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MTH 251

Differential Calculus
Chapter 5 The Derivative in Graphing
and Applications

Section 5.1 Analysis of Functions I:
Increase, Decrease,
and Concavity
Copyright 2005 by Ron Wallace, all rights reserved.
Increasing Decreasing Constant
Over an Interval
Intuitively, the
graph is read from
left to right.
Increasing going up hill
Decreasing going down hill
Constant level
(-, a), (b, 0), (c, d), (f, )
(a, b), (d, f)
(0, c)
What about at the endpoints of each of these intervals?
x
1
x
2

f(x
1
)
f(x
2
)
x
1
x
2

f(x
1
)
f(x
2
)
x
1
x
2

f(x
1
) f(x
2
)
Increasing Decreasing Constant
Over an Interval
Formally
If x
1
& x
2
are any
two points in an
interval and x
1
<x
2

Increasing f(x
1
) < f(x
2
)
Decreasing f(x
1
) > f(x
2
)
Constant f(x
1
) = f(x
2
)
What about at the endpoints of each of these intervals?
(-, a), (b, 0), (c, d), (f, )
(a, b), (d, f)
(0, c)
Increasing Decreasing Constant
At a Point
The behavior of a
function at a point
is determined by
the tangent line at
that point.
Increasing f(x) > 0
Decreasing f(x) < 0
Constant f(x) = 0
(-, a), (b, 0), (c, d), (f, )
(a, b), (d, f)
(0, c)
What about at the endpoints of each of these intervals?
Example 1
Describe the behavior of the function
2 5 ) (
2
= x x x f
5 2 ) ( ' = x x f
0 5 2 < x
Decreasing
2
5
< x
0 5 2 > x
Increasing
2
5
> x
0 5 2 = x
Constant
2
5
= x
Example 2
Describe the behavior of the function
x x x x f 12 3 2 ) (
2 3
= 12 6 6 ) ( '
2
= x x x f
0 1 and 0 2
or
0 1 and 0 2
< + >
> + <
x x
x x
Decreasing Increasing Constant
) 1 )( 2 ( 6 + = x x
2 1 < < x
0 1 and 0 2
or
0 1 and 0 2
> + >
< + <
x x
x x
0 1
or
0 2
= +
=
x
x
2 or 1 > < x x 2 or 1 = = x x
Concavity
A behavior of a
functions curvature.
If f(x) is differentiable over (a,b)
and f(x) is increasing x over (a,b),
then f(x) is concave up over (a,b).
f(x) increasing
f(x) > 0
A function that is concave up will hold water.
The function is curving in a counter-clockwise rotation
and its tangents are all below the function.
Concavity
A behavior of a
functions curvature.
If f(x) is differentiable over (a,b)
and f(x) is decreasing x over (a,b),
then f(x) is concave down over (a,b).
f(x) decreasing
f(x) < 0
A function that is concave down will spill water.
The function is curving in a clockwise rotation
and its tangents are all above the function.
Inflection Points
If f(x) is continuous over an interval containing a
and the concavity of f(x) changes at a
then (a, f(a)) is an inflection point of the function.
Where can this happen?
f(x) = 0
f(x) DNE
Inflection Points in the Graph? At x = e
Example 1
Find the inflection points of the function
2 5 ) (
2
= x x x f
5 2 ) ( ' = x x f
2 ) ( ' ' = x f
No inflection points!
Example 2
Find the inflection points of the function
x x x x f 12 3 2 ) (
2 3
= 12 6 6 ) ( '
2
= x x x f
6 12 ) ( ' ' = x x f
0 6 12 = x
2
1
= x
Inflection point at
Inflection point is
2
1
|
.
|

\
|

2
13
,
2
1
Curvature
Not included in our textbook.
See: http://www.ies.co.jp/math/java/calc/curve/curve.html
Measurement of the
bentness of a function.
2 3
2
2
2
1
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
=
dx
dy
dx
y d
k
Radius of Curvature
k

