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Development of New Concepts &

Technologies - Design of Transformers


for Reliable Operation


M. Gopal Rao M.E; F.I.E
Former Director (Transmission),
A.P.TRANSCO, Hyderabad

A transformer is a static device used for transferring
power from one circuit to another without change in
frequency.

Operates on the principle of mutual induction between
two ckts linked by a common magnetic field.

EMF induced in a winding is proportional to the flux
density in the core, cross section of the core, frequency
and no. of turns in the winding.
H.V Winding
L.V Winding
Core
Fundamental equation of transformer
A transformer basically consists of:

Magnetic Circuit comprising Limbs, yokes, clamping structures
Electrical circuit comprising primary, secondary windings
Insulation comprising of transformer oil and solid insulation viz.
paper, pressboard, wood etc. and bracing devices
Main tank housing all the equipment
Radiators, conservator tank
On or Off load tap changer
Vent pipe, Bucholtz relay, Thermometers
Fans, Cooling pumps connected piping
Terminals i.e. connecting leads from windings to bushing with
supporting arrangements


Design Parameters
Voltage Ratio No. of phases
Flux density Rated capacity
Current density Insulation& cooling medium
Insulation levels Tap changer
Vector group Cooling arrangement
Percentage Impedance Oil preservation system
Short circuit withstand
capacity Operating conditions
Features of Power Transformers
Single Phase
Three phase
Star or Delta connected Primary
Star or Delta connected Secondary
With or without Tertiary winding
Provided with Off-circuit tap switch or On-load Tap
Changer for voltage regulation
Codes and Standards
Codes or Regulations are mandatory requirements
stipulated to ensure the safety of the product during testing
and service.

Standards are the basis of agreement and can be used for
limited scope or even restricted. Standards also promote
interchangeability. Standards exist for material, product,
process, testing, calibration etc.

Specifications are based on mandatory requirements of the
purchaser and agreed requirements of the standard.
OPERATING CONDITIONS

The environment in which a transformer works and the
quality in design and construction play a role on its
performance. A transformer working under normal operating
conditions, in all probability, gives satisfactory performance
throughout its life
NORMALOPERATING CONDITIONS:
1. Rated voltage and rated current with permissible margins.
2. Temperatures of oil and windings not exceeding the
prescribed values.
3. Availability of auxiliary and control supply and proper
functioning of accessories and protective devices.
4. Free from external faults such as line breakdowns and
equipment breakdowns.





User should specify the conditions under which transformer is expected
to work viz. quality and nature of load temperature limit, voltage
conditions, short circuit withstand capacity considering present and
expected fault levels.

Parameters specific to locations are to be evaluated and specified to
assess the operating requirement.

Manufacturers should ensure that factory tests as required under
standards and the user specifications are done to verify the quality and
ability of the transformer to withstand all service stresses during life time
of the transformer.
Insulation

Major Insulation: Oil and Paper or cellulose material.

Paper and pressboard insulation immersed in oil and subjected to
temperature for longer periods, lose mechanical strength. Dielectric
strength remains until paper is charred, when free carbon becomes
conducting or too brittle to withstand mechanical shocks. De-
polymerization of insulation takes place when deterioration starts.

Ageing of tr. depends on the dielectric performance of the insulation
system.

Higher the temperature the faster is insulation deterioration.
Transformer operates at below normal temperature Loss of life of
insulation is less than normal.

Operating temp. is greater than normal loss of life is higher than
normal.

Transformer may be safely operated for a time at above normal
temperature provided the loss of insulation life during this period is
adequately compensated by operating for a sufficiently long time at
temperatures below normal.

Between 80 to 140 deg. C, the rate of loss of life due to ageing of
insulation is doubled for every 6degrees c rise in temperature.
Proper upkeep of solid and liquid insulation to their specified levels with
marginal and permissible variations ensure longevity. This is possible by
proper operation such as maintaining the load current and voltage and oil
and winding temperatures at their rated levels and not exceeding these
levels.

