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13 Aufrufe23 SeitenINTRO TO AP PHYSICS
IB MR.PERRY's CLASS

Oct 16, 2014

© © All Rights Reserved

PPT, PDF, TXT oder online auf Scribd lesen

INTRO TO AP PHYSICS
IB MR.PERRY's CLASS

© All Rights Reserved

Als PPT, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

13 Aufrufe

INTRO TO AP PHYSICS
IB MR.PERRY's CLASS

© All Rights Reserved

Als PPT, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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AP Level Course with high expectations. You will be expected

to do college level work and earn a college level understanding

of physics and PASS the AP Physics 1 exam in May.

You should already have completed Algebra 2 with a grade of

B or better, and be very comfortable with algebraic

manipulation and problem solving.

You will be expected (with a little help at first) to understand

how to read a problem or question, decide which variables

are given or implied, and determine the necessary

equation(s) and/or relationships needed to solve the

problem or question. The new AP science curricula are

designed to focus on high order problems that require

multiple mental steps before arriving at solutions.

Conceptual understanding is more important than numerical

problem-solving.

This questions will often focus on explain, describe, and

differentiate. Some of these non-math questions can be

understood through algebraic manipulation, however, so it is

important that you can solve simultaneous equations

WITHOUT numerical values.

There will be some standard trigonometry (Sine, Cosine,

Tangent, and the Pythagorean Theorem), but I will teach or

remind you of the necessary processes.

Each unit of the course will build upon previous units. A

deficiency in one unit can snowball into a major problem

VERY QUICKLY if it is not addressed early on.

You must understand each unit well enough to apply it to

subsequent units.

Please pay attention and DO the work in the notes. Ask

questions as soon as you have them.

The work we do in class is the primary form of instruction; it

is essential to your best understanding of the course.

I try to make it relatively easy for you to get C in the class

(if you do what I ask), but an A requires a very solid

understanding.

You will need a calculator; any AP approved calculator is

acceptable (even graphing calculators). The calculator AND

formula booklet can be used on exams and tests.

You will also need a pen, pencil, and paper. While the notes

will be on Edline, there will be additions and explanations in

class of which you will want to make note.

Course tests will have two parts:

The first will be a multiple choice section without a

calculator or formula sheet. It is expected that simple

calculations can be done without the calculator.

The second part will be free-response. This might

include short responses, graphs, analysis and

problem solving. Work should be shown for all

problem solving.

Answers must be circled and units should be included.

I do not curve tests; if the class as a whole did poorly on a

test, I will give you a second chance to make up the points.

You will likely need to know much of the material from each

test for subsequent tests, so you will have to learn it at

some point.

VOCABULARY

Some Fundamental Terms & Concepts

PHYSICS: The scientific study of matter, energy, and the

interrelationship between the two.

The most fundamental of all sciences.

MATTER: Anything having mass (inertia) and taking up space.

Matter is associated with energy, charge, momentum, and/or

other additional qualities.

All matter has a gravitational field associated with it.

ENERGY: A property of all matter related to mass and forces.

Energy is not usually observed directly but can be described

by the way it affects a mass.

Energy has the ability to do work

FORCE: An agent or action that can result in a deformation

or change in the motion of matter. Forces can store energy.

Forces are pushes or pulls

INERTIA: A measure of a masss resistance to having its

motion changed (resistance to forces).

Inertia is dependent on mass

VECTOR: A physical quantity that is represented by both a

magnitude (size) and direction.

Vectors can be represented by arrows

SPEED: An objects average change in distance from a

reference point per unit of time.

How fast something is moving

VELOCITY: The vector form of speed.

Speed and direction

ACCELERATION: A vector quantity indicating a change in

velocity. This could be a change in speed or a change in

direction.

Speeding up, slowing down, or turning

For instance, METERS tells us a length was measured,

and each meter is about the distance most door knobs

are above the ground (around 3 feet in English units).

UNITS: Units indicate the form in which the measurement was

taken. They follow a number that represents the amount (or

magnitude) of the measurement.

Units tell you the type/size of the measurement.

You should know the metric units and be familiar with the

prefixes.

Values in problems will often be given with no comment on

what the measurement is except the units, so knowing the

unit is the only way to know what the value measures!

For example: The problem might say a 25 kg crate sits on the

floor, or it might say a 25 N crate sits on the floor. One is the

mass of the crate, and one is the weight of the crate.

The Fundamental Metric Units are:

meters ( m ) for length

Liters ( L ) for volume

gram ( g ) for mass

Seconds ( s ) for time

Ampere ( A ) for electric current

Kelvin ( K ) for temperature

Some of the Derived units Units are:

Newtons ( N ) for force

Coulombs ( C ) for charge

Ohms ( W ) for resistance

Other Units are usually combinations of the fundamental an/or

derived units:

Cubic meters ( m

3

) for volume

meters per second ( ms

-1

) for speed or velocity

meters per second squared ( m/s

2

) for acceleration

Newton seconds ( Ns ) for impulse

VARIABLES are letters that represent physical quantities.

