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PREPARED BY:

MISS SAMERA BINTI SAMSUDDIN SAH


SCHOOL OF BIOPROCESS ENGINEERING, UniMAP
Scalar
A quantity characterized by a positive or
negative number
Indicated by letters in italic such as A
e.g. Mass, volume and length

Vector
A quantity that has magnitude and direction
e.g. Position, force and moment
Represent by a letter with an arrow over it,
Magnitude is designated as
In this subject, vector is presented as A and its
magnitude (positive quantity) as A

A

Multiplication and Division of a Vector


by a Scalar
Product of vector A and scalar a = aA
Magnitude =
Law of multiplication applies
e.g. A/a = ( 1/a ) A, a0

aA
Vector Addition
Addition of two vectors A and B gives a resultant
vector R by the parallelogram law
Result R can be found by triangle construction
Communicative e.g. R = A + B = B + A
Special case: Vectors A and B are collinear (both
have the same line of action)
Vector Subtraction
Special case of addition
e.g. R = A B = A + ( - B )
Rules of Vector Addition Applies
Parallelogram Law
To determine the direction of resultant force, F
R







Trigonometry
To determine the magnitude of resultant force, F
R


The screw eye is
subjected to two forces,
F
1
and F
2
. Determine the
magnitude and direction
of the resultant force.

Solution:
Parallelogram Law
Unknown: magnitude of F
R
and angle

Trigonometry
Law of Cosines




Law of Sines

( ) ( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )
( ) N N
N N N N
c B A B A F
R
213 6 . 212 4226 . 0 30000 22500 10000
115 cos 150 100 2 150 100
cos 2
2 2
2 2
= = + =
+ =
+ =

( )

8 . 39
9063 . 0
6 . 212
150
sin
115 sin
6 . 212
sin
150
=
=
=
u
u
u
N
N
N N
Trigonometry
Direction of F
R
measured from the horizontal

|
|
Z =
+ =


8 . 54
15 8 . 39
Scalar Notation
x and y axes are designated positive and negative
Components of forces expressed as algebraic scalars

u u sin and cos F F F F
F F F
y x
y x
= =
+ =
Cartesian Vector Notation
Cartesian unit vectors i and j are used to designate the x
and y directions
Unit vectors i and j have dimensionless magnitude of
unity ( = 1 )
Magnitude is always a positive quantity, represented by
scalars F
x
and F
y


j F i F F
y x
+ =
Coplanar Force Resultants
To determine resultant of several coplanar forces:
Resolve force into x and y components
Addition of the respective components using scalar
algebra
Resultant force is found using the parallelogram law
Cartesian vector notation:

j F i F F
j F i F F
j F i F F
y x
y x
y x
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
=
+ =
+ =
Vector resultant is therefore





If scalar notation are used

( ) ( )j F i F
F F F F
Ry Rx
R
+ =
+ + =

3 2 1
y y y Ry
x x x Rx
F F F F
F F F F
3 2 1
3 2 1
+ =
+ =
In all cases we have



Magnitude of F
R
can be found by Pythagorean
Theorem

=
=
y Ry
x Rx
F F
F F
* Take note of sign conventions
Rx
Ry
Ry Rx R
F
F
F F F
1 - 2 2
tan and = + = u
Determine x and y components of F
1
and F
2

acting on the boom. Express each force as a
Cartesian vector.

Solution
Scalar Notation






| = = =
= = =
N N N F
N N N F
y
x
173 173 30 cos 200
100 100 30 sin 200
1
1

By similar triangles we have







Scalar Notation:


Cartesian Vector Notation:

N 100
13
5
260
N 240
13
12
260
2
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
y
x
F
F
+ = =
=
N N F
N F
y
x
100 100
240
2
2
{ }
{ }N j i F
N j i F
100 240
173 100
2
1
=
+ =
The link is subjected to two forces F
1
and F
2
.
Determine the magnitude and orientation of
the resultant force.

Scalar Notation:






Resultant Force, F
R
: Angle, u:


| =
+ =
E =
=
=
E =
N
N N F
F F
N
N N F
F F
Ry
y Ry
Rx
x Rx
8 . 582
45 cos 400 30 sin 600
:
8 . 236
45 sin 400 30 cos 600
:


( ) ( )
N
N N F
R
629
8 . 582 8 . 236
2 2
=
+ =

9 . 67
8 . 236
8 . 582
tan
1
=
|
.
|

\
|
=

N
N
u
Cartesian Vector Notation
F
1
= { 600cos30i + 600sin30j } N
F
2
= { -400sin45i + 400cos45j } N

Thus,
F
R
= F
1
+ F
2

= (600cos30N - 400sin45N)i
+ (600sin30N + 400cos45N)j
= {236.8i + 582.8j}N

The magnitude and direction of F
R
are
determined in the same manner as before.