Paper or oil dielectric have varying degree of sensitivity to degradation
upon overloading, ingress of moisture, improper handling and storage
affecting life. It is necessary that moisture ingress into oil is prevented by
suitable oil preservation system.
Normally flux density is chosen near knee point of magnetization curve
leaving sufficient margin to take care of voltage and frequency variations.
CRGO steel with silicon content of approx. 3% is used for magnetic
circuit. Characteristics of good core are :

1. Max. magnetic induction to obtain a high induction amplitude in an
alternating field.

2. Minimum specific core loss and low excitation current

3. Low magnetostriction for low noise level

4. Good mechanical processing properties.


Magnetostriction is change in configuration of
a magnetizable body in a magnetic field which
leads to periodical changes in the length of the
body in an alternating magnetic field.

Due to magnetostriction of laminations in an
alternating field core vibrates generating noise
in the core.
Current density is an important parameter to design the section of the
conductor for a specified temperature rise, rated capacity and short
circuit withstand capacity of the transformer.

Different types of windings :
Distributed crossover winding
Spiral winding
Helical winding
Continuous disc winding
Interleaved disc winding
Shielded layer winding


CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSFORMER OIL:
A. PHYSICAL
Appearance
The oil shall be clear, transparent and free from suspended
matter
If color of oil is
a) Light - indicates degree of refining
b) Cloudy or foggy - Presence of moisture
c) Greenish tinge - Presence of copper salts
d) Acid smell - Presence of volatile acid. Can cause
corrosion


Density: At 27deg. c is 0.89gm/cu.cm. This ensures that
water in the form of ice present in oil remains at the bottom
and does not float up to a temp. of about 10 deg. c.

Viscosity: Is a measure of oil resistance to continuous flow
without the effect of external forces. Oil must be mobile in
transformers to take away heat. Viscosity shall be as low as
possible at low temperatures. Maximum value at 27deg.c
shall be 27 cst

Flashpoint: is the temperature at which oil gives so much
vapor, which when mixed with air forms an ignitable mixture
and gives a momentary flash on application of a flame.
Minimum flash point of a good oil shall be 140 deg. C.


Pour point
is the temperature at which oil will just flow under prescribed
conditions. If oil becomes too viscous or solidifies it will hinder
the formation of convection currents, thus cooling of
equipment will be affected.
Maximum pour point shall be -9 deg. C

Interfacial Tension
Is the measure of resultant molecular attractive force between
unlike molecules like water and oil at the interface. Presence of
soluble impurities decrease molecular attractive force between
oil and water. This gives an indication of degree of sludging of
oil.
Minimum value 40 dynes/M or 0.04 N/M
.

CHEMICAL

Neutralization Number
Is a measure of organic and inorganic acids present in the oil.
Expressed as mg. of KOH required to neutralize the total
acids in one gm. Of oil.
Limits for fresh oil - 0.03 mg KOH/gm - maximum
Limits for used oil - 0.05 mg KOH/gm - maximum
It leads to formation of sludge, metal surface corrosion and
lowering of dielectric strength.

Corrosive Sulphur
It indicates the presence sulphur, sulphur compounds, which
are corrosive in nature and corrode the copper surface.

Oxidation Stability
This is measured by ageing the oil by simulating actual
service condition of a transformer. Covers the evaluation
of acid and sludge forming tendency of new mineral oils.
For used oil, should be minimum to minimize electrical
conduction and corrosion
Water Content: Due to moisture entry into oil.
a) By accidental leakage
b) Breathing action
c) During oil filling or topping up
d) By chemical reaction
In unused oil - Maximum 30 ppm
Oil in transformer 145 KV & above - Maximum 15 ppm
Oil in transformer below 145 KV - Maximum 25 ppm
It reduces electrical strength and promotes degradation of
oil as well as paper.

