14 views

Uploaded by Ramakrishnan Ram

Superconductors lecture.

- Tunnel Diode
- Super Questions
- dta
- CUANTICA.
- ‘High-field-Induced Degradation in Ultrathin Sio2 Films
- Why Nanotechnology
- Basic Introduction to Quantum Mechanics & Atomic Structure
- Superconducting Heterostructures From Antipinning to Pinning Potentials
- [2013] Optics Negative Reaction
- modified fy course
- Solar Cell
- EIE 07-08 AR Revised Syllabus
- Air India Question Paper
- Electronics - 2nd Lecture
- A One-dimensional Liquid of Fermions With Tunable Spin
- Zhou2016-A Numerical Model for Charge Transport in Perovskite-2016
- Stern 1972
- pchem2XRD
- Energy Transport in Trapped Ion Chains - Michael Ramm
- scattheorynr2005

You are on page 1of 19

- A Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor device, placed between two electrodes.

-Josephson Effect: the phase of the wavefunction of a superconducting

electron pair separated by an insulator maintains a fixed phase relation.

-This means that we can describe the wavefunction around the loop of a

Superconductor, with only a phase difference due to the presence of the insulating

Gap.

-This is the very basic form of quantum coherence. The wavefunction in one

branch is coherent with the wavefunction of the second branch. Thus if

we manipulate the state it will be continuous across the boundary with a only

phase difference.

Superconductors

Aluminum 1.2K

Tin 3.7K

Mercury 4.2K

Niobium 9.3K

Niobium-Tin 17.9K

Tl-Ba-Cu-oxide

125K

A superconductor is a metal that allows a current to pass through it with no loss

due to heat dissipation.

Typical values for the critical temperature range from mK to 100K

Metal Critical T(K)

Using Superconductors we can preserve a

wavefunction because the fact that the current

wavefunction is not perturbed by its journey through the

metal means that it will stay in a given state.

The current can be seen as a wavefunction, and is thus

A probability distribution of different current values, this

implies that clockwise and counter clockwise. It is this

view of the current that enables us to create qubits from

a simple loop of superconductor.

Superconductors II

-When a metal is cooled to the critical temperature, electrons in the metal form Cooper Pairs.

-Cooper Pairs are electrons which exchange phonons and become bound together.

-As long as kT < binding energy, then a current can flow without dissipation.

-The BCS theory of Superconductivity states that bound photons have slightly lower

energy, which prevents lattice collisions and thus eliminates resistance.

-Bound electrons behave like bosons. Their wavefunctions dont obey

Pauli exclusion rule and thus they can all occupy the same quantum state.

Cooper Pairs

-Cooper pairs can tunnel together through the insulating layer of Josephson Junction.

-This process is identical to that of quantum barrier

penetration in quantum mechanics.

-Because of the superconducting nature (no

resistance) and the fact that Cooper pairs

can jointly tunnel through an insulator we can

maintain a quantum current through the Josephson Junction without an applied voltage.

-Thus a Josephson Junction can be used as a very sensitive voltage, current or

flux detector.

-A changing magnetic field induces a current to flow in a ring of metal, this effect

can be used to detect flux quanta. Radio Astronomy uses these devices frequently.

Josephson Junction Devices

-There are three primary Josephson Junction devices.

-The Cooper Pair box is the most basic device. We can envision it as a

system with easily split levels, and use the degenerate lowest energy levels as a qubit.

-Similarly to the Cooper Pair box we can use inductors to adjust,

a Josephson Junction, until the potential represented by the

potential well is a degenerate double well. We can then use symmetric and anti-

symmetric wavefunctions and their associated eigenvalues as |0> and |1>.

Josephson Junction Devices II

A current-biased Josephson Junction employs

creates a washboard shaped potential.

Splitting in the wells indicates allows us to use

the lowest two levels as qubit states.

The higher energy state |1> can be detected because the tunneling probability

under a microwave probe will be 500 times as probable to induce a transition.

Creates a detectable voltage by going downhill. Thus we can know the state.

Why Josephson Junctions?

