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PHP

UNIT - 4
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
What is PHP?

PHP stands for PHP: Hypertext


Preproessor

PHP !s a ser"er-s!de sr!pt!n#


$an#%a#e, $!&e ASP

PHP sr!pts are exe%ted on t'e


ser"er

PHP s%pports (any data)ases


*MyS+L, Infor(!x, ,ra$e, Sy)ase,
So$!d, Post#reS+L, -ener! ,.BC,
et/0

PHP !s an open so%re soft1are

PHP !s free to do1n$oad and %se


M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC

What is a PHP File?

PHP 2$es an onta!n text, HTML ta#s


and sr!pts

PHP 2$es are ret%rned to t'e )ro1ser


as p$a!n HTML

PHP 2$es 'a"e a 2$e extens!on of


4/p'p4, 4/p'p54, or 4/p't($4
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC

PHP + MySQL

PHP o()!ned 1!t' MyS+L are ross-


p$atfor( *yo% an de"e$op !n
6!ndo1s and ser"e on a Un!x
p$atfor(0
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
Why PHP?

PHP r%ns on d!7erent p$atfor(s


*6!ndo1s, L!n%x, Un!x, et/0

PHP !s o(pat!)$e 1!t' a$(ost a$$


ser"ers %sed today *Apa'e, IIS, et/0

PHP !s 8REE to do1n$oad fro( t'e


o9!a$ PHP reso%re: 111/p'p/net

PHP !s easy to $earn and r%ns


e9!ent$y on t'e ser"er s!de
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
PHP Syntax

Basic PHP Syntax

A PHP sr!pt!n# )$o& a$1ays starts 1!t' <?php


and ends 1!t' ?>/ A PHP sr!pt!n# )$o& an )e
p$aed any1'ere !n t'e do%(ent/

,n ser"ers 1!t' s'ort'and s%pport ena)$ed yo%


an start a sr!pt!n# )$o& 1!t' :; and end 1!t' ;
</

8or (ax!(%( o(pat!)!$!ty, 1e reo((end t'at


yo% %se t'e standard for( *:;p'p0 rat'er t'an
t'e s'ort'and for(/

:;p'p
;< A PHP 2$e nor(a$$y onta!ns HTML ta#s, =%st
$!&e an HTML 2$e, and so(e PHP sr!pt!n# ode/
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
:'t($<
:)ody<
:;p'p
e'o 4He$$o 6or$d4>
;<
:?)ody<
:?'t($<
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
Comments in PHP
In PHP, 1e %se ?? to (a&e a s!n#$e-$!ne o((ent or ?@ and @?
to (a&e a $ar#e o((ent )$o&/
:'t($<
:)ody<
:;p'p
??T'!s !s a o((ent
?@
T'!s !s
a o((ent
)$o&
@?
;<
:?)ody<
:?'t($<
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
PHP Variales

A "ar!a)$e !s %sed to store


!nfor(at!on/

Aar!a)$es are %sed for stor!n# "a$%es,


$!&e text str!n#s, n%()ers or arrays/

6'en a "ar!a)$e !s de$ared, !t an )e


%sed o"er and o"er a#a!n !n yo%r
sr!pt/

A$$ "ar!a)$es !n PHP start 1!t' a B


s!#n sy()o$/

T'e orret 1ay of de$ar!n# a


"ar!a)$e !n PHP:

B"arCna(e D "a$%e>
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC

reat!n# a "ar!a)$e onta!n!n# a


str!n#, and a "ar!a)$e onta!n!n# a
n%()er:
:;p'p
BtxtD4He$$o 6or$dE4>
BxDFG>
;<
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
PHP is a Loosely !ype" Lan#$a#e

In PHP, a "ar!a)$e does not need to )e


de$ared )efore add!n# a "a$%e to !t/

In t'e exa(p$e a)o"e, yo% see t'at yo% do


not 'a"e to te$$ PHP 1'!' data type t'e
"ar!a)$e !s/

PHP a%to(at!a$$y on"erts t'e "ar!a)$e to


t'e orret data type, depend!n# on !ts "a$%e/

In a stron#$y typed pro#ra((!n# $an#%a#e,


yo% 'a"e to de$are *de2ne0 t'e type and
na(e of t'e "ar!a)$e )efore %s!n# !t/

In PHP, t'e "ar!a)$e !s de$ared a%to(at!a$$y


1'en yo% %se !t/
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
PHP Strin# Variales