ELECTRICAL
Electric Strength
Is the voltage at which arc discharge occurs between two
electrodes when oil is subjected to an electric field under
prescribed conditions.
New oil unfiltered - 30 KV minimum (rms)
New oil filtered - 60 KV minimum (rms)
Resistivity
It is numerically equal to the resistance between opposite faces
of a centimeter cube of oil. Insulation resistance of the
windings of transformer is dependant on the resistivity of oil.
A low value indicates the presence of moisture and
conducting contaminants.
Values for a new transformer are
(12)
At 27 deg. c 500x 10 ohm.cm
(12)
At 90 deg. c 30x 10 ohm.cm

Dielectric Dissipation Factor (Tan Delta & Loss Tangent)

Is measure of dielectric losses in oil & hence the amount of heat
energy dissipated.
It gives an indication as to the quality of insulation. A high value
indicates presence of contaminants or deterioration products
such as water, oxidation products, soluble varnishes, and resins.

1) Tan delta at 90 for unused oil - maximum 0.2
2) Tan delta at 90 oil before charging transformer -
maximum 0.005 (1/2%)

Low value of tan delta indicates low losses
Vector Group and Polarity

When induced voltages of pri . and sec. windings are in same direction, polarity
of the two windings is same. This is called subtractive polarity. When the
induced EMFs are in opposite direction , the polarity is called additive.

Pri. and sec. windings on any one limb have induced emfs that are in time phase.
Different combinations of internal connections and connections to terminals
produce different phase divergence of sec. voltage.

Vector group or connection symbol of a transformer denotes the method of
connection of pri. and sec. windings and the phase angle divergence of sec. with
respect to primary.



Vector Groups
1
3
4
U
V W
u
w
v
u
w
v
1 & 3 YNd1
2 & 4 YNd11
U
V
W
2

U
V
W
u
v
w
u
v
w
1
2
3
4
Vector Groups
U
V
W
1 & 3 Dyn11
2 & 4 Dyn5
Vector Group Test
A
B
C
a
b
c
A
B
C
a
b
c
DY 11
VAb = VAc
VBb = VBc
VCb > VCc
Aa = 0
Ab = bc = ca
Bb = Cc
Tap changer

Device for regulating the voltage of transformer.

Off circuit tap changer : Tap changing is effected when tr. is off. These
are cheaper. They are used where frequency of tap changing is very less.
On load tap changer : Here tap changing is effected without interrupting
load. On load tap changer normally consists of transition resistors which
bridge the circuit during tap changing operation.
Two types of OLTCs :
Single compartment type In this type selection of taps and switching
are carried out on the same contacts.
Double compartment type In this tap selection is done separately and
switching is done in a separate diverter switch.

Externally mounted OLTC/1
Requirements for a tap changer

Percentage variation required for each tap
No. of taps and step voltage
Maximum through current
Insulation level to ground and between various contacts.
No of steps and basic connections
Temporary overloads and short circuit strength

Automatic voltage regulating relays are used for automatic control of bus
bar voltage.
Output of voltage transformer connected to controlled voltage side of the
tr. is used to energize AVR relay. When voltage deviation exceeds a
preset limit, a control signal to raise or lower tap operation is given. A
time delay unit is connected in the circuit to prevent unnecessary
operation or hunting of tap changer during transient voltage change.

Types of Tap Changers
Based on function
Constant Flux Voltage Variation (CFVV)
Variable Flux Voltage Variation (VFVV)
Combination of above both
Based on method of tap change
Linear
Reversing
Coarse Fine
Bridging
Tap Changer Location
Neutral End Middle of winding Line End
Linear Reversing Coarse Fine
Basic conditions of operation
Load current must not be interrupted during tap
change operation.
Tap change must occur without short-circuiting the tap
winding directly.
Positive change of tap position.
It means make-before-break mechanism to be
used. This calls for a transition impedance.
Also the mechanism should be fast acting type
spring loaded.