Variables are used in equations to show the relationship

between different concepts.

We will use specific variables for most of our equations; you will

need to know what the variables represent. Your formula sheets

are rather useless if you dont know your variables!

The equation for Force will be used more than any other in

this class. The variable for force is: F

Look at the equation F = m a

[ force = mass times acceleration ]

This tells us that the force is proportional to the mass and the

acceleration. It also tells us that for a given force, the

acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass ( a = F / m )

Many of the concepts in AP physics can be understood using the

equations

Some of the variables for AP physics:

Distance is a change of position: d, Dx, Dy, Dz

(x, y & z are used for displacement or position)

radius or separation: r

length: l, L

height: h

acceleration: a

Force: F mass: m

Speed or velocity: v

time: t

Period: T frequency: f

Energy: E, K, U Work: W

angle: q, a, b Torque: t density: r

Power: P

Angular velocity or speed: w Angular acceleration: a

Angular displacement: q

Metric Prefixes:

Nano (n) = 10

-9

Centi (c) = 10

-3

Mega (M) = 10

6

Micro (m) = 10

-6

Kilo (k) = 10

3

Giga ( G ) = 10

9

Milli (m) = 10

-3

The other units are combinations of these units. For

instance, the speed of an object is the distance divided by

the time: v = d / t

The units carry through (like variables):

v = 10 m / 5 s = 2 m/s

There are different ways to write units that have value in

numerator and denominator. Previously, we determined

that the units of speed were m/s.

This can also be written as ms

-1

.

Sometimes a group of units will be re-named in honor of the

scientist who made a major contribution to the concept. We then

replace the group of fundamental units with a new unit. This new

unit is called a derived unit.

The Newton (N) is a derived unit of FORCE to honor Isaac Newton.

1.00 N = 1.00 kg m/s

2

The ( N ) replaces the collection of fundamental units ( kg m/s

2

).

You can use the equation for force to see the way this derived

unit (N) comes from the fundamental units:

Variables: F = m a

Units: N = kg m/s

2

Be careful! A letter as a unit can have a very different

meaning as a variable. The variable, m, stands for mass while

the unit, m, stands for meters.

Equations will only work properly when the units agree. That

means that each measurement for a specific concept must be

in the same units (dont mix meters and centimeter)

Some equations have constants which means that the units of

the other values must be the same as used in the constant.

In the gravity equation there is a constant called the Universal

Gravitational Constant, G.

G is given on your formula sheet as 6.67 x 10

-11

m

3

/ kg s

2

This means that you will want meters, kilograms, & seconds

as the units for the values you will be plugging in.

G can also have units 6.67 x 10

-11

Nm

2

/ kg

2

To make things easier, we will use a standard sets of units for

most of our problems. These will not necessarily be the

fundamental units. You will learn the standard sets with each

topic we cover. It may be possible to use a different set, and you

will not be penalized if you do (as long as the answer is

equivalent).

To begin you should know the following set of units:

length meters (m)

mass kilograms (kg)

time seconds (s)

Velocity meters per second (m/s or ms

-1

)

Acceleration meters per second squared (m/s

2

or ms

-2

)

Force Newtons (N or kg m/s

2

or kg m s

-2

)

You will sometimes need to convert units. The units used

in a calculation should be consistent; check the other

values and constants to make sure units agree.

We will only deal in English units for comparative purposes.

You will need to know a handful of metric conversions.

These are some common conversions should know!

1 km = 1000 m 1 m = 100 cm 1 cm = 10 mm

1 kg = 1000 g 1 L = 1000 mL 1 mL = 1 cm

3

1 m

3

= 10

6

mL = 1000 L

1 day = 24 hr

1 hr = 60 min 1 year = 365 days 1 min = 60 s

You will also need to know how to convert units that are not

so straight forward. There is a fairly simple unit conversion

strategy if units need to be converted. You can use this

(the best way) or your own strategy; just make sure you are

converting correctly! The strategy is called

FACTOR/LABEL

Factor-Label is a logical method for converting units.

The main concept behind factor-labeling is that a value

multiplied by 1 maintains its value.

Factor-labeling is multiplying by units equivalent to 1!

Factor-Label

For example, the conversion between pounds and kilograms:

1.00 kg = 2.20 lbs

By dividing we can get:

1 = 2.20 lbs / 1.00 kg OR

1.00 kg / 2.20 lbs = 1

We can use these to convert units between lbs and kg.

How many kilograms are 2000.0 lbs?

We want to get rid of lbs and have kilograms, so we should use

the factor that has lbs in the denominator (so lbs will cancel).

