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Alat Pengangkat dan Pengangkut Material

(Material Handling Equipment)


Crane and Hoist
Kuliah #3


By
Sugiharto
Mechanical Engineering Department University of Pasundan
Bandung- Indonesia
1. Introductions
History of Cranes
Driving the hoist of wooden crane wooden crane
1. Introductions (contd)
History of Cranes
The development of slewing level luffing cranes from 18561956
1. Introductions
(contd)
History of Cranes
The development of
floating cranes 19051936
1. Introductions (contd)
History of Cranes
100 t mobile
all-purpose crane
1. Introductions (contd)
History of Cranes
Lemniscate
grabbing crane
2500 t
offshore
crane
1. Introductions (contd)
Some types of cranes and lifting equipment
Container quay
cranes
Automatic
stacking
cranes
1. Introductions (contd)
Some types of cranes and lifting equipment
Bulk unloader
Level
luffing
cranes
1. Introductions (contd)
Some types of cranes and lifting equipment
Bock crane
Autocrane
for heavy
loads
1. Introductions (contd)
Some types of cranes and lifting equipment
Ringer crane
Floating
derrick
1. Introductions (contd)
Some types of cranes and lifting equipment
Two offshore cranes;
each for 4000 t
(By courtesy of
Heerema/IHC
Gusto Eng. BV)
Tower
crane
1. Introductions (contd)
Some types of cranes and lifting equipment
Container
mover
Excavator
1. Introductions (contd)
Some types of cranes and lifting equipment
Shuttle
carrier
CRANE
SLEWING JIB
OVERHEAD TRAVELLING
HYDRAULIC FOLDING TYPE
MOTORISED HOIST
WIRE ROPE
CHAIN
MANUAL HOIST (CHAIN BLOCK)
GANTRY
MOBILE
1. Introductions
SLEWING
JIB CRANE
BERPUTAR 360
DERAJAT
1. Introductions (contd)
Up / Down Hoist
OVERHEAD TRAVELLING CRANE
DISEBUT JUGA SEBAGAI
TRUCK MOUNTED CRANE
HYDRAULIC CRANE FOLDING TYPE
1. Introductions (contd)
Up / Down Hoist
Cross Travel
1. Introductions (contd)
WIRE ROPE MOTORISED HOIST
Up / Down Hoist
CHAIN MOTORISED HOIST
1. Introductions (contd)
MANUAL HOIST
Lifting Height /
Hook Path
Span / Cross Travel
Long Travel /
Travel Distance
Gantry
Structure
GANTRY CRANE
1. Introductions (contd)
1. Indoor
2. Outdoor
1. Introductions (contd)
KATEGORI CRANE & HOIST
Indoor
PENGGUNAAN DI INDUSTRI
Mass Production
Batch Production
PENGGUNAAN DI WORKSHOP
Custom Made Production
Outdoor
PELABUHAN
Perdagangan
KAWASAN INDUSTRI
Construction
Dry Dock
Fixed head
1. SLEWING JIB CRANE
2. FOLDING TYPE HYDRAULIC CRANE
3. GANTRY CRANE
Mobile
1. OVERHEAD TRAVELLING CRANE
2. MOTORISED HOIST
3. MANUAL HOIST
1. Introductions (contd)
CONTOH PEMASANGAN CRANE
PEMILIHAN CRANE & HOIST
FAKTOR UTAMA DALAM PEMILIHAN CRANE:

1. CRANE
2. HEAD ROOM
HEAVY DUTY
KAWASAN INDUSTRI
NORMAL DUTY
LIFTING / MOVING SPEED
SINGLE SPEED
DUAL SPEED (Low/Creep & High)
1. Introductions (contd)
FUNGSI CRANE
OVER HEAD CRANE (OHC) : FAKTOR HEAD ROOM
HEAD ROOM RENDAH

HEAD ROOM TINGGI
HEAD ROOM RENDAH
JARAK TOP STRUCTURE CRANE
DENGAN KOLOM
HEAD ROOM TINGGI
JARAK TOP STRUCTURE CRANE
YANG TINGGI DARI KOLOM
KESESUAIAN PEMILIHAN CRANE MENGIKUT
FAKTOR GIRDER
SINGLE GIRDER SUSPENSION CRANE
(Beban Rendah)
SINGLE GIRDER OHC
(Beban Medium)
DOUBLE GIRDER OHC
(Beban Tinggi)
1. Introductions (contd)
Untuk Kapasitas Beban Rendah
SINGLE GIRDER SUSPENSION OHC
1. Introductions (contd)
Untuk Kapasitas Beban Sederhana
SINGLE GIRDER OHC
1. Introductions (contd)
Untuk Kapasitas Beban Tinggi
DOUBLE GIRDER OHC
1. Introductions (contd)
SINGLE GIRDER UNDER RUNNING
CRAB/TROLLEY
Kapasitas Rendah dengan Head Room Rendah
SINGLE GIRDER TOP RUNNING
Kapasitas Rendah dengan Head Room Tinggi
DOUBLE GIRDER UNDER RUNNING
CRAB/TROLLEY
KapasitasTinggi dengan Head Room Rendah
DOUBLE GIRDER TOP RUNNING CRAB/TROLLEY
(Double Rail Crab/Trolley)
KapasitasTinggi dengan Head Room Tinggi
KESESUAIAN PEMILIHAN CRANE MENGIKUTI FAKTOR CRAB/TROLLEY
& END CARRIAGE
1. Introductions (contd)
SINGLE GIRDER UNDER RUNNING CRAB/TROLLEY OHC
1. Introductions (contd)
SINGLE GIRDER UNDER RUNNING CRAB/TROLLEY OHC
1. Introductions (contd)
SINGLE GIRDER TOP RUNNING OHC
1. Introductions (contd)
SINGLE GIRDER TOP RUNNING OHC
1. Introductions (contd)
DOUBLE GIRDER UNDER RUNNING CRAB/TROLLEY OHC
Double Girder
Under Running Crab
1. Introductions (contd)
DOUBLE GIRDER TOP RUNNING CRAB/TROLLEY OHC
1. Introductions (contd)
DOUBLE GIRDER TOP RUNNING CRAB/TROLLEY OHC
1. Introductions (contd)
PANDUAN REKAYASA CRANE SYSTEM
Detail Brief Dari Pihak Pengguna
Input Teknis
Draf Rekayasa bentuk Awal
Penyediaan Rekayasa bentuk Akhir & Spesifikasi
1. Introductions (contd)
SKETSA UNTUK REKAYASA
SKETSA UNTUK REKAYASA
1. Introductions (contd)
PROSEDUR PROSES REKAYASA BENTUK CRANE SYSTEM
KESELAMATAN DAN KESEHATAN KERJA
BRITISH STANDARD (B.S)
FEM (Federation of European Handling Equipment Manufacturer)

