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# The Mole

## Copyright 2006-2011 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.

How can we measure the mass of an
atom?
Chemists often compare masses of different atoms
with the carbon-12 atom (an isotope of carbon).
Atoms also have very small masses,
so it is not practical to use the actual masses of
atoms in calculations.
The masses of all other atoms are compared with
one-twelfth the mass of one carbon-12 atom.
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Relative Atomic Mass
The relative atomic mass of any atom is
the number of times the mass of one atom
of an element is greater than 1/12 of the
mass of one carbon-12 atom.
Relative atomic mass =
Mass of 1/12 of an atom of carbon-12
Mass of one atom of the element
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Relative Atomic Mass
The symbol for relative atomic mass is A
r
.
Relative atomic mass is a ratio and has no unit.
The relative atomic mass of each element is
given in the Periodic Table.
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Relative Atomic Mass of Some Elements
Some A
r
values are not whole numbers.
35.5 Chlorine
16 Oxygen
12 Carbon
1 Hydrogen
Relative atomic mass, A
r
Element
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Why are some A
r
values not whole
numbers?
This is because such elements occur as
mixtures of isotopes.
For example, chlorine exists in two isotopic
forms: chlorine-35 and chlorine-37.
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How do we derive the A
r
of chlorine?
Hence, relative atomic mass of chlorine
= (0.75 35) + (0.25 37)
= 26.25 + 9.25
= 35.5
A sample of chlorine is made up of
75% of chlorine-35 atoms and
25% of chlorine-37 atoms.
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Relative Molecular Mass

Many elements and compounds exist as molecules.
For example, chlorine exists as molecules.

Cl
Cl
Hence, we use relative molecular mass
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The relative molecular mass (M
r
) of an element or
compound is the mass of a molecule, compared to
1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12.
Like A
r
, it is a ratio and therefore has no unit.
Relative Molecular Mass

M
r
Mass of 1 molecule
Mass of 1/12 of a carbon-12 atom

=
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How do we calculate the relative
molecular mass of ammonia (NH
3
)?
A
r
of N = 14 A
r
of H = 1
M
r
of NH
3
= 14 + 1 3 = 17
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How do we calculate the relative
molecular mass of ethanoic acid
(CH
3
COOH)?
A
r
of C = 12
A
r
of H = 1
M
r
of CH
3
COOH
= 12 + 1 3 + 12 + 16 + 16 + 1
= 17
A
r
of O = 16
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(2 x 12) + (6 x 1) + (1 x 16) = 46 2 C; 6 H; 1 O C
2
H
5
OH Ethanol
(2 x 1) + (1 x 16) = 18 2 H; 1 O H
2
O Water
(1 x 12) + (2 x 16) = 44 1 C ; 2 O CO
2
Carbon dioxide
(1 x 14) + (3 x 1) = 17 1 N; 3 H NH
3
Ammonia
2 x 14 = 28 2 N N
2
Nitrogen
Calculating M
r
Number of
atoms in one
molecule
Chemical
formula
Molecule
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Relative Formula Mass

Many substances such as water are covalent and exist as
molecules.
However, substances like sodium chloride are ionic and
do not exist as molecules.
The relative molecular mass of an ionic compound
is more accurately known as relative formula mass.
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Relative Formula Mass

Like relative molecular mass,
relative formula mass has the symbol M
r
and
relative formula mass has no units.

For example, the relative formula mass of sodium
chloride (NaCl) is 23 + 35.5 = 58.5.
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Calculating M
r
of MgSO
4
A
r
of Mg = 24
A
r
of S = 32
M
r
of MgSO
4
= 24 + 32 + (16 4) = 120
A
r
of O = 16
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Calculating M
r
of CuSO
4
. 5H
2
O
A
r
of Cu = 64
A
r
of S = 32
M
r
of CuSO
4
.5H
2
O