2000.0 lbs x 1.00 kg / 2.20 lbs =

This value is equivalent to one

( 1.0000 ), so the value has not

been changed, just the units!

909 kg

How many lbs are 2000.0 kg?

2000.0 kg x 2.20 lbs / 1.00 kg = 4400 lbs

An English ton is 2000 lbs. A metric ton is 1000 kg which is 2200 lbs.

Some factor-label problems require more than one conversion.

For instance we will have to convert km/hr into m/s quite often.

Determine the speed of a car in m/s [ meters per second ] if the

car is traveling at 75.0 km/hr.

75 km

hr

X

1000 m

km

X

1 hr

3600 s

= 20.8 m/s

Determine the number of seconds in 18.0 years.

18.0 yr

X

365 days

yr

X

24 hrs

day

= 5.68 x 10

8

s

X

3600 s

hr

A pitcher throws a ball that is clocked at 93 miles per hour.

What is the speed in meters per second?

1.00 km = 0.6214 miles

93 miles

X

1.00 km

0.6214 mi

X

1000 m

km

= 41.573 m/s

X

3600 s

1.00 hr

hr

v = 42 m/s

A car is traveling at 75.0 km/hr. What is the speed in meters

per second?

75.0 km

hr

X

1000 m

km

=

20.8333 m/s = 20.8 m/s

X

3600 s

1.00 hr

a billion seconds is at 15 years, 10 months, 8 days; you will hit 1

billion seconds at 31 years, 8 months, 11 days [ Jan 14, 1999 ]. I am

about 1.49 billion seconds old June 9, 2014 67 days (Aug 14) till

1.5 billion.

Many of the concepts and relationships in AP physics can be

seen mathematically by combining equations and

rearranging the variables so that the one you are determining

is by itself to the left (or right) of the equal sign.

This is called: Solving for the Variable.

Solving for the variable (once you are used to it) also makes

problem solving easier, helps minimize errors, eliminates

unnecessary values, and provides more precise answers.

For most of the test questions I give you, I will expect you to

solve equations for the variable before doing any

calculations.

Doing this requires a keen sense for ALGEBRA. You should

be able to manipulate equations (algebra) without plugging

numbers into a calculator.

Quick Algebra Reminders / Hints:

Being excellent at algebra is sometimes a matter of how you

look at the equations. A fractional coefficient can be eliminated

by making the whole term fraction.

mv

2

=

mv

2

2

When dividing by a fraction, multiply by the reciprocal.

r = m / V = m / ( 4/3 p r

3

)

4 p r

3

3

m

r =

4 p r

3

3

m

r =

4 p r

3

3m

=

Be careful when solving for a value in the denominator of an

equation. You can often cross-multiply or take the reciprocal

of both sides to move the unknown to the top.

P =

m g h

t

P t =

m g h

t =

m g h

P

Example: Density (r) is equal to mass (m) divided by volume

(V), and the volume of a sphere is 4/3 p r

3

where r is the radius

of the sphere. We have two equations:

r = m / V and V = 4/3 p r

3

If we need to determine the radius of the sphere (given the

mass and density), we would combine the equations and re-

arrange the variables until we have r = Give it a try!

r = m / V and V = 4/3 p r

3

r = m / ( 4/3 p r

3

)

( 4/3 p r

3

) r = m

4 p r

3

r = m

3

Easier Form

4 p r

3

r = 3 m

4 p r

3 m

r

3

=

4 p r

3 m

r

=

1/3

Its not uncommon for the AP test to expect this kind of

solution for a multiple choice question.

If plugging values into the equation, you need to be VERY CAREFUL

with the order of operations AND the way your calculator works.

Imagine that we have to create a 0.500 kg sphere made of

copper which has a density of 8960 kg/m

3

. What would the

radius of our sphere be?

4 p r

3 m

r

=

1/3

3 ( 0.500 kg )

4 p (8960 kg/m

3

)

r = = 0.0237 m

1/3

A 0.500 kg ( 1.10 lb)

sphere of copper

would be less than

5.00 cm in diameter!

Look how the units work ourkg / kg and then 1 / ( 1/m

3

)

Inside the brackets, the units equate to m

3

When we take the cube root, the units come out as meters.

Lets try another. Begin with the following equation and solve

for the acceleration.

m

1

g - m

1

a = m

2

g + m

2

a

m

1

g - m

2

g = m

1

a + m

2

a

g ( m

1

- m

2

) = a ( m

1

+ m

2

)

g ( m

1

- m

2

)

( m

1

+ m

2

)

= a

g ( m

1

- m

2

)

( m

1

+ m

2

)

a =

I wont require you to solve this way on your first test, but you

will lose a point on future tests if you dont solve this way

before plugging in your numbers.

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