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DENSITY

Density is a broader term. It is used in mathematics (statistics, geometry,


number density),physics(magnetic field density, current density etc.).
It is always a ratio.
If simply density is mentioned then it is assumed as mass density.

Mass Density
Density:-It is defined as the ratio between the mass and volume for a
substance. It is a measure of how much mass is contained in a given unit of
volume.
= m/v.
It is a intensive property. i.e. does not depend on amount of matter.

Unit of density:
SI unit = kg/m
other units :- gm/ml, gm/l = gm/dm


Characteristics
Density changes with temperature,
pressure etc.
Change in density is higher
for gases as compared to liquid and
solid.
Generally more dense material remains
at the bottom if mixture is poured in
column.

DENSITY MEASUREMENT
PYCNOMETRIC DENSITY MEASUREMENT
Pycnometer are static device.
A pycnometer is a glass beaker of defined
volume. It is weighed without sample (M1),
then filled with the sample and weighed
again (M2). The difference between M1 and
M2 (=Mass of the sample) divided by the
volume of the beaker is the density of the
sample.
For good precision, ultimate care must be
exercised during the measurements; i.e.,
the bottle must be cleaned after each
measurement,
the temperature must be kept constant,
and precision balances must be used.


Advantage Disadvantage Application
simple method breakable glassware educational: what is
density, how to measure
density
relatively inexpensive
instrument
long and difficult
thermostating
production control: where
more precision is required
special instruments with
direct readings in
Alcohol%, Sugar% (BRIX) or
other density related
values available
density must be calculated
(some balances include
this calculation)

large sample volume
required

analytical labs: where GLP
is not required
operator dependent
readings, therefore limited
accuracy
INSTRUMENT USED
DENSITY KIT
It includes a weighing machin of fixed accuracy ,glass
beaker, and holder for beaker
BOUYANCY TYPE DENSITOMETER
Uses archimedes principle.
Archimedes' principle: When a body is fully or partly immersed in a liquid,
that body experiences an upward force (the buoyant force) equal to the
weight of the displaced liquid. The displaced liquid is that volume of liquid
equal to the volume of the body below the water surface.
A suspended sinker, with a known mass and volume attached to a ne
wire, is totally immersed in the sample liquid.
A precision force balance is used to measure the force to support the
sinker.
Once the mass, volume, and supporting weight of the sinker are known,
the density of the liquid can be calculated.
Some corrections need to be made for:
surface tension on the suspension wire,
the cubicle expansion coefcient of the sinker, and
the temperature of process.
Give accurate results and are used for the calibration of the other liquid
density transducers.
One advanced version of the buoyancy technique is the magnetic
suspension system.
The sinker is fully enclosed in a pressure vessel, thus eliminating surface
tension errors.
Their uses can also be extended to applications such as
the specic gravity measurements under low vapor pressures, and
density measurements of hazardous uids.


HYDROMETER
Main technique of operation : BOUYANCY
PRINCIPLE.
The hydrometer (aerometer) is a glass body
which is dipped into the sample. After a
short equilibration time it will swim at a
certain level (when the mass of the
hydrometer is equal to the buoyancy
effect). The higher the density of the
sample, the less the aerometer will sink.
The level of equlibriation reads the density
on the calibrated scale.
The volume of xed mass is converted to a
linear distance by a sealed bulb-shaped
glass tube containing a long stem
measurement scale.


FIG. - HYDROMETER
Advantage Disadvantage Application
simple method breakable glassware quick control of a "rough"
density value, mainly for
process control
quick measurement long and difficult
thermostating
suitable for the
measurement of the same
kind of sample (wine, beer)
due to the limited
measuring range
inexpensive instrument very small measuring range
(requires several
hydrometers to cover a
wider range, typically 20
units)
special instruments with
direct readings in
Alcohol%, Sugar% (BRIX) or
other density related
values available
operator dependent
readings, therefore limited
accuracy
U- TUBE DENSITY MEASUREMENT
The oscillating U-tube is a technique to determine the density of liquids
and gases based on an electronic measurement of the frequency of
oscillation, from which the density value is calculated. This measuring
principle is based on the Mass-Spring Model.
The sample is filled into a container with oscillation capacity. The eigen
frequency of this container is influenced by the samples mass. This
container with oscillation capacity is a hollow ,U-shaped glass
tube (oscillating U-tube) which is electronically excited into undamped
oscillation (at the lowest possible amplitude). The two branches of the U-
shaped oscillator function as its spring elements.
The direction of oscillation is normal to the level of the two branches. The
oscillators eigen frequency is only influenced by the part of the sample
that is actually involved in the oscillation. The volume involved in the
oscillation is limited by the stationary oscillation knots at the bearing
points of the oscillator. If the oscillator is at least filled up to its bearing
points, the same precisely defined volume always participates in the
oscillation, thus the samples mass can be considered proportional to its
density.

