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Name Muhammad Adil Younis

Qualification B.E. Mechanical


Batch 08
Institute Quaid-e-Awam University of
Engineering, Science
and Technology
Nawabshah.
Testing of Metals
Contents
Introduction
Types of Mechanical Tests
Tensile Test
Stress Strain Diagram of Mild Steel
Comparison between Ductile and Brittle
Material
Compression Test
Introduction:
Testing of Metals mean to determine
the various mechanical properties by
testing of metals on different testing
machines.

All the mechanical tests are divided
into following two groups:


1. Destructive tests.
2. Non destructive tests.
Destructive tests:
In destructive
tests, the specimen of material is tested
until its complete structural failure, in
order to derive its mechanical properties
and characteristics.



In this type of tests, the material
may be useless after the test is over or
may be transformed to possess
mechanical properties very different
from the previous one.
The destructive tests include tensile
test, compression test, impact test,
fatigue test, hardness test, creep test
etc.
2. Non destructive tests:
In this test, the material under test
possesses the same mechanical
properties before and after the test and
the material is not destroyed.
The non destructive tests, include
visual examination, radiographic test and
magnet particle test etc.
Tensile test for ductile material.
It is generally, carried out with the help
of a universal testing machine on the
specimen.
So, a graph will obtain by testing
machine which is shown below.
Stress Strain Diagram of Mild
Steel:
Proportional Limit:

It is the point on the
stress-strain curve, up
to which the plot is a
straight line and stress
proportional to strain.
Up to proportional limit,
the material remains
elastic and strictly
follows Hookes Law.
Elastic Limit:

it is the point just
beyond proportional
limit. From proportional
limit to elastic limit, the
material remains elastic
but does not follow
Hookes Law and so,
stress and strain are
not proportional.
Yield Point:

If the material is
stressed beyond point
B, the plastic range will
reach i.e., on the
removal of load, the
material will not be able
to recover its original
position.
Ultimate stress:



A further increase in
the load will cause
marked deformation in
the whole volume of the
metal. The maximum
load which the specimen
can with stand without
failure is called the load
at the ultimate strength.
Breaking stress:

Beyond point E, the bar
begins to forms neck. The
load falling from the
maximum until fracture
occurs at F.
[ Beyond point E, the
cross-sectional area of the
specimen begins to reduce
rapidly over a relatively
small length of bar and the
bar is said to form a neck. ]
- Comparing the Failure of a Ductile Specimen and a
Brittle Specimen after Loading:
Brittle and Ductile Metal Comparison:

Compression Test:
It is generally, performed for testing
brittle materials such as cast iron,
concrete, stones, and bricks etc.
It may be performed universal
testing machine on the specimen.

So, a graph will obtain by testing
machine which is shown below.
Stressstrain curve for brittle
materials:

From the graph, we see that there is a
little strain as compared to the stress.

The value of breaking stress for
different materials is different. But the
general pattern for stress strain diagram
is approximately same as shown in
above figure.