A str!n# "ar!a)$e !s %sed to store and


(an!p%$ate text/

:;p'p
BtxtD4He$$o 6or$d4>
e'o Btxt>
;<
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
!he Concatenation %perator

T'ere !s on$y one str!n# operator !n PHP/

T'e onatenat!on operator */0 !s %sed to


p%t t1o str!n# "a$%es to#et'er/

To onatenate t1o str!n# "ar!a)$es


to#et'er, %se t'e onatenat!on operator:
:;p'p
BtxtFD4He$$o 6or$dE4>
BtxtHD46'at a n!e dayE4>
e'o BtxtF / 4 4 / BtxtH>
;< T'e o%tp%t of t'e ode a)o"e 1!$$ )e:

He$$o 6or$dE 6'at a n!e dayE


M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
T'e strlen() f%nt!on !s %sed to ret%rn
t'e $en#t' of a str!n#/

LetIs 2nd t'e $en#t' of a str!n#:


:;p'p
e'o str$en*4He$$o 1or$dE40>
;<
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC

!he strpos&' ($nction

T'e strpos*0 f%nt!on !s %sed to sear' for


'arater 1!t'!n a str!n#/

If a (at' !s fo%nd, t'!s f%nt!on 1!$$ ret%rn


t'e pos!t!on of t'e 2rst (at'/ If no (at'
!s fo%nd, !t 1!$$ ret%rn 8ALSE/

LetIs see !f 1e an 2nd t'e str!n# 41or$d4 !n


o%r str!n#:

:;p'p
e'o strpos*4He$$o 1or$dE4,41or$d40>
;< T'e o%tp%t of t'e ode a)o"e 1!$$ )e:

G
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
Con"itional Statements

In PHP 1e 'a"e t'e fo$$o1!n# ond!t!ona$


state(ents:

i( statement - %se t'!s state(ent to exe%te


so(e ode on$y !f a spe!2ed ond!t!on !s tr%e

i()))else statement - %se t'!s state(ent to


exe%te so(e ode !f a ond!t!on !s tr%e and
anot'er ode !f t'e ond!t!on !s fa$se

i()))elsei())))else statement - %se t'!s


state(ent to se$et one of se"era$ )$o&s of ode
to )e exe%ted

s*itch statement - %se t'!s state(ent to se$et


one of (any )$o&s of ode to )e exe%ted
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
PHP +rrays

An array stores (%$t!p$e "a$%es !n


one s!n#$e "ar!a)$e/
In PHP, t'ere are t'ree &!nd of arrays:

,$meric array - An array 1!t' a


n%(er! !ndex

+ssociati-e array - An array 1'ere


ea' I. &ey !s asso!ated 1!t' a
"a$%e

M$lti"imensional array - An array


onta!n!n# one or (ore arrays
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
,$meric +rrays

A n%(er! array stores ea' array e$e(ent


1!t' a n%(er! !ndex/

T'ere are t1o (et'ods to reate a n%(er!


array/
F/ In t'e fo$$o1!n# exa(p$e t'e !ndex are
a%to(at!a$$y ass!#ned *t'e !ndex starts at J0:
BarsDarray*4Saa)4,4Ao$"o4,4BM64,4Toyota40>
H/ In t'e fo$$o1!n# exa(p$e 1e ass!#n t'e !ndex
(an%a$$y:
BarsKJLD4Saa)4>
BarsKFLD4Ao$"o4>
BarsKHLD4BM64>
BarsK5LD4Toyota4>
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC

.xample

In t'e fo$$o1!n# exa(p$e yo% aess t'e


"ar!a)$e "a$%es )y referr!n# to t'e array
na(e and !ndex:

:;p'p
BarsKJLD4Saa)4>
BarsKFLD4Ao$"o4>
BarsKHLD4BM64>
BarsK5LD4Toyota4>
e'o BarsKJL / 4 and 4 / BarsKFL / 4 are
S1ed!s' ars/4>
;<
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
+ssociati-e +rrays
An asso!at!"e array, ea' I. &ey !s asso!ated 1!t' a "a$%e/
6'en stor!n# data a)o%t spe!2 na(ed "a$%es, a
n%(er!a$ array !s not a$1ays t'e )est 1ay to do !t/
6!t' asso!at!"e arrays 1e an %se t'e "a$%es as &eys and
ass!#n "a$%es to t'e(/
.xample /
In t'!s exa(p$e 1e %se an array to ass!#n a#es to t'e
d!7erent persons:
Ba#es D array*4Peter4D<5H, 4+%a#(!re4D<5J, 4Moe4D<540>
.xample 0
T'!s exa(p$e !s t'e sa(e as exa(p$e F, )%t s'o1s a
d!7erent 1ay of reat!n# t'e array:
Ba#esKIPeterIL D 45H4>
Ba#esKI+%a#(!reIL D 45J4>
Ba#esKIMoeIL D 4544>
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC

T'e I. &eys an )e %sed !n a sr!pt:

:;p'p
Ba#esKIPeterIL D 45H4>
Ba#esKI+%a#(!reIL D 45J4>
Ba#esKIMoeIL D 4544>
e'o 4Peter !s 4 / Ba#esKIPeterIL / 4
years o$d/4>
;<
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
M$lti"imensional +rrays
In a (%$t!d!(ens!ona$ array, ea' e$e(ent !n t'e (a!n array an a$so )e
an array/ And ea' e$e(ent !n t'e s%)-array an )e an array, and so on/
.xample
In t'!s exa(p$e 1e reate a (%$t!d!(ens!ona$ array, 1!t' a%to(at!a$$y
ass!#ned I. &eys:
Bfa(!$!es D array
*
4-r!9n4D<array
*
4Peter4,
4Lo!s4,
4Me#an4
0,
4+%a#(!re4D<array
*
4-$enn4
0,
4Bro1n4D<array
*
4C$e"e$and4,
4Loretta4,
4M%n!or4
0
0>
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
T'e array a)o"e 1o%$d $oo& $!&e t'!s !f 1r!tten to t'e o%tp%t:
Array
*
K-r!9nL D< Array
*
KJL D< Peter
KFL D< Lo!s
KHL D< Me#an
0
K+%a#(!reL D< Array
*
KJL D< -$enn
0
KBro1nL D< Array
*
KJL D< C$e"e$and
KFL D< Loretta
KHL D< M%n!or
0
0
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC

.xample 0
Lets try d!sp$ay!n# a s!n#$e "a$%e fro(
t'e array a)o"e:
e'o 4Is 4 / Bfa(!$!esKI-r!9nILKHL /
4 a part of t'e -r!9n fa(!$y;4> T'e
ode a)o"e
1!$$ o%tp%t:

Is Me#an a part of t'e -r!9n fa(!$y;


M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
PHP Loops

,ften 1'en yo% 1r!te ode, yo% 1ant t'e sa(e


)$o& of ode to r%n o"er and o"er a#a!n !n a ro1/
Instead of add!n# se"era$ a$(ost eN%a$ $!nes !n a
sr!pt 1e an %se $oops to perfor( a tas& $!&e t'!s/
In PHP, 1e 'a"e t'e fo$$o1!n# $oop!n# state(ents:

*hile - $oops t'ro%#' a )$o& of ode 1'!$e a


spe!2ed ond!t!on !s tr%e

"o)))*hile - $oops t'ro%#' a )$o& of ode one,


and t'en repeats t'e $oop as $on# as a spe!2ed
ond!t!on !s tr%e

(or - $oops t'ro%#' a )$o& of ode a spe!2ed


n%()er of t!(es

(oreach - $oops t'ro%#' a )$o& of ode for ea'


e$e(ent !n an array
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC

1'!$e *condition0
O
code to be executed>
P

do
O
code to be executed;
P
1'!$e *condition0>
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
!he (or Loop