Microscopic implementations:

based on electron spins, nuclei spins, or other microscopic

properties

(+)decohere slowly as naturally distinguishable from environment

(+)single ions can be manipulated with high precision

(-)hard to apply to many qubits

(-)difficult to implement with devices

Macroscopic Implementations: Solid State

- Semiconductors: quantum dots, single donor systems

- Superconductors: Josephson Junctions:

- more success so far

- Josephson tunnel junction is the only non-dissipative, strongly

non-linear circuit element available at low temperature

Benefits of Josephson Junctions

- Low temperatures of superconductor:

- no dissipation of energyno resistanceno electron-electron

interactions(due to energy gap of Cooper pairs)

- low noise levels

- Precise manipulation of qubits possible

- Scalable theoretically for large numbers of qubits

- Efficient use of resources: circuit implementation using

existing integrated circuit fabrication technology

- Nonlinear Circuit Element

- Needed for quantum signal processing

- easy to analyze electrodynamics of circuit

Current versus flux across

Josephson Junction

Circuit Implementation Issues

Electrical measurements of circuit elements:

Classical Quantum =

Numerical values wavefunctions

- E.g. classical capacitor charge superposition of positive and

negative charge

Need to implement gate operations for transferring qubit

information between junction and circuit via entanglement:

Read, Write, Control

But need to avoid introducing too much noise to system,

want to isolate qubits from external electrodynamic

environment

C = 10 pF |C > = a*|0> + b*|1>

Problems

Intrinsic decoherence due to

entanglement

Statistical variations inherent in fabrication transition

frequencies and coupling strength determined and taken

into account in algorithms

Noise from environment causes time

dependent decoherence and relaxation

relaxation: bloch sphere latitude diffusing, state mixing-

decoherence: bloch sphere longtitude diffusing, dephasing -

Due to irreversible interaction with environment,

destroys superposition of states

- change capacitor dielectric constant

- low frequency parts of noise cause

resonance to wobble

diphase oscillation in circuit

- noise with frequency of transition will cause

transition between states energy relaxation

More Problems

Unwanted transitions possible

Can engineer energy difference between states to avoid this

Spurious resonance states:

Example: spurious microwave resonators inside Josephson tunnel

barrier coupling destroys coherence by decreasing amplitude of

oscillations

Measurement Crosstalk: entanglement of different

qubits

Measuring 1 qubit affects state of other qubits

solve with single shot measurement of all qubits

2 qubits done, but multiple will be a challenge

Current Research in

Superconducting Qubits

Identification and reduction of sources of

decoherence

Improved performance of qubit

manipulation

Decoherence In Josephson Phase

Qubits from Junction Resonators

Microscopic two-level systems (resonators)