1
=
Therefore:
Large k small very bent
Small k large almost flat

One More Example


Describe the behavior of the function
x
xe x f = ) (
x x x
e x xe e x f ) 1 ( ) ( ' + = + =
x x x
e x e x e x f ) 2 ( ) 1 ( ) ( ' ' + = + + =
x e
x
> 0 : Note
Increasing: Concave Up:
Decreasing: Concave Down:
Inflection Point: Constant:
1 > x
1 < x
1 = x
2 > x
2 < x
( )
2
2 , 2

e
| |
2 3
2 2
) 1 ( 1
) 2 (
x
x
e x
e x
+ +
+
= k
Curvature:
Quote from the beginning of the chapter
The rate of increase of inflation is going down.
President Nixon
Fall of 1972
This was the first time a sitting president used
the third derivative to advance his case for
reelection.
Hugo Rossi
) ( Function Price t P =
| | 0 ) (
dt
d
Inflation > = t P
| | 0 ) (
dt
d
increasing is Inflation
2
2
> = t P
| | 0 ) (
dt
d
decreasing is inflation in increase of Rate
3
3
< = t P
P
MTH 251
Differential Calculus
Chapter 5 The Derivative in Graphing
and Applications

Section 5.2 Analysis of Functions II:
Relative Extrema;
Graphing Polynomials
Copyright 2005 by Ron Wallace, all rights reserved.
Extrema (plural of extremum or extreme)
Intuitively:
The points where a function is at the top
of a peak or the bottom of a valley.
Relative Maximum
If x
0
e (a,b) and f(x
0
) f(x) for all x e (a,b),
then the function has a relative maximum
at x
0
[the relative maximum is f(x
0
)].
a
f(x
0
)
x
0
b
Relative Minimum
If x
0
e (a,b) and f(x
0
) f(x) for all x e (a,b),
then the function has a relative minimum
at x
0
[the relative minimum is f(x
0
)].
a
f(x
0
)
x
0
b
Relative Extremum
If f(x) has a relative maximum or relative
minimum at x
0
, then f(x) has a relative
extremum at x
0
.
a
f(x
0
)
x
0
b a
f(x
0
)
x
0
b
Where can relative extrema occur?
1. At points where f(x) = 0.
Stationary Point
2. At points where f(x) is defined but not differentiable.
Singular Point
3. At endpoints of the functions domain.
The first two cases are called critical points.
Warning:
A critical point may
not be an extremum!
a
f(a)=0
Stationary but Not Extremum.
a
f(a) DNE
Singular but Not Extremum.
Example: Find the Critical Points
3 8 3 2
) ( x x x f =
3 5 3 1
3
8
3
2
) ( ' x x x f =

| |
2 3 1
4 1
3
2
x x =

( )
3 1
2
3
4 1 2
x
x
=
Critical Points:
Stationary @ x=1/2
Singular @ x=0
Note: Graph this function on a calculator using the standard window.
Problem
How can you determine whether a critical point is ...
a relative maximum, or
a relative minimum, or
neither
Two tests
1
st
Derivative Test
2
nd
Derivative Test
The 1
st
Derivative Test
Assume that f(x) is continuous at a critical
point x
0
and differentiable on an open
interval containing x
0
(except possibly at x
0
).
If f(x) > 0 for x < x
0
(i.e. increasing on the left) and
f(x) < 0 for x > x
0
(i.e. decreasing on the right), then
f(x) has a relative maximum at x
0
.
If f(x) < 0 for x < x
0
(i.e. decreasing on the left) and
f(x) > 0 for x > x
0
(i.e. increasing on the right), then
f(x) has a relative minimum at x
0
.

Example 1: Analyze the Critical Points
3 8 3 2
) ( x x x f =
( )
3 1
2
3
4 1 2
) ( '
x
x
x f

