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Difference between Meiosis and Mitosis

Meiosis I
Interphase Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telephase I
Meiosis II
Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telephase II
Male
Reproductive
System
Reproductive Anatomy of the Human
Male.
External:
- penis
- scrotum
Internal:
- gonads
- accessory sex glands and ducts.

Human reproduction involves intricate
anatomy and complex behavior

Male Reproductive System
Testes
Male Reproductive System
Male Reproductive System
External structure of the
penis:
glans penis
prepuce (foreskin)
There is no verifiable
health benefit to
circumcision.
Circumcision
foreskin glans penis urethral opening
sutures
shaft
corona
The penis is composed of three layers of
spongy erectile tissue.
During sexual arousal the erectile tissue fills
with blood from arteries.
The resultant increased pressure seals off the
veins that drain the penis.
The engorgement of the penis
with blood causes an erection.
urethra
Testes are the male gonads.
seminiferous tubules- form sperm
Leydig cells (interstitial cells)- produce
androgens (ex. Testosterone, ABP).
Testes are located in the scrotum,
outside the body cavity.
This keeps testicular temperature cooler
than the body cavity.
The testes develop in the body cavity and
descend into the scrotum just before birth.
Sperm Pathway
Prostatic urethra
Membranous
urethra
Semen
Seminal fluid is thick, yellowish, and
alkaline.
It contains mucus, fructose, a coagulating
enzyme, ascorbic acid, and
prostaglandins.
Accessory glands:
1. seminal vesicle
2. prostate gland
3. bulbourethral gland

Seminal Vesicle

Seminal vesicle:
A pair of glands that secrete a liquid
component of semen into the vas deferens.
Secretion is alkaline
Contains fructose, asorbic acid, coagulating
enzyme, prostaglandin
Prostate gland:
Location- surrounds and opens into the urethra where it
leaves the bladder.
Secretion- slightly alkaline fluid that activates the sperm
and prevents them from sticking together
Prostate problems are common in males over 40.
Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers
in men.
Prostate
Bulbourethral gland (Cowpers gland):
Location- paired glands that lie beneath the prostate
Secretion- a thick, clear alkaline mucous that drains into
the membranous urethra.
Function- It acts to wash residual urine out of the urethra
when ejaculating semen-- raises pH; neutralizes acidity of
urine.
Bulbourethral
gland
Ejaculation propels sperm from the
epididymis to the vas deferens.
The vas deferens run from the scrotum and
behind the urinary bladder.
Here each vas deferens joins
with a duct from the seminal
vesicle to form an ejaculatory
duct.
The ejaculatory ducts open into the urethra.
The urethra drains both the excretory and
reproductive systems.
Ejaculation
A male usually ejaculates about 2 5 mL
of semen; each milliliter containing about
50 130 million sperm.
Bulbourethral fluid also carries some
sperm released before ejaculation.
This is one of the reasons why the
withdrawal method of birth control has a
high failure rate.
Ejaculate
Spermatogenesis
Mature Spermatozoa
tail
mitochondria
nucleus
acrosome
head
Seminiferous Tubules
spermatogonium
1
spermatocyte
2
spermatocyte
Spermatids

Sertoli/
sustenacular cell
Spermatozoa

Interstitial
cells
Seminiferous Tubules
Sperm
Maturation &
Development
Hormones Involved in
Spermatogenesis
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone (ICSH=LH)
Testosterone
Inhibin
ABP
Hypothalamus
Anterior Pituitary
GnRH
FSH ICSH
Hormonal Control of
Spermatogenesis
Interstitial Cells
ICSH
Testosterone
Hormonal Control of
Spermatogenesis
Sertoli Cells
Testosterone
Spermatogenesis
FSH
Inhibin
Hormonal Control of
Spermatogenesis
Feedback Inhibition
Inhibin
Acts on anterior pituitary
Inhibits FSH production
Testosterone
Acts on hypothalamus
Inhibits GnRH production
Hormonal Control of
Spermatogenesis
Some Other Effects of
Testosterone
muscle and bone growth
facial and pubic hair growth
thickening of vocal cords
growth of pharyngeal cartilage
hair follicle effects
stimulates sebaceous glands
Increased BMR
Vasectomy
Female
Reproductive System
cervix
vagina
uterine tube
Ovary



uterus
Bladder


urethra
clitoris
l. minora
l. majora
Female Reproductive System
Internal reproductive:

Vagina
Cervix
Fallopian tube
(uterian
tube/oviducts)
Fimbrae
Ovary
Uterus
- Endometrium
- Myometrium
- Perimetrium
cervix
vagina
fimbriae
uterine tube
ovary
uterus
endometrium
myometrium
perimetrium
Fimbrae & Fallopian Tube
Oogenesis in the Ovary
Oogenesis
Ovary- contains 400,000 oocytes; release
about 500 in a lifetime
Ovary- under influence of FSH. The
follicles mature every 28 days
Primary follicle produces estrogens
And primary oocyte completes its 1
st

division produces 2ndary oocyte and
polar body
Oogenesis
Aprox 1/2 way through the 28 day cycle the
follicle reaches the mature Vesticular or
Graffian follicle stage.
Oogenesis

Estrogen levels rise and release LH and FSH
and triggers ovulation.
Oogenesis
The 2ndary oocyte travels down the uterine
tube to the uterus.
If fertilized by sperm, it will produce a zygote
Ovum in uterine tube
Ectopic Pregnancy
Ovarian Cyst
Endometriosis
Oogenesis
Hormones Involved in the
Female Reproductive Cycle
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Estrogen
Progesterone
Inhibin
Relaxin
Hypothalamus
Anterior Pituitary
GnRH
FSH LH
Female Hormonal Cycle
Follicle Cells
LH
Estrogen
FSH
Female Hormonal Cycle
The Uterine
Cycle
Hormone
Fluctuation
Some Other Effects of
Estrogen
breast development
external genitalia growth
bone growth
fat deposition
Increase protein anabolism
Decrease blood cholesterol
Facilitate calcium uptake
Promotes hydration of skin
Feminizes brain
Menopause: cessation of ovarian and
menstrual cycles.
Usually occurs between ages 46 and 54.
Due to ovaries decreased responsiveness
to gonadotropins.
Menopause affects:
changes in sexual desire
triggers mood swings
causes debilitating hot flashes
may lead to bone and heart problems
short-term memory loss
insomnia
Are present in both males and
females.
Are not a component of the
reproductive system.
Contain epithelial tissue that secrete
milk.
Milk drains into a series of
ducts opening at the nipple.
Mammary glands.
Mammary Gland
Lifes Greatest Miracle
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/m
iracle/program.html
INQUIRY
1. Where are sperm cells formed within the
testes?
2. What portion of the sperm contains 23
chromosomes?
3. What 3 accessory glands produce seminal
fluid?
4. What is the term for the primary human
sex organs?
5. What structure is formed following
ovulation?
6. What hormones are produced from the
corpus luteum?
7. List several effective means for preventing
conception.