General Design considerations
Capable to normal load/overloads on transformer.
Maximum system voltage
Step voltage & no. of steps
Test voltage to earth and across tapping range
Maximum surge voltage to earth and across range.
Maximum test voltages between phases (where
applicable)
Current rating normal and overload
Parts of Tap Changer
Selector switch
Tap selection takes place in this switch
Diverter Switch
Make before-break mechanism with transition
impedance. Arcing takes place and hence housed in
a separate compartment.
Surge relay
Conservator with oil level gauge.
Transition Impedance
Reactor type
Resistor type


Requirements of Transition Impedance
No voltage fluctuations during switching cycle

Circulating currents should not be excessive

Duration of arc should be minimum to minimize
contact erosion and reduce contamination of oil.
TAP CHANGER CONTROLS
Manual / Electrical
Local / Remote
Manual / Automatic
Independent Operation
Parallel Operation
Group Control
Master
Follower
R2
R1
7
5
3
1
8
6
4
2
N
Principle of Tap changer operation
M2 T2 T1 M1
M2 T2 T1 M1
M2 T2 T1 M1 M2 T2 T1 M1
M2 T2 T1 M1 M2 T2 T1 M1
M2 T2 T1 M1
1 2 3
4 5 6
Parts of Tap Changer
Motor drive mechanism
Should rotate in both the directions
Step-by-step operation
Tap change in progress indication
Tap change complete indication
Sequence contact
Remote Tap position control & indication
Cooling Arrangement

Controlling the temperature inside the tr. is necessary to reduce thermal
degradation of insulation to ensure longer life. Heat generated in the tr. is
transmitted to atmosphere through oil.
Different types of cooling:
ONAN type Oil natural and air natural. Hot oil is circulated by natural
means dissipating heat to atmosphere by natural means.
ONAF type Oil natural, air forced. Here air is blown on to the cooling
surfaces. Forced air takes away heat at a faster rate.
OFAF type Oil forced, air forced. If the oil is force circulated within the
tr. and radiator by means of an oil pump, in addition to forced air, still
better rate of heat dissipation is achieved over ONAF

OFWF type Oil forced, water forced. Here water is employed for
cooling oil instead of air. Ambient temp. of water is less than atmospheric
air. Hence better rate of cooling is obtained. In this type oil to water heat
exchangers are employed. Differential pressure between oil and water is
maintained. Oil is circulated at a higher pressure.

ODAF/ODWF type Oil directed, air/water forced. If the oil is directed
to flow past the windings, large quantities of heat can be taken away by
oil. Cool oil is directed to flow through the windings in predetermined
paths. Oil is circulated by a forced oil system like oil pumps. This ensures
faster rate of heat transfer.
Oil Preservation System: Oil readily absorbs moisture. Presence
of moisture reduces dielectric strength of oil. Different methods are
available to reduce contamination of oil with moisture.

1. Silica gel Breather: It is connected to the conservator tank. It consists
of a cartridge packed with silica gel dessicant and a small cup containing
oil. Air is drawn into the conservator thro. oil cup and breather where
most of the moisture is absorbed.

2. Bellows and Diaphragm sealed conservators: A bellow type barrier or
a diaphragm type barrier is fitted in the conservator. Air entering the
conservator tank pushes the diaphragm downwards. As oil expands the
diaphragm is pushed upwards. Position of diaphragm is indicated by oil
level indicator. Diaphragm acts as a barrier.
3. Gas sealed Conservators: In this method a cushion of an inert gas like
Nitrogen is provided over oil surface in the conservator. Gas pressure is
always maintained higher than atmospheric pressure. Nitrogen gas
pressure inside the conservator is regulated by nitrogen cylinder and
pressure reducing valve which admit Nitrogen to the conservator when
the pressure falls. Excessive pressure developed inside the conservator is
relieved through a relief valve.