The plate is subjected to
the two forces at A and
B as shown. If ,u = 60
determine the
magnitude of the
resultant of these two
forces and its direction
measured clockwise
from the horizontal.
If the tension in the cable is 400 N, determine
the magnitude and direction of the resultant
force acting on the pulley. This angle is the
same angle, u of line AB on the tailboard block.
Right-Handed Coordinate System
A rectangular or Cartesian
coordinate system is said to be
right-handed provided:
Thumb of right hand points in the
direction of the positive z axis
z-axis for the 2D problem would be
perpendicular, directed out of the page.


Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Rectangular Components of a Vector
A vector A may have one, two or
three rectangular components
along the x, y and z axes, depending
on orientation
By two successive application of the
parallelogram law
A = A + A
z
A = A
x
+ A
y
Combing the equations,
A can be expressed as
A = A
x
+ A
y
+ A
z

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Unit Vector
Direction of A can be specified using a unit vector
Unit vector has a magnitude of 1
If A is a vector having a magnitude of A 0, unit vector
having the same direction as A is expressed by u
A
= A /
A. So that

A = A u
A

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Cartesian Vector Representations
3 components of A act in the positive i, j and k
directions

A = A
x
i + A
y
j + A
Z
k

*Note the magnitude and direction
of each components are separated,
easing vector algebraic operations.
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Magnitude of a Cartesian Vector
From the colored triangle,
From the shaded triangle,

Combining the equations
gives magnitude of A

2 2 2
z y x
A A A A
+ + =
2 2
'
y x
A A A
+ =
2 2
'
z
A A A
+ =
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Direction of a Cartesian Vector
Orientation of A is defined as the
coordinate direction angles , and
measured between the tail of A
and the positive x, y and z axes
0 , and 180
The direction cosines of A is
A
A
x
= o cos
A
A
y
= | cos
A
A
z
= cos
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Direction of a Cartesian Vector (cont.)
Angles , and can be determined by the inverse
cosines
Given
A = A
x
i + A
y
j + A
Z
k

then,
u
A
= A /A = (A
x
/A)i + (A
y
/A)j + (A
Z
/A)k

where
2 2 2
z y x
A A A A + + =
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Direction of a Cartesian Vector (cont.)
u
A
can also be expressed as
u
A
= cos i + cos j + cos k

Since and u
A
= 1, we have


A as expressed in Cartesian vector form is
A = Au
A

= A cos i + A cos j + A cos k
= A
x
i + A
y
j + A
Z
k

2 2 2
z y x
A A A A + + =
1 cos cos cos
2 2 2
= + + | o
Concurrent Force Systems
Force resultant is the vector sum of all the forces in the
system

F
R
= F = F
x
i + F
y
j + F
z
k
Express the force F as Cartesian vector.
Since two angles are specified, the third angle
is found by




Two possibilities exit, namely
( )

120 5 . 0 cos
1
= =

o
( )

60 5 . 0 cos
1
= =

o
( ) ( )

5 . 0 707 . 0 5 . 0 1 cos
1 45 cos 60 cos cos
1 cos cos cos
2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
= =
= + +
= + +
o
o
| o
By inspection, = 60 since F
x
is in the +x direction
Given F = 200N
F = Fcosi + Fcosj + Fcosk
= (200cos60N)i + (200cos60N)j
+ (200cos45N)k
= {100.0i + 100.0j + 141.421k}N

Checking:
( ) ( ) ( ) N
F F F F
z y x
200 421 . 141 0 . 100 0 . 100
2 2 2
2 2 2
= + + =
+ + =
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
x,y,z Coordinates
Right-handed coordinate system
Positive z axis points upwards, measuring the
height of an object or the altitude of a point
Points are measured relative
to the origin, O.
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Position Vector
Position vector r is defined as a fixed vector which
locates a point in space relative to another point.
E.g. r = xi + yj + zk
Position Vector
Vector addition gives r
A
+ r = r
B

Solving r = r
B


r
A

= (x
B
x
A
)i + (y
B
y
A
)j + (z
B
z
A
)k
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Length and direction of cable AB can be found by
measuring A and B using the x, y, z axes
Position vector r can be established
Magnitude r represent the length of cable
Angles, , and represent the direction of the
cable
Unit vector, u = r/r
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
An elastic rubber band is attached to points A
and B. Determine its length and its direction
measured from A towards B.
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
Position vector
r = [-2m 1m]i + [2m 0]j + [3m (-3m)]k
= {-3i + 2j + 6k}m

Magnitude = length of the rubber band


Unit vector in the director of r
u = r /r
= -3/7i + 2/7j + 6/7k
( ) ( ) ( ) m r 7 6 2 3
2 2 2
= + + =
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd




= cos
-1
(-3/7) = 115.4
= cos
-1
(2/7) = 73.4
= cos
-1
(6/7) = 31.0

*the ans. (angle) should
be in 1d.p.
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd
In 3D problems, direction of F is specified by 2
points, through which its line of action lies
F can be formulated as a Cartesian vector

F = F u = F (r/r)

Note that F has units of forces (N)
unlike r, with units of length (m)
Force F acting along the chain can be
presented as a Cartesian vector by
- Establish x, y, z axes
- Form a position vector r along length of
chain
Unit vector, u = r/r that defines the direction
of both the chain and the force
We get F = Fu

The man pulls on the
cord with a force of 350N.
Represent this force
acting on the support A,
as a Cartesian vector and
determine its direction.