T'e for $oop !s %sed 1'en yo% &no1


!n ad"ane 'o1 (any t!(es t'e
sr!pt s'o%$d r%n/

Syntax
for *init; condition; increment0
O
code to be executed;
P
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
!he (oreach Loop

T'e forea' $oop !s %sed to $oop


t'ro%#' arrays/
Syntax

forea' *Barray as Bvalue0


O
code to be executed;
P
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
:'t($<
:)ody<
:;p'p
BxDarray*4one4,4t1o4,4t'ree40>
forea' *Bx as B"a$%e0
O
e'o B"a$%e / 4:)r ?<4>
P
;<
:?)ody<
:?'t($<
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
PHP F$nctions

Create a PHP F$nction


A f%nt!on 1!$$ )e exe%ted )y a a$$ to t'e
f%nt!on/

Syntax
f%nt!on functionName*0
O
code to be executed>
P
PHP f%nt!on #%!de$!nes:

-!"e t'e f%nt!on a na(e t'at reQets 1'at t'e


f%nt!on does

T'e f%nt!on na(e an start 1!t' a $etter or


%ndersore *not a n%()er0
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
.xample

A s!(p$e f%nt!on t'at 1r!tes (y na(e 1'en !t !s a$$ed:


:'t($<
:)ody<
:;p'p
f%nt!on 1r!teNa(e*0
O
e'o 4Ra! M!( Refsnes4>
P
e'o 4My na(e !s 4>
1r!teNa(e*0>
;<
:?)ody<
:?'t($<

,%tp%t:
My na(e !s Ra! M!( Refsnes
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
PHP F$nctions 1 +""in# parameters
To add (ore f%nt!ona$!ty to a f%nt!on, 1e an add para(eters/ A para(eter !s
=%st $!&e a "ar!a)$e/
Para(eters are spe!2ed after t'e f%nt!on na(e, !ns!de t'e parent'eses/
.xample /
T'e fo$$o1!n# exa(p$e 1!$$ 1r!te d!7erent 2rst na(es, )%t eN%a$ $ast na(e:
:'t($<
:)ody<
:;p'p
f%nt!on 1r!teNa(e*Bfna(e0
O
e'o Bfna(e / 4 Refsnes/:)r ?<4>
P
e'o 4My na(e !s 4>
1r!teNa(e*4Ra! M!(40>
e'o 4My s!sterIs na(e !s 4>
1r!teNa(e*4He#e40>
e'o 4My )rot'erIs na(e !s 4>
1r!teNa(e*4Sta$e40>
;<
:?)ody<
:?'t($<
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
.xample 0
T'e fo$$o1!n# f%nt!on 'as t1o para(eters:
:'t($<
:)ody<
:;p'p
f%nt!on 1r!teNa(e*Bfna(e,Bp%nt%at!on0
O
e'o Bfna(e / 4 Refsnes4 / Bp%nt%at!on / 4:)r ?<4>
P
e'o 4My na(e !s 4>
1r!teNa(e*4Ra! M!(4,4/40>
e'o 4My s!sterIs na(e !s 4>
1r!teNa(e*4He#e4,4E40>
e'o 4My )rot'erIs na(e !s 4>
1r!teNa(e*4StS$e4,4;40>
;<
:?)ody<
:?'t($<
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
PHP F$nctions 1 2et$rn -al$es
To $et a f%nt!on ret%rn a "a$%e, %se t'e ret%rn state(ent/
.xample
:'t($<
:)ody<
:;p'p
f%nt!on add*Bx,By0
O
Btota$DBxTBy>
ret%rn Btota$>
P
e'o 4F T FG D 4 / add*F,FG0>
;<
:?)ody<
:?'t($<
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
PHP %perators 3

