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Modern Periodic Table

Part I
Introduction.
Periods and groups.
Metals, nonmetals and metalloids.
The Modern Periodic Table
The Periodic Table is a listing of all the
known elements.
The elements are organized by:
Atomic number
Chemical Properties


Groups and Periods

Group( or Family): a vertical column.
Elements in groups have similar
chemical properties.

Period: a horizontal row.

Groups and Periods are
numbered.
There are 7 periods.

There are 18 numbered columns.
IUPAC
International Union of Pure and Applied
Chemistry

1985 new system for labeling groups.
Metals, Nonmetals and Metalloids
Elements can be classified into:

Metals

Nonmetals

Metalloids (semimetals)
Metals
Metalloids
Nonmetals
Actinides and Lanthanides
Physical Properties of Metals
Good conductors of electricity and heat.
Malleable (can be hammered into sheets).
Ductile (can be drawn into wires).
Lustrous.
Chemical Properties of Metals
Easily lose electrons.

Form positive (+) ions.
Nonmetal Physical Properties
They do not have the properties of
metals.
Nonmetal Chemical Properties
Gain electrons.

Form negative ions.
Part II
Valence Electrons
Group 1
Group 2
-Niels Bohrs Model
Distinct Energy Levels
Periods
The periods (rows) of the periodic table
indicate the highest energy level
occupied by one or more electrons.
Valence Electrons
The electrons the occupy the highest
energy level of an atom.

Valence electrons play a key role in the
chemical properties of an element.
A Groups (Old System)
The A groups are numbered 18.

The number of the A groups
correspond to the number of valence
electrons.
Group 1- Alkali Metals
1 valence electron (ns
1)

Form a 1+ ion.

Note: Hydrogen, a nonmetal, is located
in the first column because it has one
valence electron.
Group 1- Alkali Metals

Lithium

Sodium

Potassium

Rubidium

Cesium

Francium

Sodiums Reaction with H
2
O
Produces Hydrogen

Reactivity of Alkali Metals
Increases from top to bottom of the
group.


Which is more reactive Cesium or
Sodium?
Note:
Sodium and Potassium are stored in oil
to keep them from reacting with oxygen
and water in the air.

Cesium is stored in glass tubes of argon
gas( an inert gas).
Group 2- Alkali Earth Metals

Beryllium

Magnesium

Calcium

Strontium

Barium

Radium


Group 2- Alkali Earth Metals
Have 2 valence electrons.

Form 2+ ions.


Group 2- Alkali Earth Metals
Reactions with Water

Be does not react with water.
Mg reacts with hot water.
Ca, Sr, Ba react easily with cold water.

Which way along the group does
reactivity increase?
Notes:
There is Mg in chrolophyll
C
55
H
72
O
5
N
4
Mg

Calcium is in your bones,
chalk, limestone,
toothpaste, pearl (all as
calcium carbonate).
The Periodic Table