In the digital density meter, the mechanic oscillation of the U-tube is e.g.
electromagnetically transformed into an alternating voltage of the
same frequency. The period can be measured with high resolution and
stands in simple relation to the density of the sample in the oscillator


A and B are the respective instrument constants of each
oscillator. Their values are determined by calibrating with two substances
of the precisely known densities 1 and 2.
Balanced-Flow Vessel
A xed volume vessel is employed for
the measurements.
While the liquid is owing
continuously through the vessel, it is
weighed automatically by a sensitive
scale a spring balance system or a
pneumatic force balance transmitter.
As the volume and the weight of the
liquid are known, the density or
specic gravity can easily be
calculated and scaled in respective
units.
In the design process, extra care must
be exercised for the exible end
connections.

BALANCE TYPE DENSITOMETER
Chain Balanced Float
A self-centering, xed-volume, submerged plummet is
used for density measurements.
The plummet is located entirely under the liquid
surface.
At balance, the plummet operates without friction
and is not affected by surface contamination.
Under steady-state conditions, the plummet assumes
a stable position.
The effective weight of the chain on the plummet
varies, depending on the position of the plummet,
which in turn is a function of the density of the liquid.
The plummet contains a metallic transformer core
that transmits changes in the position to be measured
by a pickup coil.
The voltage differential, a function of plummet
displacement, is calibrated as a measure of variations
in specic gravity.
A resistance thermometer bridge is used for the
compensation of temperature effects on density.
REFRACTOMETER
Principle:-
By measuring the refraction (refraction rate) of light,
the refractometer can be used as a measuring device
various concentrations.

1. ABBE REFRACTOMETER (benchtop)
A few drops of the liquid to be measured are put on the
prism. The refractive index can be read directly from the
built-in scale, looking into the refractometer. Connection
to an external water bath allows thermostating required
for accurate refractive index measurements. Some models
use natural light, the most advanced a light source with
defined wave length.
Advantage :-
Relatively inexpensive instrument.

Disadvantage:-
Long and difficult thermostating
Operator dependant reading
,therefore less accuracy.
Tedius calibration.
This measurement technique is not
recommended in applications in
processes containing suspended
solids, high turbidity, entrained air,
heavy colors, poor transparency and
opacity, or extremely high ow rates

Main Applicaion:-
Production control
Raw material control
2. HANDHELD REFRACTOMETER
A few drops of the liquid to be measured are put
on the prism. The refractive index can be read
directly from the built-in scale, looking into the
refractometer. Some models feature a
temperature compensation scale. There are
refractometers for specific concentration
measurement with dedicated concentration scales
(BRIX, salinity).
Advantage
Simple method
inexpensive instrument
special instrument with direct
reading


Disadvantage:-
small measuring range
operator dependant reading
no measuremnt protocol
Application
quick control for rough density value
sugar control in wine production


3. DIGITAL REFRACTOMETER
The latest in refractive index measurement. A high resolution optical sensor
measures the total reflection of a light beam emitted by a special LED light
source after hitting the sample.This total reflection is converted into
refractive index, BRIX, HFCS or user defined concentrations. A built-in
Peltier thermostat controls the temperature (no water bath required).



Advantage:
built in thermostate
high accuracy measurement
Operator independent result
automation
Disadvantage
Relatively expensive

Application
perfume ,fragrances
Production Control
Raw Material


DIGITAL DENSITY METER
A hollow glass tube vibrates at a
certain frequency. This frequency
changes when the tube is filled
with the sample: the higher the
mass of the sample, the lower
the frequency. This frequency is
measured and converted into
density. Calibration is carried out
with air and distilled water. A
built-in Peltier thermostat
controls the temperature very
precisely, without using a water
bath.

Advantage Disadvantage Application
Built in thermostate Relatively expensive High accuracy
measurement
Very high accuracy Perfumes ,fragrance where
small sample volume is
required
Operator independent
result
Soft drinks ,cola drinks
BRIX measurement
Small sample volume Alcoholic beverage, alcohol
measurement
Petroleum API
measurement
NUCLEONIC DENSITY GAUGE
Nucleonic Density gauges send a focused beam of radiation from the
source holder to a detector mounted on the opposite side of the process
pipe or vessel.
As the density within the pipe increases, the energy reaching the
detector progressively decreases and therefore process density can be
calculated.
The integral HART transmitter in the detector is pre-programmed with a
density linearisation curve. Therefore it can be commissioned easily with
single-point or two-point calibration.
The optional flow meter input enables the density gauge to calculate the
mass flow in pipes with diameters from 50 mm to 1000 mm.