4. Refrigeration Breathers: An air dryer is fitted to the conservator. Air
breathed thro. the unit is dried in passing down a duct cooled by a series
of thermoelectric modules based on Peltier effect. Top and bottom ends
of the duct are terminated in the expansion space above oil level in the
conservator and air is continuously circulated thro. the duct by
thermosyphon forces.
Short circuit withstand Capacity:

Effects of short circuit: Energy in the system gets released in
the form of heavy flow of current when fault occurs.
Every fault fed by the transformer stresses the windings. The
stress developed in the winding is related to the intensity of
fault.
Each fault causes sharp rise in temperature and produces
mechanical forces in the winding.
These forces act in the axial and radial directions of the
winding, and cause compressive or tensile stresses on the
winding and tend to deform it.
RADIAL FORCES: ARE DUE TO FLUX IN THE SPACE
BETWEEN COILS. TEND TO BURST COILS AND
CRUSH ON THE CORE.

STRENGTHENING OF WINDING

AXIAL FORCES: ARE DUE TO RADIAL COMPONENT
OF FLUX WHICH CROSSES THE WINDING AT THE
ENDS AND GIVES RISE TO AXIAL COMPRESSIVE
FORCE TENDING TO SQUEEZE THE WINDING IN
MIDDLE.

PROPER DRYING, COMPRESSION AND CLAMPING

THERMAL EFFECT: RAPID RISE OF TEMPERATURE
CAUSES

i) MECHANICAL WEAKENING OF INSULATION DUE
TO THERMAL AGEING LONG TERM EFFECT.

ii) DECOMPOSITION OF INSULATION TO PRODUCE
GASES SHORT TERM EFFECT.

iii) CONDUCTOR ANNEALING BECOMES BRITTLE
& CRACKS WILL BE FORMED.

LIMIT OF MAX. AVERAGE TEMPERATURE AFTER
SHORT CIRCUIT IS 250
0
C FOR OIL IMMERSED
TRANSFORMER USING COPPER WINDING.
Design Basis
Life-time cost of transformer

= Initial cost of transformer
+
Operational cost for its life period

This is called the
Capitalized cost of transformer.
Design Basis - Capitalization
Rationalized CBIP Capitalization Formula:
Capitalized Cost = Initial Cost (IC) + Capitalized { No-
load Loss (Wn) + Load Loss (Wl) + Auxiliary Losses (Wa) }
Capitalized cost = IC + Xn.Wn +Xl.Wl +
Xa.Wa
Factors affecting Xn; Xl and & Xa
Rate of Interest
Rate of Electrical Energy
Life of Transformer

Design Basis
The design of a transformer aims at achieving
lowest capitalized cost.
Low No-load Loss means higher magnetic
material cost and vice-versa
Low Load Loss means higher copper (material)
cost and vice-versa.
Several iterations are made to optimize the total
cost before freezing the design and drawings are
made.
Extensive use of CAD programs is needed for
finalizing design.
Design Principles - Core

Higher the number of steps in cross section, better is space
utilization and smaller is the core diameter.
90 to 95 % utilization factor is optimal.
Core area (A) is determined by the Flux Density (B) which
in turn depends on many factors - like loss capitalization
and overall design economics.
As the no load losses attract very high capitalization,
attempts are continuously made to reduce them.
Design Principles - Core
Improved manufacturing techniques like
core building with 2-lamination packets, step-lap
joints, v-notched laminations,
bolt-less cores are used.

Hi- core steels like M0H, ZDKH, etc are available
in which the specific core losses are lower than
normal grades.
A A
View A-A
Conventional Step lap
Design Principles
Windings- L.V winding
L.V Windings in Transformers are either
Spiral OR layer wound for low current ratings
Helical Wound with radial cooling ducts
for higher ratings.
Disc type wound
Distributed Cross-over (Run-over) coils
The conductor used is paper insulated rectangular
copper (PICC)
For higher currents, transposed conductors are used,
to uniformly distribute the current across the cross
section of the wire of coil.
Spiral/Layer type Winding
Mandrel/Press-board cylinder
Cooling Duct
Conductor Layer 1
Conductor Layer 2
Conductor Layer 3
Design Principles- L.V winding
Helical Coil (Single layer)
Helical coil (Double Layer)
Start Finish

Transposed Conductors
Transposed conductors (CTC) are used to improve current distribution in the
cross section of the winding wire.
Individual cable can be coated with epoxy so that the cured and finished
conductor is mechanically stronger and withstand short circuit forces better.
Design Principles H.V Winding
HV winding invariably uses PICC or
CTC.