=
Critical Points:
Stationary @ x=
Singular @ x=0
x < -
f(-1) = 2 > 0
increasing
- < x < 0
f(-1/8) = -5/4 < 0
decreasing
0 < x <
f(1/8) = 5/4 > 0
increasing
x >
f(1) = -2 < 0
decreasing
So, f(x) has relative maxima at and a relative minimum at 0.
Example 2: Analyze the Critical Points
3 4 5
40 5 4 ) ( x x x x f =
( )( ) 2 3 20 ) ( '
2
+ = x x x x f
Critical Points At:
x=-2
x=0
x=3
x < -2
f(-3) = 1080 > 0
increasing
-2 < x < 0
f(-1) = -80 < 0
decreasing
0 < x < 3
f(1) = -120 < 0
decreasing
x > 3
f(4) = 1920 > 0
increasing
So, f(x) has a relative maximum at -2 and a relative minimum at 3.
The 2
st
Derivative Test
Assume that f(x) is twice differentiable at x
0

and f(x
0
) = 0 (i.e. a stationary critical point).
If f(x
0
) < 0 (i.e. concave down), then f(x) has a
relative maximum at x
0
.
If f(x) > 0 (i.e. concave up), then f(x) has a relative
minimum at x
0
.
If f(x) = 0, then the test fails (i.e. you know nothing).

Example 2 (again):
Analyze the Singular Critical Points
3 4 5
40 5 4 ) ( x x x x f =
( )( ) 2 3 20 ) ( '
2
+ = x x x x f
Critical Points At:
x = -2, 0, 3
x x x x f 240 60 80 ) ( ' '
2 3
=
f(-2) = -400 < 0
concave down
relative max @ -2
f(0) = 0
???
f(3) = 900 > 0
concave up
relative min @ 3
Strategy: Finding Relative Extrema
1. Find the 1
st
& 2
nd
Derivatives.
2. Determine the critical points.
3. Use the 2
nd
Derivative test to analyze
the stationary critical points.
4. Use the 1
st
Derivative test to analyze
the remaining critical points (i.e.
singular and step 3 failures).
Also, dont forget to check the domain endpoints.
MTH 251
Differential Calculus
Chapter 5 The Derivative in Graphing
and Applications

Section 5.4 Absolute Maxima and Minima
Copyright 2005 by Ron Wallace, all rights reserved.
A local max or
min is the value
of the function at
the critical point
or endpoint.
e.g. f(a) is a local
max.
a
f(a)
Extrema
The values of the function at points where the function
is at the top of a peak or the bottom of a valley.
critical points (f(x) = 0 or DNE)
domain endpoints
NOTE: a is not the local max, the local max occurs at a.
Absolute Extrema
f(x
0
) is the absolute maximum if f(x
0
) f(x)
for all x in the domain or interval of interest.
f(x
0
) is the absolute minimum if f(x
0
) f(x) for
all x in the domain or interval of interest.
Will there always be an
absolute minimum and
an absolute maximum?
No! Why?
Can there be more than one abs. max/min?
No, but they can occur more than once!
Extreme-Value Theorem
If f(x) is continuous over [a,b], then f(x) has
an absolute maximum and an absolute
minimum on [a,b].
Why is it necessary for the
function to be continuous? Can
it still have an abs. max/min if
it is not continuous?
Why is it necessary for the
interval to be closed? Can it still
have an abs. max/min if it is
not closed?
Therefore, these are sufficient but not necessary conditions
to guarantee the existence of absolute extrema.
Finding Absolute Extrema: Closed Interval
1. Find the critical points.
relative max or min?
2. Evaluate f(x) at
relative max and relative min points
endpoints
3. Of the values in step 2
largest is the absolute maximum
smallest is the absolute minimum
Example:
] 4 , 0 [ , 3 2 ) (
2
e = x x x x f
Finding Absolute Extrema: Open Interval
1. Find the critical points.
relative max or min?
2. Evaluate f(x) at
relative max and relative min points
3. Evaluate the limits at the endpoints.
[right and left hand limits only]
4. Of the values in step 2
largest is the absolute maximum if the limits
smallest is the absolute minimum if the limits

Example:
) 4 , 0 ( ,
4
7
) (
2
e

= x
x x
x
x f
Finding Absolute Extrema: Infinite Interval
1. Find the critical points.
relative max or min?
2. Evaluate f(x) at
relative max and relative min points
3. Evaluate the limits as x .
4. Of the values in step 2
largest is the absolute maximum if the limits
smallest is the absolute minimum if the limits