1. Introductions (contd)
PENDAFTARAN SERTIFIKASI
KELULUSAN UJIAN BEBAN
(Load Test Approval) : 1.25 x SWL
DESIGN SUBMISSION APPROVAL
(Lengkap dengan Spesifikasi Bahan & Perkiraan)


SYARAT-SYARAT KELULUSAN
KAPASITAS < 5 TON :
Tidak perlu Design & Calculation Submission
Kelulusan Ujian Beban
Surat ijin Kelulusan dari Pabrikan (Manufacturer Cerf)

KAPASITAS > 5 TON :
Perlu Design & Calculation Submission
Kelulusan Ujian Beban
Surat ijin Kelulusan dari Pabrikan (Item Import)

BRITISH STANDARD
B.S. 105:1919 : Crane Rail
B.S. 3579:1963 : Sheaves
B.S. 482 : Hook SWL
B.S. 2573 Part 1, 1977, B.S. 3579:1963
(Crane System Design Consideration)
B.S. 2757, B.S. 822 : Electrical Motor
B.S. 775, B.S 587 : Starter & Contactor
B.S. 466:1960 : Gearing
B.S. 302 and B.S. 621 : Wire Rope
B.S. 15:1948 : Steel Structure
B.S. 538, B.S. 639:1952 : Welding Procedure & Electrode
1. Introductions (contd)
Alat Pengangkat dan Pengangkut Material
(Material Handling Equipment)
Hoisting Equipment
Kuliah #3


By
Sugiharto
Mechanical Engineering Department University of Pasundan
Bandung- Indonesia
1. Hoisting Equipment
Hosting equipment are usually powered equipment used for lifting and
lowering unit and varying loads intermittently. In certain equipment
while lifting and lowering, shifting of the load can also be
accomplished, within an area known as the reach of the equipment.
The primary function of hoisting
equipment is transferring through lifting and lowering operations.

A variety of equipment fall under the heading of hoisting equipment
starting from hoists, different types of elevators and cranes. Excepting
for elevators, these equipment generally utilize a drum, wire rope,
pulleys and load lifting attachments for performing the lifting and
lowering (i.e. hoisting) motions.

Hoisting equipment can be stationary, portable or travelling type. Often
hoisting equipment are mounted on powered vehicles like truck, rail or
ship, when the movement of the lifted load is not limited to a fixed area
of operation.
2. PARTS OF HOISTING EQUIPMENT
Chain and Chain Sprockets
The types of chains used in hoisting equipment are
(i) welded load chains and
(ii) roller chains.

Welded chains are used in low capacity hoisting machines (hoists,
winches, hand operated cranes etc.)
Disadvantages of the welded chain are their
(i) heavy weight,
(ii) susceptibility to jerks and overloads,
(iii) heavy wear of the links,
(iv) low safe speed of movement,
(v) sudden failure without previous indication etc.

On the other hand the advantages are their
(i) flexibility in all directions,
(ii) possibility of using small sized pulleys and drums, (iii) simple
design and manufacturing process etc.

The diameter of welded chain pulleys or drums are, however, should
not be less than 20d, where d is the diameter of rod of each link.
2. PARTS OF HOISTING EQUIPMENT (contd)
Roller chains are composed of plate links, hinge-jointed by pins. Chains
may be made with two plates or for heavier duty with up to twelve plates.
Roller chains are used for both hand operated hoists as well as
electrically driven equipment like hoists or winches for lifting heavy load at
slow speeds (about 15 mpm) and in guideways.

Roller chains are superior to welded chains in many ways namely in
reliability as links are made from solid plates. Roller chains have high
flexibility in the plane of rotation and hence sprockets of smaller diameter
may be used. The friction in the joints are also less hence more efficient.

However, the major limitation of roller chain is that it cannot be used to
carry weight at an angle to the plane of rotation of the links. In such a
case excessive bending load of the plates tend to damage/break the pins.
It is because of this drawback, the roller chains have largely been
replaced by steel wire ropes in the power driven hoisting equipment.
10/13/2014 45
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