 3: Unlock joint

1
1 1
1
1 1
2
2 2
2
2 2
1.414
1.414
=
= =
=
= =
=
BA
BA BA
BA
BC
BC BC
BC
PL
AE
F L
F P
A E
PL
A E
F L
F P
A E
PL
A E
d
d
d
d
d
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Consider a system of two pinned end bars AB and CB (that is vertical) subject to single
horizontal force P applied at pin B. Bar AB has an area A
1
, length L
1
, and Young
modulus E
1
. The corresponding quantities for bar CB are A
2
L
2
and E
2
. Determine
the horizontal and vertical components of displacement of pin B.
ES 13: Axially Loaded Members
Problem No 3: Reintroduce restraint, visualize RB rotation

2
_
2 2
consider vertical component
of displacement of pin B;
by inspection...
'' = = =
B V BC
PL
d BB
A E
d
B
B B
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Determine the horizontal and vertical components of displacement of pin B.
ES 13: Axially Loaded Members
Problem No 3: Reintroduce restraint, visualize RB rotation

_
1
1 1
1 2
1 1 2 2
1 2
_
1 1 2 2
consider horizontal component
of displacement of pin B;
by inspection...
'' ''' '' '''
'' sin 45
''' ' cos 45
2
= = +
=
=
= = +
= +
= +
B H
o
AB
o
AB BC
B H
d B B B D DB
B D
PL
A E
DB DB
PL PL
A E A E
PL PL
d
A E A E
d
d d
45
o

45
o

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Determine the horizontal and vertical components of displacement of pin B.
ES 13: Axially Loaded Members
Problem No 3: Reintroduce restraint, visualize RB rotation
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ES 13: Axially Loaded Members
Problem No 4
( ) ( )
0 0.6 90 0.2
30
0 90
60
+ = =
=
+ | = = +
=

BD
A
BD
BD AC
V
AC
ccw M F
F kN
F F F
F kN
F
AC
F
BD

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ES 13: Axially Loaded Members
Problem No 4
( )
( )
( )
( )
3
2 9
1
4
3
2 9
1
4
60 10 0.3
0.2 200 10
0.286
30 10 0.3
0.4 70 10
0.102
=

= =

=

= =

=
AC AC
AC
AC AC
AC
BD BD
BD
BD BD
BD
PL
AE
F L
A E
mm
F L
A E
mm
d
d
p
d
d
p
d
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ES 13: Axially Loaded Members
Problem No 4
( )
( )
( )
0.286
0.102
0.4
0.6
0.225
=
=
= +
=
AC
BD
F BD AC BD
F
mm C
mm C
d
d mm
d
d
d d d