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A Z I Z A F I T R I A N I

J OK O R A H A D I
WORKERS UNION :
PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
MOTIVATION THEORY
Basic Motivation Process:
Needs are created whenever there is a
physiological or psychological imbalance.
Drives, or motives are set up to alleviate needs.
Incentives as anything that will alleviate a need
and reduce a drive.
PRIMARY & SECONDARY MOTIVES
Primary Motives
Two criteria must be met in order for a motive to be
included in the primary classification: It must be
unlearned, and it must be physiologically based.
Examples includes: hunger, thirst, sleep, avoidance of
pain, sex, and maternal concern.
Secondary Motives
A motive must be learned in order to be included in the
secondary classification.
Examples includes: power, achievement, affiliation,
security, and status.
INTRINSIC VS EXTRINSIC MOTIVES
Intrinsic Motives
Internally generated
Include feelings of responsibility, achievement, accomplishment, that something
was learned from an experience, feelings of being challenged or competitive, or
that something was an engaging task or goal.
Extrinsic Motives
Tangible and visible to others.
Examples include pay, benefits, and promotions
Also include the drive to avoid punishment, such as termination or being
transferred.
Necessary to attract people into the organization and to keep them on the job.
cognitive evaluation theory proposes that a task may be intrinsically
motivating, but that when an extrinsic motivator becomes
associated with that task, the actual level of motivation may
decrease.
WORK MOTIVATION THEORIES
MASLOWS HIERARCHY OF NEEDS ON
WORK ENVIRONMENT
HERZBERGS & THE PORTER LAWLER
MODEL
EQUITY THEORY OF WORK
MOTIVATION
Equity theory serves as the foundation for the common thread of
perceived fairness among dimensions of justice.
Equity theory supports a perception of distributive justice, which is
an individuals cognitive evaluation regarding whether or not the
amounts and allocations of rewards in a social setting are fair.
Procedural justice is concerned with the fairness of the procedure
used to make a decision.
Whereas procedural justice is the exchange between the
employee and the employing organization, interactional justice is
between individuals (e.g., the employee and the supervisor).
ATTRIBUTION THEORY
Attribution refers simply to how people explain the cause of
anothers or their own behavior.
Dispositional attributions, which ascribe a persons behavior to
internal factors such as personality traits, motivation, or ability,
and
Situational attributions, which attribute a persons behavior to
external factors such as equipment or social influence from
others.

Locus of Control Attributions Employees who perceive internal
control feel that they personally can influence their outcomes
through their own ability, skills, or effort. Employees who perceive
external control feel that their outcomes are beyond their own
control; they feel that external forces such as luck or task
difficulty control their outcomes.
MOTIVATIONAL APPLICATION
THROUGH JOB DESIGN
PRACTICAL GUIDELINES FOR
REDESIGNING JOBS
MOTIVATIONAL APPLICATION
THROUGH GOAL SETTING