Example:
) , ( , 2 3 ) (
4 3
+ e = x x x x f
Finding Absolute Extrema: Other Intervals
(a,b]
[a,b)
(-,b]
(-,b)
[a,+)
(a,+)
Likewise
Two more examples
Example 1
) , 0 ( , 2
) 1 ln(
sin 3
) ( + e +
+
= x
x
x
x f
5 ) ( lim
0
=

x f
x
LHpitals Rule
2 ) ( lim =

x f
x
Squeeze Theorem
) 1 ( ln ) 1 (
sin 3 cos ) 1 ln( ) 1 ( 3
) ( '
2
+ +
+ +
=
x x
x x x x
x f
Critical Points @ x ~ 0.8696, 4.6093,
f(0.8696) = 5.6637
ABS Max
f(4.6093) = 0.2695
ABS Min
5
20
2
Example 2
) 4 , 0 [ , ) (
2
e = x x x f
0 ) 0 ( = f
16 ) ( lim
4
=

x f
x
x x f 2 ) ( ' =
Critical Point @ x =0
f(0) = 0
ABS Min
ABS Max DNE!
4
MTH 251
Differential Calculus
Chapter 5 The Derivative in Graphing
and Applications

Section 5.5 Applied Maximum and
Minimum Problems
Copyright 2005 by Ron Wallace, all rights reserved.
Optimization Problems
Note: Although the function may be
defined over a larger domain, the
interval for the problem may be
restricted due to the conditions of the
application.
Problems that lead to finding the
maximum or minimum value of a
function over an interval.
Example
A box with a top is to be made out of a 20 by
30 rectangular piece of cardboard by cutting
out six squares (see diagram). How large
should the cutout squares be to obtain a box
with the largest possible volume?
Bottom Top
20
30
x V = x [20 2x] [(30 3x)/2]
= 3x
3
60x
2
+ 300x
x e(0, 10)
V = 9x
2
120x

+ 300
= 3 (x 10) (3x 10)
0 lim
0
=
+

V
x
0 lim
10
=

V
x
( ) 4 . 444 3 10 = V
x = 3 1/3 in
V = 444 4/9 in
3

Example (revised)
A box with a top is to be made out of a 20 by
30 rectangular piece of cardboard by cutting
out six squares (see diagram). How large
should the cutout squares be to obtain a box
with the largest possible volume, if the box
can be no more than 3 tall?
Bottom Top
20
30
x V = x [20 2x] [(30 3x)/2]
= 3x
3
60x
2
+ 300x
x e(0, 3]
V = 9x
2
120x

+ 300
= 3 (x 10) (3x 10)
0 lim
0
=
+

V
x
( ) 441 3 = V
( ) 4 . 444 3 10 = V
x = 3 in
V = 441 in
3

( ) 0 10 = V
Strategy for Optimization Problems
1. Draw & Label a Diagram
2. Find a formula that involves the variable to be
optimized (must include one other variable).
3. Determine the domain for the other variable.
4. Solve the resulting absolute max/min problem.
Differentiate the formula
Domain endpoints
Critical points
5. Give your final answer in terms of the problem.
More examples? Pages 318 322.
MTH 251
Differential Calculus
Chapter 5 The Derivative in Graphing
and Applications

Section 5.7 Rolles Theorem;
Mean-Value Theorem
Copyright 2005 by Ron Wallace, all rights reserved.
Rolles Theorem
If f(x) is continuous over [a,b], differentiable over
(a,b), and f(a) = f(b) = 0; then there is at least
one c e (a,b) such that f(c) = 0.
a b c
c
3
c
2

Rolles Theorem - Proof
If f(x) is continuous over [a,b], differentiable over
(a,b), and f(a) = f(b) = 0; then there is at least
one c e (a,b) such that f(c) = 0.
a b
Case 1: f(x) = 0 xe(a,b)
f(x) = 0 xe(a,b)
c is any point in (a,b).
a b
Rolles Theorem - Proof
If f(x) is continuous over [a,b], differentiable over
(a,b), and f(a) = f(b) = 0; then there is at least
one c e (a,b) such that f(c) = 0.
Case 2: f(x
0
) > 0 for some x
0
e(a,b)
f(x) has an abs. max.
Extreme Value Theorem
abs. max. is not at a or b
f(x
0
) > 0, f(a) = f(b) = 0
abs. max. at some value c e (a,b)
stationary critical point at x=c
f(x) is differentiable
f(c) = 0
c x
0