DSG provided by OHMART VEGA
ADVANTAGES
PROCESS TEMPERATURE COMPENSATED DENSITY
With input from a temperature probe, the density can be calculated to a
reference process temperature.
EASE OF CALIBRATION
For most applications, users can utilize a one-point calibration method
referencing a fluid of known density. The two-point calibration
method is also supported.
PERCENT SOLIDS MEASUREMENT
When the carrier fluid remains stable, nuclear density gauges provide
highly accurate measurement of percent solids for most slurries.
MASS FLOW MEASUREMENT
When used in conjunction with a flow meter, nuclear density gauges
provide online mass flow monitoring.
POINT LEVEL SWITCH
Due to its high sensitivity, the DSG can be used for point level
applications.
System includes one analog and one discrete output.
COMPATIBLE WITH MOST SOURCE HOLDERS
AVAILABLE WITH PVT PLASTIC OR SODIUM IODIDE CRYSTAL

APPLICATION
Pulp & paper
White liquor
Black liqour
Green
liquor
Lime mud
Soap and
detergent
Liquid soap
density
Dry
detrgent
bulk density
Mining
slurries
Coal
Potash
Brine
phaspheae
Lime stone
gold
Taconite
copper
chemical
acid
concentrati
on/mixture.

polymer
density

Ammonia

Lime slurry
Refinery/pipe
line
Crude oil
density
Refined oil
density
Pipeline
product
interface
Food & grain
Mesh
density
Soy slurry
ULTRASONIC DENSITY SENSOR
The determination of the density of different liquids is very
important for process automation. Commonly available sensors are
limited to pipe diametersbelow 60 mm.
Ultrasonic measurement principles overcome this limitation, thus
allowing measurements in large pipes without pressure loss.
The sensor comprises a transducer consisting of a piezoceramic
disk mounted between two reference rods of quartz glass.
Additionally, a second transducer is used as a sound receiver.
The density is obtained from the reflection coefficient of
ultrasound at the interface between the quartz glass rod and the
liquid, and the transit time of sound between this interface and the
second transducer
SENSOR PRINCIPLE
The density p of a liquid is obtained from its acoustic impedance Z
and sound velocity with the help of the relation
Z = p ' c.
The sound velocity is calculated from the transit time of an
ultrasonic pulse along a known distance.
The acoustic impedance can be calculated from the measurement
of the reflection coefficient R of sound at the interface of a material
with known acoustic impedance (reference material) and the
unknown liquid
Model 9690 Inline Ultrasonic Density Sensor and Analyzer By
Rhosonics Analytical
BENEFITS
Very easy to install
Medium-independent density measurement
Fully inline, zero intrusion
Easy fix in Rhosonics wafer cell
Very insensitive to gas bubbles

DYNATROL DENSITY SENSOR
Principle of Operation
The media under test flows through the
internal U-tube portion of the Dynatrol
cell. The tubing is driven into
mechanical vibration by the electrically
excited drive coil. As the density or
specific gravity of the media increases
or decreases, so does the effective mass
of the U-tube, changing the frequency
of vibration.
The pick-up end, consisting of an
armature and coil arrangement, senses
the vibration and provides an output
that is a function of the density, specific
gravity or percent solids of the process
media.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY TRANSDUCER
Functional Principle
The instrument utilizes an acoustical principle whereby
a transmitter membrane vibrating sinusoidally at a
constant frequency and amplitude transfers its motion
to the gas in the sample chamber. The pressure
amplitude received at a pressure transducer in direct
proximity is directly related to the density of the gas
sample.
The propagation of the sound waves in the analyzer
chamber is in general not only a function of the gas-
density, but is also influenced by other gas parameters
such as viscosity and heat capacity. The analyzer's high
selectivity to the density is the result of proper
chamber geometry, dimensioning and operational
parameters.


DENSITY OF SOLIDS
To calculate the density of solids ,mass and volume of solids are measured.
Mass can be measured easily by using weighing machin with high
precision(if required).
Measurement of volume of solids can not be done directly so an indirect
method is generally adopted. In this we use the defination of buoyancy.


left hand side of the equation is evaluated.
If mass of solid is measured in the air and then in liquid then apparent mass
loss is


g V F o f B
f O V M
The density of object can be
deduced to be



One can therefore take
advantage of a modern
high precision balance with
re-zeroing capability to
monitor the apparent
change in mass of the liquid
and container when the
object is lowered into the
liquid.

f/m m o