+rithmetic %perators
%perator 4escription .xample 2es$lt
T Add!t!on xDH
xTH
4
- S%)trat!on xDH
U-x
5
@ M%$t!p$!at!o
n
xD4
x@U
HJ
? .!"!s!on FU?U
U?H
5
H/U
V Mod%$%s
*d!"!s!on
re(a!nder0
UVH
FJVW
FJVH
F
H
J
TT Inre(ent xDU
xTT
xDG
-- .ere(ent xDU
x--
xD4
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC

+ssi#nment %perators
%perator .xample 5s !he Same +s
D xDy xDy
TD xTDy xDxTy
-D x-Dy xDx-y
@D x@Dy xDx@y
?D x?Dy xDx?y
/D x/Dy xDx/y
VD xVDy xDxVy
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC

Comparison %perators
%perator 4escription .xample
DD !s eN%a$ to UDDW ret%rns
fa$se
ED !s not eN%a$ UEDW ret%rns tr%e
:< !s not eN%a$ U:<W ret%rns
tr%e
< !s #reater t'an U<W ret%rns fa$se
: !s $ess t'an U:W ret%rns tr%e
<D !s #reater t'an or
eN%a$ to
U<DW ret%rns
fa$se
:D !s $ess t'an or
eN%a$ to
U:DW ret%rns
tr%e
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC

Lo#ical %perators3
%perator 4escription .xample
XX and xDG
yD5 *x : FJ XX y
< F0 ret%rns tr%e
YY or xDG
yD5 *xDDU YY
yDDU0 ret%rns
fa$se
E not xDG
yD5 E*xDDy0
ret%rns tr%e
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
PHP Forms an" 6ser 5np$t

T'e PHP BC-ET and BCP,ST "ar!a)$es


are %sed to retr!e"e !nfor(at!on fro(
for(s, $!&e %ser !np%t/

PHP Form Han"lin#

T'e (ost !(portant t'!n# to not!e


1'en dea$!n# 1!t' HTML for(s and
PHP !s t'at any for( e$e(ent !n an
HTML pa#e 1!$$ a$tomatically )e
a"a!$a)$e to yo%r PHP sr!pts/
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC

.xample

T'e exa(p$e )e$o1 onta!ns an HTML for( 1!t' t1o


!np%t 2e$ds and a s%)(!t )%tton:

:'t($<
:)ody<
:for( at!onD41e$o(e/p'p4 (et'odD4post4<
Na(e: :!np%t typeD4text4 na(eD4fna(e4 ?<
A#e: :!np%t typeD4text4 na(eD4a#e4 ?<
:!np%t typeD4s%)(!t4 ?<
:?for(<
:?)ody<
:?'t($< 6'en a %ser 2$$s o%t t'e for( a)o"e and $!&
on t'e s%)(!t )%tton, t'e for( data !s sent to a PHP
2$e, a$$ed 41e$o(e/p'p4:
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC

41e$o(e/p'p4 $oo&s $!&e t'!s:

:'t($<
:)ody<
6e$o(e :;p'p e'o BCP,STK4fna(e4L> ;<E
:)r ?<
Zo% are :;p'p e'o BCP,STK4a#e4L> ;<
years o$d/
:?)ody<
:?'t($< ,%tp%t o%$d )e so(et'!n# $!&e
t'!s:

6e$o(e Mo'nE
Zo% are HW years o$d/
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC

PHP 789.! F$nction

T'e )%!$t-!n BC-ET f%nt!on !s %sed to o$$et


"a$%es !n a for( 1!t' (et'odD4#et4/

T'e )%!$t-!n BC-ET f%nt!on !s %sed to o$$et


"a$%es fro( a for( sent 1!t' (et'odD4#et4/

Infor(at!on sent fro( a for( 1!t' t'e -ET


(et'od !s "!s!)$e to e"eryone *!t 1!$$ )e
d!sp$ayed !n t'e )ro1serIs address )ar0 and 'as
$!(!ts on t'e a(o%nt of !nfor(at!on to send/

.xample

:for( at!onD41e$o(e/p'p4 (et'odD4#et4<


Na(e: :!np%t typeD4text4 na(eD4fna(e4 ?<
A#e: :!np%t typeD4text4 na(eD4a#e4 ?<
:!np%t typeD4s%)(!t4 ?<
:?for(<
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC

T'e 41e$o(e/p'p4 2$e an no1 %se


t'e BC-ET f%nt!on to o$$et for(
data *t'e na(es of t'e for( 2e$ds
1!$$ a%to(at!a$$y )e t'e &eys !n t'e
BC-ET array0:

6e$o(e :;p'p e'o


BC-ETK4fna(e4L> ;</:)r ?<
Zo% are :;p'p e'o BC-ETK4a#e4L> ;
< years o$dE
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
When to $se metho":;#et;?

