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Matrix

Session 1
Course : K2092 - Linear Algebra
Year : December 2011
Defnition
A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers. Te numbers in
te array are calle! te entries in te matrix.
"
A general m x n matrix A as
"
Te entry tat occurs in ro# i an! column j of
matrix A #ill be !enote! a
ij
or $A%
ij
.
n m
mn m m
n
n
a a a
a a a
a a a
A

=
...

...
...
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11

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Example 1 Examples of matrices
"
Some exam+les of matrices
"
Si,e $or!er% of matrix is !enote! by m x n-
#it m number of ro#s an! n number of its
coloumn
.xam+le: * x 2- 1 x /- * x *- 2 x 1- 1 x 1
[ ] [ ] 4 ,
3
1
,
0 0 0
1 0
2
, 3 - 0 1 2 ,
4 1
0 3
2 1
2
1

row matrix or row vector


column matrix or
column vector
entries
/

A matrix A #it n ro#s an! n columns is calle!


a s0uare matrix of or!er n- an! te sa!e!
entries
are sai! to be on te main
!iagonal of A.
nn
a a a , , ,
22 11

"
Te +rece!ing matrix can be #ritten as
Matrices Notation and
Terminology
[ ] [ ]
ij
n m
ij
a a or

nn n n
n
n
a a a
a a a
a a a
...

...
...
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11

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Defnition
T#o matrices are !e2ne! to be e0ual if
tey a)e te same si,e an! teir
corres+on!ing entries are e0ual.
[ ] [ ]
. and all for if only and if then
size, same the have and If
j i b a B A
b B a A
ij ij
ij ij
= =
= =
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Example 2
Equality of Matrices
"
Consi!er te matrices

=
0 4 3
0 1 2
,
5 3
1 2
,
3
1 2
C B
x
A

4f x 5 1- ten A 5 B.

6or all oter )alues of x- te matrices A an! B


are not e0ual.

Tere is no )alue of x for #ic A 5 C -


#y77
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Operations on Matrices
"
4f A an! & are matrices of te same si,e- ten te
sum A9& is te matrix obtaine! by a!!ing te
entries of & to te corres+on!ing entries of A.
"
:ice )ersa- te !i;erence A<& is te matrix
obtaine! by subtracting te entries of & from te
corres+on!ing entries of A.
( )
( )
ij ij ij ij ij
ij ij ij ij ij
b a B A B A
b a B A B A
= =
+ = + = +
) ( ) (
) ( ) (

'ote: Matrices of !i;erent si,es cannot be a!!e!


or subtracte!.
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Example 3
Addition and u!traction
" Consi!er te matrices
>
Ten
> Te ex+ressions A9C- &9C- A<C- an! &<C are un!e2ne!.

=
2 2
1 1
,
5 4 2 3
1 0 2 2
1 5 3 4
,
0 7 2 4
4 2 0 1
3 0 1 2
C B A

= +
5 11 4 1
5 2 2 3
2 5 2 6
,
5 3 0 7
3 2 2 1
4 5 4 2
B A B A
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calar Multiplication
4f A is any matrix an! c is any scalar $a real or com+lex
number%- ten te +ro!uct cA is te matrix obtaine! by
multi+lying eac entry of te matrix A by c. Te matrix
cA is sai! to be te scalar multi+le of A.
" 6or te matrices

=
12 0 3
3 6
,
5 3 1
7 2 0
,
1 3 1
4 3 2
C B A
( )

=
4 0 1
1 2 3
,
5 3 1
7 2 0
1 - ,
2 6 2
! 6 4
2
3
1
C B A
@e a)e
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Matrix Multiplication "1#2$
"
Matrix multi+licationA is an m A r matrix an! & is
an r A n matrix- ten te +ro!uct is A& is te m A
n matrix #ose entries are !etermine! as follo#s.
"
te entry in ro# i an! column j of A&- single out
ro# i from te matrix A an! column j from te
matrix &. Multi+ly te corres+on!ing entries from
te ro# an! column togeter an! ten a!! u+ te
resulting +ro!ucts.
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Matrix Multiplication "2#2$

To 2n! te entry in ro# i an! column j of A&-


single out ro# i from te matrix A an! column j
from te matrix &. Multi+ly te corres+on!ing
entries from te ro# an! column togeter an!
ten a!! u+ te resulting +ro!ucts.
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Example %& Multiplying Matrices
"1#2$
"
Consi!er te matrices
"
Solution
> Since A is a 2 A * matrix an! & is a * A / matrix- te
+ro!uct A& is a 2 A / matrix. An!:
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Example %& Multiplying Matrices
"2#2$
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Example '
Determining ()et)er a *roduct +s
Defned
"
Su++ose tat A -& -an! C are matrices #it te
follo#ing si,es- !etermining #ic +ro!uct is !e2ne!.
A & C
* A/ / A8 8 A*
Solution:
>
A& is !e2ne! an! is a * A8 matrixB &C is !e2ne!
an! is a / A* matrixB an! CA is !e2ne! an! is a 8
A/ matrix. Te +ro!ucts AC -C& -an! &A are all
un!e2ne!.
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*roperties of Matrix Operations
"
6or real numbers a an! b -#e al#ays a)e ab5ba- #ic
is calle! te commutative law for multiplication.
"
6or matrices- A& an! &A nee! not be e0ual.
"
.0uality can fail to ol! for tree reasons:
>
Te +ro!uct A& is !e2ne! but &A is un!e2ne!.
>
A& an! &A are bot !e2ne! but a)e !i;erent si,es.
>
4t is +ossible to a)e e)en if bot A& an! &A
are !e2ne! an! a)e te same si,e.
BA AB
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Example ,&
A- and -A Need Not -e Equal
e"am#les. $o%nter &ivin& for %sef%l 'e may matri$e t(o )hese
*+, to e-%al is +* .oes ,
1 0
1 0
* and
0 0
1 1
+

