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Case Study on LCC of

Rigid and Flexible

Study area : Mulund Goregaon Link Road

The cement concrete pavement usually has life up to 25 to 40 years
whereas flexible pavement can have life up to 15 to 20 years. Hence it
becomes necessary to determine which pavement is more economical
for entire life.
The cost of initial construction of pavements depends upon the cost of
aggregates; cost of binder, equipment hire charges and cost of labor etc.
The cost of maintenance of roads depends upon a number of factors
among them being the volume and intensity of traffic, cost of materials,
labor and machinery, type of terrain, type of wearing surface, the
minimum level of serviceability which is acceptable for that category of
road , climatic conditions etc.
In the proposed study life cycle cost analysis has been carried out
between cement concrete pavements and bituminous pavements.
Scope of work
A stretch of 5 km of Mulund Goregaon link road was decided as study
corridor and all the related data of initial investment, cost of various
maintenance, geometrics, structural requirements etc for the both
concrete and bituminous roads were collected.
A traffic survey was done in 2008 to identify classified traffic volume in
terms Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT)
Highway Development Management (HDM -4) software was used for
carrying out economic evaluation of pavements.
Various parameters of HDM 4 software were calibrated as per local
Economic and financial costs of various types of repair and maintenance
were identified based on feedback from highway experts.
Goregaon-Mulund Link Road
In this project Mulund - Goregaon Link Road is taken for
economical evaluation. The length of the road is 5.00
Km from Eastern express High way to L.B.S.Marg
Bhandup (west). The road is 30 m wide with 15.00 m
width on either direction with 3 lanes on each side. The
road is having 2.50 m shoulder and 0.90M wide drain
on both directions.
Data Collection and Analysis
Vehicle Type Daily Traffic Volume
East bound(towards eastern
West bound Both Directions
Truck 3-Axle 476 509 985
Truck 2-Axle 1235 1405 2650
Truck LCV 995 975 1970
Container 26 20 46
Auto-Rickshaw 2805 2635 5440
Two 5140 5325 10465
Car/Jeep/Van/Taxi 7350 5315 12665
Bus 365 426 791
Initial investment of bituminous pavement has been considered as Rs.
2700 per square meter where as for concrete it is considered as Rs 4500
per square meter (Source: Brihan Mumbai Mahanagar palika Fair Market
Rate Schedule for Road Works W.E.F.14.11.2008).
In case of bituminous pavement an over lay of Semi Dense
Bituminoue Consrete (SDBC) of 25 mm is is proposed along
with following routine maintenance options:

a. Drainage repair
b. Edge repair
c. Patching and potholing
d. Crack sealing
e. Shoulder repair

Apart from above management cost has been taken in
account. The economical value of management cost is
considered as Rs. 12,000 and Rs. 15, 000 per kilometer.
Details of routine maintenance for bituminous pavement
The economic management cost for concrete pavement is taken as Rs 10,
000 and financial cost Rs 12,000 per km. In case of cement concrete
pavement following maintenance options have been considered.

a. Joint sealing
b. Diamond Grinding
c. Full Depth repair
For the analysis rate of interest has been adopted as 12 % and life of both the
pavements have been considered as 25 years.
Details of outcome
The total savings in VOC & TTC on cement concrete pavement
over bituminous over a period of 20 yrs is Rs.2095 millions in
one direction whereas same for other direction is Rs.1731
The discounted net benefits for a period of 20 yrs on cement
concrete over flexible pavement is Rs.499 millions.
The Internal Rate of Return of the rigid pavement over flexible
pavement is 46.4% whereas for in other direction it is 41.1%.
The undiscounted road agency and road user costs for both the
alternatives shows that there is a total saving of Rs.2095 millions
over a period of 20 yrs for the section and a saving of Rs.1731
millions for the section ion opposite direction.
The discounted road agency and road user costs for both the
The result is shows there is a total saving of Rs.617 millions
over a period of 20 yrs for one direction and a saving of Rs.499
millions for the other direction at discount rate being 12%.
The initial cost of 5 km long bituminous pavement (Mulund
Goregaon) is Rs 13, 50, 00,000 (thirteen crores fifty lakhs)
whereas cost of cement concrete pavement of the same length
is Rs. 31,50,00,000.
In spite of more than 100% heavy initial investment in cement
concrete pavement results indicates that there is great saving
towards VOC and travel time cost in cement concrete
Moreover there is substantial savings in maintenance of cement
concrete pavement which requires works like diamond grinding, mud
jacking and full depth repair over long periods.
Whereas in case of bituminous pavements they require various
different maintenance work regularly such as patching, resurfacing,
edge repair, shoulder repair, pot holes filling etc.. Moreover they
need an overlay every five years.
This causes the overall cost of flexible pavement to be so high
compared to rigid pavements over a period of time.
The Net present value (NPV) and economic IRR values also indicate
that cement concrete pavements are more economical than
bituminous pavements in their life cycle cost.