6'en %s!n# (et'odD4#et4 !n HTML for(s, a$$


"ar!a)$e na(es and "a$%es are d!sp$ayed !n t'e
URL/

,ote3 T'!s (et'od s'o%$d not )e %sed 1'en


send!n# pass1ords or ot'er sens!t!"e !nfor(at!onE

Ho1e"er, )ea%se t'e "ar!a)$es are d!sp$ayed !n


t'e URL, !t !s poss!)$e to )oo&(ar& t'e pa#e/ T'!s
an )e %sef%$ !n so(e ases/

,ote3 T'e #et (et'od !s not s%!ta)$e for "ery


$ar#e "ar!a)$e "a$%es/ It s'o%$d not )e %sed 1!t'
"a$%es exeed!n# HJJJ 'araters/
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
PHP 78P%S! F$nction
T'e )%!$t-!n BCP,ST f%nt!on !s %sed to
o$$et "a$%es !n a for( 1!t' (et'odD4post4/
!he 78P%S! F$nction

T'e )%!$t-!n BCP,ST f%nt!on !s %sed to o$$et


"a$%es fro( a for( sent 1!t' (et'odD4post4/

Infor(at!on sent fro( a for( 1!t' t'e P,ST


(et'od !s !n"!s!)$e to ot'ers and 'as no $!(!ts
on t'e a(o%nt of !nfor(at!on to send/

,ote3 Ho1e"er, t'ere !s an W M) (ax s![e for


t'e P,ST (et'od, )y defa%$t *an )e
'an#ed )y sett!n# t'e postC(axCs![e !n t'e
p'p/!n! 2$e0/
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC

.xample

:for( at!onD41e$o(e/p'p4 (et'odD4post4<


Na(e: :!np%t typeD4text4 na(eD4fna(e4 ?<
A#e: :!np%t typeD4text4 na(eD4a#e4 ?<
:!np%t typeD4s%)(!t4 ?<
:?for(<

T'e 41e$o(e/p'p4 2$e an no1 %se t'e


BCP,ST f%nt!on to o$$et for( data *t'e
na(es of t'e for( 2e$ds 1!$$ a%to(at!a$$y )e
t'e &eys !n t'e BCP,ST array0:

6e$o(e :;p'p e'o BCP,STK4fna(e4L> ;<E


:)r ?<
Zo% are :;p'p e'o BCP,STK4a#e4L> ;< years
o$d/
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC

When to $se metho":;post;?

Infor(at!on sent fro( a for( 1!t' t'e


P,ST (et'od !s !n"!s!)$e to ot'ers
and 'as no limits on the amount of
information to send.

Ho1e"er, )ea%se t'e "ar!a)$es are


not d!sp$ayed !n t'e URL, !t !s not
poss!)$e to )oo&(ar& t'e pa#e/
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC
!he PHP 782.Q6.S! F$nction

T'e PHP )%!$t-!n BCRE+UEST f%nt!on


onta!ns t'e ontents of )ot' BC-ET,
BCP,ST, and BCC,,RIE/

T'e BCRE+UEST f%nt!on an )e %sed


to o$$et for( data sent 1!t' )ot' t'e
-ET and P,ST (et'ods/
.xample

6e$o(e :;p'p e'o


BCRE+UESTK4fna(e4L> ;<E:)r ?<
Zo% are :;p'p e'o
BCRE+UESTK4a#e4L> ;< years o$d/
M RAMBHUPAL,CSE,AEC