End points of the cord are A (0m, 0m, 7.5m) and
B (3m, -2m, 1.5m)
r = (3m 0m)i + (-2m 0m)j + (1.5m 7.5m)k
= {3i 2j 6k}m

Magnitude = length of cord AB



Unit vector,
u = r /r
= 3/7i - 2/7j - 6/7k
( ) ( ) ( ) m m m m r 7 6 2 3
2 2 2
= + + =
Force F has a magnitude of 350N, direction
specified by u.
F = Fu
= 350N(3/7i - 2/7j - 6/7k)
= {150i - 100j - 300k} N

= cos
-1
(3/7) = 64.6
= cos
-1
(-2/7) = 106.6
= cos
-1
(-6/7) = 149.0
Dot product of vectors A and B is written as AB
(Read A dot B)
Define the magnitudes of A and B and the angle
between their tails
AB = AB cos where 0 180
Referred to as scalar product of vectors as result is
a scalar
Laws of Operation
1. Commutative law
AB = BA

2. Multiplication by a scalar
a(AB) = (aA)B = A(aB) = (AB)a

3. Distribution law
A(B + D) = (AB) + (AD)
Cartesian Vector Formulation
- Dot product of Cartesian unit vectors
ii = (1)(1)cos0 = 1
ij = (1)(1)cos90 = 0

- Similarly
ii = 1 jj = 1 kk = 1
ij = 0 ik = 1 jk = 1

Cartesian Vector Formulation
Dot product of 2 vectors A and B
AB = A
x
B
x
+ A
y
B
y
+ A
z
B
z

Applications:
The angle formed between two vectors or intersecting
lines.
= cos
-1
[(AB)/(AB)] 0 180
The components of a vector parallel and
perpendicular to a line.
A
a
= A cos = Au
A

= A sin or if A
a
is known, A

= (A
2
- A
a
2
)
The frame is subjected to a horizontal force F = {300j}
N. Determine the components of this force parallel
and perpendicular to the member AB.
Since



Thus
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
N
k j i j u F
F F
k j i
k j i
r
r
u
B
AB
B
B
B
143 . 257
) 429 . 0 )( 0 ( ) 857 . 0 )( 300 ( ) 286 . 0 )( 0 (
429 . 0 857 . 0 286 . 0 300 .
cos
429 . 0 857 . 0 286 . 0
3 6 2
3 6 2
2 2 2
=
+ + =
+ + = =
=
+ + =
+ +
+ +
= =

u
Since result is a positive scalar, F
AB
has the same
sense of direction as u
B
. Express in Cartesian form





Perpendicular component
( )( )
N k j i
k j i j
F F F
N k j i
k j i N
u F F
AB
AB AB AB
} 204 . 110 592 . 79 459 . 73 {
) 204 . 110 408 . 220 459 . 73 ( 300
} 204 . 110 408 . 220 459 . 73 {
429 . 0 857 . 0 286 . 0 1 . 257


+ =
+ + =
=
+ + =
+ + =
=

Magnitude can be determined from F



or from
Pythagorean Theorem,
( ) ( )
N
N N
F F F
AB
523 . 154
143 . 257 300
2 2
2 2
=
=
=


For particle equilibrium
F = 0

Resolving into i, j, k components
F
x
i + F
y
j + F
z
k = 0

Three scalar equations representing algebraic sums
of the x, y, z forces
F
x
i = 0
F
y
j = 0
F
z
k = 0

Determine the
force developed in
each cable used to
support the 40kN
crate.
FBD at Point A
To expose all three unknown forces in the cables.
Equations of Equilibrium
Expressing each forces in Cartesian vectors,
F
B
= F
B
(r
B
/ r
B
)
= -0.318F
B
i 0.424F
B
j + 0.848F
B
k
F
C
= F
C
(r
C
/ r
C
)
= -0.318F
C
i 0.424F
C
j + 0.848F
C
k
F
D
= F
D
i
W = -40k

For equilibrium,
F = 0; F
B
+ F
C
+ F
D
+ W = 0
-0.318F
B
i 0.424F
B
j + 0.848F
B
k - 0.318F
C
i
0.424F
C
j + 0.848F
C
k + F
D
i - 40k = 0

F
x
= 0; -0.318F
B
- 0.318F
C
+ F
D
= 0
F
y
= 0; 0.424F
B
0.424F
C
= 0
F
z
= 0; 0.848F
B
+ 0.848F
C
- 40 = 0

Solving,
F
B
= F
C
= 23.6kN
F
D
= 15.0kN