a b
Rolles Theorem - Proof
If f(x) is continuous over [a,b], differentiable over
(a,b), and f(a) = f(b) = 0; then there is at least
one c e (a,b) such that f(c) = 0.
Case 3: f(x
0
) < 0 for some x
0
e(a,b)
f(x) has an abs. min.
Extreme Value Theorem
abs. min. is not at a or b
f(x
0
) < 0, f(a) = f(b) = 0
abs. min. at some value c e (a,b)
stationary critical point at x=c
f(x) is differentiable
f(c) = 0
c
x
0

X-Intercepts
Rolles Theorem - Example
4 3
3 4 ) ( x x x f =
0 3 4
4 3
= x x
( ) 0 3 4
3
= x x
0 ) 3 4 ( ) 0 ( = = f f
( ) x x
x x x f
=
=
1 12
12 12 ) ( '
2
3 2
1 & 0 at 0 ) ( ' = = x x f
Note that 0 < 1 < 4/3
Mean-Value Theorem
If f(x) is continuous over [a,b] and differentiable over
(a,b); then there is at least one c e (a,b) such that
a b
a f b f
c f

=
) ( ) (
) ( '
c a b
) ( ' c f
is the slope of
the tangent line
a b
a f b f

) ( ) (
is the slope of
the secant line
That is, there is a tangent line between a & b [instantaneous change]
with the same slope as the secant line [average change].
Mean-Value Theorem - Proof
If f(x) is continuous over [a,b] and differentiable over
(a,b); then there is at least one c e (a,b) such that
a b
a f b f
c f

=
) ( ) (
) ( '
a c b
Let v(x) = distance from f(x) to
the secent line.
v(x)
Secant Line:
( ) a x
a b
a f b f
a f y

+ =
) ( ) (
) (
( )
(

+ = a x
a b
a f b f
a f x f x v
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
Note that v(a) = v(b) = 0
(i.e. v(x) satisifies Rolles Theorem)
Part I
Mean-Value Theorem - Proof
If f(x) is continuous over [a,b] and differentiable over
(a,b); then there is at least one c e (a,b) such that
a b
a f b f
c f

=
) ( ) (
) ( '
a c b
v(x)
v(x) satisifies Rolles Theorem [i.e. - c e (a,b) v(c) = 0]
(

=
a b
a f b f
x f x v
) ( ) (
) ( ' ) ( '
0
) ( ) (
) ( ' ) ( ' =
(

=
a b
a f b f
c f c v
a b
a f b f
c f

=
) ( ) (
) ( '
Part II
( )
(

+ = a x
a b
a f b f
a f x f x v
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
MVT Theorem Example 1
] 1 , 1 [ 1, 3 4 ) (
3
e + = x x x x f
57735 . 0
3
3
~ = x
0 ) 1 ( = f
2 ) 1 ( = f
1
) 1 ( 1
0 2 ) ( ) (
=

a b
a f b f
3 12 ) ( '
2
= x x f
1 =
Note that: 1
3
3
1 < <
In this case, both solutions satisfy the MVT (only one solution is guaranteed).
MVT Theorem Example 1
] 1 , 1 [ 1, 3 4 ) (
3
e + = x x x x f
57735 . 0
3
3
~ = x
0 ) 1 ( = f
2 ) 1 ( = f
1
) 1 ( 1
0 2 ) ( ) (
=

a b
a f b f
3 12 ) ( '
2
= x x f
1 =
Note that: 1
3
3
1 < <
In this case, both solutions satisfy the MVT (only one solution is guaranteed).
MVT Theorem Example 2
While driving down the freeway at 9:53 am, a state
police officer clocks you at 62 mph. At 10:05 and 15
miles down the road, a second state police officer
clocks you at 64 mph, pulls you over, and gives you a
ticket for driving 72 mph. Are you guilty?
Your average velocity =
mph 75
minutes 12
miles 15
=
Since your speed is a continuous function, the MVT
implies that at some point you were driving 75 mph.
He gave you a break!