Type of winding used is

- Layer winding or

- Disc winding up to 132 kV and/or
- Interleaved winding or
- Rib shielded winding
Temporary Over-voltages Switching Over-voltages Over-voltages due to lightning.
Power Systems Over voltages
POWER SYSTEM OVER VOLTAGES
Temporary Over-Voltages
Typically due to faults
< 1.2 pu
ms to tens of second or even minutes
Not dangerous to insulation




Switching Over-Voltages
Due to system switching operations
1.5 pu 5 pu depends on system voltage
mostly damped asymmetric sinusoids
front time of first peak tens of s to a few ms.
decides external insulation in EHV/UHV systems
Over Voltages due to Lightning
Due to direct or indirect lightning strokes.
known to contribute to 50% of system outages in EHV
& UHV systems
few hundred kV to several tens of MV.
Few kA to 200 kA
very short duration : time to front : 1 to few tens of s
time to tail : few tens to hundreds of s.
Decides line insulation (BIL)
Severely influences Transformer insulation.
Cg
Cs
= K Cg/Cs
Design Principles
Impulse Voltage Distribution
Design Principles
Impulse Voltage Distribution
= 0







= 1 0

=5

X
V
Disc Type Winding
Paper Insulated Conductor
Press-board Cylinder
1 2 3 4
5 67 8
9
1 5 2 6
3 7 4 8
9
1 S 2 3
4 5 S 6
7 8
Conventional Shielded I nterleaved
Disc winding concepts
Impulse Voltage
Distribution
1. Plain Disc Winding
2. Rib Shield Winding
3. I nter-leaved Disc Winding
Number of discs from line end
V
O
L
T
A
G
E

G
R
A
D
I
E
N
T

P
u

Design Principles Tertiary Winding
In Star-Star Connected Transformers and Auto-
transformers, Tertiary Winding is used-
- to stabilize phase to phase voltages in case of
unbalanced load
- Suppressing third harmonic currents in earthed neutral
- reducing zero sequence reactance
- for supplying auxiliary load or for connecting
capacitors.
Design Principles Tertiary Winding
Tertiary is required to be designed for a power rating equal to
one-third the rated power, it increases the cost of the
transformer by 10- 12 percent.

Tertiary winding is known to fail due to transferred surges and
Short circuits

Present practice is to do away with tertiary up to 100 MVA for 3
phase 3 limbed core transformers.

CASE STUDY OF FAILED 100 MVA
220/132 KV AUTO TRANSFORMERS
TRANSFORMER NO. 1.- DATE OF FAILURE 11.05.1992

OBSERVATIONS: BURNING AND TWISTING OF TURNS IN
THE TERTIARY WINDINGS (V&W PHASES) NEAR THE
TOP END.

FAILURE APPEARS TO BE MAINLY MECHANICAL.

TYPE OF TERTIARY WINDING : SPIRAL WITHOUT ANY
INTENTIONAL COOLING. THE AXIAL ASYMMETRY IN
THE ASSEMBLY OF WINDINGS IS OBSERVED, AXIAL
COMPRESSIVE FORCE IN TERTIARY IS WORKED OUT
TO BE 133% i.e. HIGHER BY 33%.
TRANSFORMER NO. 2 - DATE OF FAILURE 14.09.1992.

COPPER GLOBULES WERE NOTICED.
U PHASE TERTIARY COIL FAILURE NEAR TOP END.
BURNING OF CONDUCTOR INSULATION, TOP END
RING BROKEN INTO PIECES.
TYPE OF TERTIARY WINDING SPIRAL.