=
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T)eorem
*roperties of Matrix Arit)metic
Assuming tat te si,es of te matrices are suc tat te
in!icate! o+erations can be +erforme!- te follo#ing rules of
matrix aritmetic are )ali!:
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Example .
Associati/ity of Matrix
Multiplication
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Cancelation La# !oes not ol! $1%
" Cecall tat for any real numbers a,b,c
" ab 5 ac an! a / 0 means b 0 c
)his $alled cancelation law. 1o(ever, this does not hold in matri" m%lti#li$ation.
Example:Consi!er
" 4t can be )eri2e! tat
altoug B / C
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=
4 3
5 2
,
4 3
1 1
,
2 0
1 0
C B A
AC AB =

=
! 6
4 3
Transpose
"
4f A is any mAn matrix- ten te trans+ose
of A -!enote! by -is !e2ne! to be te
nAm matrix tat results from intercanging
te ro#s an! columns of A B tat is- te 2rst
column of is te 2rst ro# of A -te
secon! column of is te secon! ro# of
A -an! so fort.
T
A
T
A
T
A
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Example 0
ome Transposes "1#2$
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Example 1
ome Transposes "2#2$
"
Dbser)e tat
"
4n te s+ecial case #ere A is a square matrix- te
trans+ose of A can be obtaine! by intercanging
entries tat are symmetrically +ositione! about te
main !iagonal.
ji ij
T
A A ) ( ) ( =
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2*
Trace
4f A is a s0uare matrix- ten te trace of A -!enote! by tr$A%-
is !e2ne! to be te sum of te entries on te main !iagonal
of A .Te trace of A is un!e2ne! if A is not a s0uare matrix.
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2ero Matrices
" A matrix- all of #ose entries are ,ero- suc as
is calle! a 3ero matrix .

A ,ero matrix #ill be !enote! by 0 B if it is im+ortant


to em+asi,e te si,e- #e sall #rite 0
mxn
for te
mAn ,ero matrix. Moreo)er- in Eee+ing #it our
con)ention of using !oldface sym!ols for
matrices #it one column- #e #ill !enote a ,ero
matrix #it one column by 4 .

Fero matrix as roles as identity element of matrix


multiplication- similar #it 0 as i!entity element of
multi+lication in real numbers.
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T)eorem& *roperties of 2ero
Matrices
Assuming tat te si,es of te matrices are
suc tat te in!icate! o+erations can be
+erforme! -te follo#ing rules of matrix
aritmetic are )ali!.
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Cancelation La# Does 'ot Gol! $2%
" Cecall tat for any real numbers a an! b
a0 5 b0 means a 0 b
1o(ever, this does not hold in matri" m%lti#li$ation.
Example&
4t can be )eri2e! tat
altoug neiter A nor D is ,ero matrix.
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=
0 0
7 3
,
2 0
1 0
D A

=
0 0
0 0
AD
+dentity Matrix
" S0uare matrices #it 1Hs on te main !iagonal an!
0Hs o; te main !iagonal suc as is calle! an
identity matrix. 4!entity matrix #it si,e is
!enote! by I
n
" 4!entity matrix taEes role as identity element of
matrix multiplication, similar #it 1 as i!entity
elemnet of multi+lication on real number. Tat is- if
!e2ne!- AI 5 A an! IA 5 A. &ina 'usantara (ni)ersity
2=
I 2 I3 I 4
Recall : A = A and A = A , as A is an mn matrix
Example 14
Multiplication !y an +dentity
Matrix
m
I
n
I
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4f A is a s0uare matrix- an! if a matrix & of te same si,e can
be foun! suc tat A& 5 &A 5 4 - ten A is sai! to be
invertible an! & is calle! an inverse of A $&5A
<1
% . 4f no suc
matrix & can be foun!- ten A is sai! to be singular .
+n/ers of matrix
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*0
T5+AN678A5 MAT5+9
7**E5 T5+AN678A5 MAT5+9
A square matrix :it) all elements -E8O( its main diagonal are 3eros
a ! c
A ; 4 d e
4 4 f
8O(E5 T5+AN678A5 MAT5+9
A square matrix :it) all elements A-O<E its main diagonal are 3eros
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8O(E5 T5+AN678A5 MAT5+9
A square matrix :it) all elements A-O<E its
main diagonal are 3eros
a 4 4
- ; ! c 4
d e f
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.xercise
"
4f A 5
2n! $A& 9 C%
t

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2 0
0 2
,
0 1
1 0
0 1
,
1 1 1
1 2 1
C B
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