found within tunnel barriers

Affect oscillation amplitude rather than timing

Decoherence In Josephson Phase

Qubits from Junction Resonators

Simultaneous State Measurement of

Coupled Josephson Phase Qubits

Previous studies rely on separate measurements

of each qubit

Need simultaneous measurement to establish

entanglement

Crosstalk necessitates faster measurement

schemes

Simultaneous State Measurement of

Coupled Josephson Phase Qubits

Faster Qubit Measurement Scheme

Allows for study of 2-qubit dynamics

~2-4ns measurement scheme is an order of

magnitude faster than previous ones

Short bias current pulse reduces well depth

Superconducting Tetrahedral

Quantum Bits

Superconducting Tetrahedral

Quantum Bits

Enhanced quantum fluctuations allow junctions

of higher capacitances

Quadratic susceptibility to flux, charge noise

Variety of manipulation schemes using magnetic

or electric bias

- Tunnel DiodeUploaded bySyed muhammad zaidi
- Super QuestionsUploaded bygverma
- dtaUploaded bysujit_sekhar
- CUANTICA.Uploaded bypiterd
- ‘High-field-Induced Degradation in Ultrathin Sio2 FilmsUploaded byRaghav Tomar
- Why NanotechnologyUploaded byVijay Iyer
- Basic Introduction to Quantum Mechanics & Atomic StructureUploaded bynitu
- Superconducting Heterostructures From Antipinning to Pinning PotentialsUploaded byLuis Pascual
- [2013] Optics Negative ReactionUploaded byAhmad Usman
- modified fy courseUploaded byapi-268535022
- Solar CellUploaded byNikki Duran
- EIE 07-08 AR Revised SyllabusUploaded byAlapati Nageswara Rao
- Air India Question PaperUploaded byarnold_samuel3848
- Electronics - 2nd LectureUploaded byAnas
- A One-dimensional Liquid of Fermions With Tunable SpinUploaded byMatheus Mendes
- Zhou2016-A Numerical Model for Charge Transport in Perovskite-2016Uploaded byupsilon2
- Stern 1972Uploaded byabdulbabul
- pchem2XRDUploaded byHector Martinez Guillermo
- Energy Transport in Trapped Ion Chains - Michael RammUploaded byCambiador de Mundo
- scattheorynr2005Uploaded bychoritrob
- Symmetry Theory of the Flexomagnetoelectric Effect in the Bloch LinesUploaded byb_m_tanygin
- BJT 2Uploaded byWondimu Sebhat
- sensors-15-07844Uploaded byHFdzAl
- Quantum Device Detects and Corrects Its Own ErrorsUploaded byCalvinGadson
- phonon energyUploaded bySid Abhinav

- Defect Structure of OxidesUploaded byRamakrishnan Ram
- Liquid Penetrate Testing - Basics and ApplicationUploaded byRamakrishnan Ram
- Events That Shook the WorldUploaded byRamakrishnan Ram
- Semiconductor Clean Room_ IntroUploaded byRamakrishnan Ram
- Application of Soft-hard MagnetsUploaded byRamakrishnan Ram
- Introduction About Catalytics Metal Oxides Prepared by PEO ProcessUploaded byRamakrishnan Ram
- Introduction and Operation of SEM SimplifiedUploaded byRamakrishnan Ram
- How Materials Science Progressed in IndiaUploaded byRamakrishnan Ram
- Characterization Techniques and EpitaxyUploaded byRamakrishnan Ram
- Bulk Crystal GrowthUploaded byRamakrishnan Ram
- Fundamentals of Vapor Phase Epitaxial Growth ProcessesUploaded byRamakrishnan Ram
- top500(1-100)Uploaded bySandeep Kumar
- SiC EpitaxyUploaded byRamakrishnan Ram
- MNW Lect Quant TunnelingUploaded byRamakrishnan Ram
- 353 Xtal GrowthUploaded byRamakrishnan Ram

- Summary of QFTUploaded byshivsagardharam
- Ex Quantum MechanicsUploaded byKamil
- Lecture2 PDE 2016Uploaded byAkash Mahalik
- EXP3.docxUploaded bykarla
- Integral Question Bank Maths lUploaded byJames 성민 Choi
- 3 Degree of Freedom ManipulatorUploaded byHarilal Remesan
- w9-234-hUploaded byKirz Serrano
- Sheet2 Dual AspectsUploaded byDiva Karunia Safitri
- Einstein1905.pdfUploaded bykaubrey
- .Moleculary Symmetry, Projection Diagrams, And Point GroupsUploaded bycclatrum
- Polchinski-firewall paradox.pdfUploaded byAalok Gangopadhyay
- 2 Equation of State1Uploaded byOctaviano Maria Oscar
- CSTUploaded byVasthadu Vasu Kannah
- TensorUploaded byAbhik Sarkar
- 1101 Lab 7 - EquilibriumUploaded byrajesaravind
- Maxwell EquationUploaded byMohammad Rameez
- Electric Field - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded byd_richard_d
- Albert EinsteinUploaded byCindy Yee
- UPP CourseComponents 2014Uploaded byAndrew Yook
- Spin Angular Ch4Uploaded byJR
- Errata of McDuffUploaded bykwunmk
- Mod 7Uploaded byapi-3766872
- Wormholes, Time Machines, And the Weak Energy ConditionUploaded byFabrizzio Bugini Jara
- Chapter 13Uploaded bykumalahardiyani
- Chap 41Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- Physical WorldUploaded byLord Siva
- The Equation of the UniverseUploaded byRussell Bagdoo
- Bourdon Tube DESIGNUploaded byMourougapragash Subramanian
- Nina's ArticleUploaded byLeonardoCabrera
- Bh ThermodynamicsUploaded byConnor Kinsey