TRANSFORMER NO.3. - DATE OF FAILURE 11.10.1998.

TOP YOKE LAMINATION BURNT AND MELTED.
PUNCTURES NEAR THE PUNCH HOLES OF YOKE
BOLTS. U & V PHASE TERTIARY WINDINGS BURNT
AND DISTURBED.
U-PHASE WINDING TURNS, CORE LEG AT BOTTOM
SIDE BURNT.
REASONS FOR FAILURE:

TERTIARY WINDING USED FOR STABILIZING
PURPOSE FAILURE ACOMPANIED BY EXTERNAL
SINGLE LINE TO GROUND FAULT (132 KV LINE
CONDUCTOR SNAPPING).

DUE TO HIGH CIRCULATING CURRENTS WHEN
TRANSFORMER FEEDS UNBALANCED SYSTEM
(TRACTION, REROLLING, MILLS).

TEMPERATURE RISE LEADS TO INSULATION
FAILURE.

INCREASED SHORT CIRCUIT FORCES ON THE
WINDING.
THE RATING OF TERTIARY WINDING AND THE
IMPEDANCES BETWEEN HV TO TERTIARY AND IV TO
TERTIARY IN RESPECT OF TRANSFORMERS WITH
LOADED TERTIARY WINDING AND WITH STABILIZING
TERTIARY WINDING (NOT INTENDED FOR LOADING).

TYPE OF %IMPEDANCE BETWEEN
TERTIARY
HV TO IV TO TRANSF.
TERTIARY TERTIARY RATING


LOADED 57 TO 70.5 41 TO 65.5 15MVA
TERTIARY

UNLOADED 28 TO 37 17 TO 22 13 TO 15
TERTIARY MVA

It is observed that failure of transformers particularly with tertiary
windings, in no. of cases occurred, where system impedance is low and
the fault level is high.

Impedances between pri. To tertiary and sec. to tertiary is observed to be
low causing excessive stresses in the tertiary winding leading to its
failure.

It is therefore felt necessary to strengthen the tertiary winding and
increase the leakage reactance between tertiary to other windings to bear
the stresses developed under faults.
ADDITIONAL DESIGN CONSIDERATION FOR
TERTIARY WINDING

1. RAISING THE %IMPEDANCE BETWEEN HV TO
TERTIARY & IV TO TERTIARY TO 35% & 25%
RESPECTIVELYWITHONLYPOSITIVETOLERANCE
OF 15%.

2. INCREASING THE RATING OF TERTIARY
WINDING TO 1/3 CAPACITY OF THE
TRANSFORMER.

3. TO PROVIDE INTENTIONAL COOLING FOR THE
TERTIARY WINDING FOR FASTER AND LARGER
DISSIPATION OF HEAT.
Design Process
Design should meet
Requirements of customer specification
Relevant national or international standards
Statutory and regulatory requirements
Manufacturers Plant Standards

Optimized design
Optimization
Objective of Optimization
To arrive at a design that yields minimum capitalized
cost.

It is a function of the following:
Core diameter
Core height
Flux Density
Current Density
COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN-
PURPOSE OF IT
Improve productivity of design personnel

Reduce delivery cycle

Better analysis and arriving at a most optimum design

To solve electro-static, electro-magnetic problems and to
provide a robust structural and thermal design.
More precise calculations

Tailor made designs
No standard ratings specified above 1 MVA
Change of specification parameter
Relative change of material cost
Ongoing development of technology
Poor quality results in failures.
Types of failures
Infant failures: Early life failures are the result of
latent defects.
- Latent defects are abnormalities that cause failure,
depending on degree of abnormality and amount of
applied stress.

- Delivered defects are those that escape test /
inspection within the factory

- They are directly proportional to total defects in
the entire processes.

Mid life failures: These are results of
- Freak system disturbances
- Wrong specifications
- Poor maintenance

Old age failures: These are results of
- Ageing of insulation system
- Wear & tear