= 64 + 32 + (16 4) + 5 (2 1 + 16) = 250
A
r
of O = 16
A
r
of H = 1
The dot means plus
in calculation.
5 needs to be multiplied
to entire M
r
of water.
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Molecule
Chemical
Formula
Number of
atoms in
one
molecule
Calculating M
r
Magnesium
sulphate
MgSO
4
1 Mg; 1 S;
4 O
(1 x 24) + (1 x 32) + (4 x 16)
= 120

Calcium
carbonate
CaCO
3
1 Ca; 1 C;
3 O
(1 x 40) + (1 x 12) + (3 x 16)
= 100

Calcium nitrate Ca(NO
3
)
2
1 Ca ; 2 N;
6 O
(1 x 40) + (2 x 14) + (6 x 16)
= 164
Copper(II)
sulphate
crystals
CuSO
4
. 5H
2
O 1 Cu; 1 S;
9 O; 10 H
(1 x 64) + (1 x 32) + (9 x 16) +
(10 x 1) = 250
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The Mole
Atoms are too small and numerous to be counted
one at a time.
Instead, the quantity of atoms is measured by mass.
The unit of measurement for atoms and molecules is
the mole.
The symbol for the mole is mol.
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The Mole
A mole of substance contains the same number of
particles as the number of atoms in 12 g of carbon-12.
12 g of carbon-12 contain approximately
6 10
23
carbon atoms.
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How many particles are there in a
mole?
There are approximately 6 10
23
particles in
one mole of substance.
6 10
23
is called the Avogadros constant or
One mole of particles means 6 10
23
particles.
The particles could be atoms, molecules, ions or electrons.
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How do we convert between number
of moles and number of particles?
Number of moles
Number of particles
6 10
23
=
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Example 1: Convert 1 10
23
neon atoms
to moles of neon atoms
Number of moles of neon atoms
Number of moles of neon atoms
6 10
23
=
1 10
23
6 10
23
=
= 0.167 mol
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Example 2: How many iron atoms are
there in 0.5 mol of iron?
Number of iron atoms
Number of moles 6 10
23
=
= 3 10
23
In 1 mole of iron, there are 6 10
23
iron atoms.
0.5 6 10
23
=
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Example 3: How many hydrogen atoms are
there in 3 moles of hydrogen gas?
Hydrogen gas is made up of hydrogen molecules (H
2
).
In 3 moles of H
2
molecules, there are 3 2 = 6 moles of H atoms.
In 1 mole of H
2
molecules, there are 2 moles of H atoms.
Number of hydrogen atoms
Number of moles 6 10
23
=
= 3.6 10
24
6 6 10
23
=
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How is the mole related to chemical
equations?
2 particles
(atoms) of
sodium
1 particle
(molecule) of
chlorine
2 moles of
sodium atoms
1 mole of chlorine
molecules
Na + Cl
2
NaCl 2 2
OR
OR
2 units of sodium
chloride
2 moles of sodium
chloride
OR
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The molar mass of an element is the mass
of one mole of atoms of the element.
What is the mass of one mole of
atoms of an element?
Do you notice a
relationship between the
value of A
r
and the molar
mass of a substance?
Element A
r
Molar
mass
Aluminium 27 27 g
carbon 12 12 g
Neon 20 20 g
Oxygen 16 16 g
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What is the relationship between
mole and molar mass?
The number of moles of an element can be
calculated using the formula:
Number of moles
of an element
Mass of element (g)
A
r
of element

=
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Example 1 Determine the number of
moles in 0.196 kg of iron. (A
r
: Fe = 56)
Number of moles of iron
mass of iron in grams
A
r
of iron
=
0.196 1000
56
=
= 3.5 mol
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Example 2
a) How many moles of lead are there in 1.204
10
22
b) What is the mass of 1.204 10
22
atoms of
r
: Pb = 207)
a) Number of moles of lead
=
1.204 10
22

6 10
23

=
= 0.02 mol
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Example 2 (continued)
a) How many moles of lead are there in 1.204
10
22
b) What is the mass of 1.204 10
22
atoms of
r
: Pb = 207)
= number of moles A
r
= 0.02 207
= 4.14 g
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What is the mass of one mole of
molecules or one mole of a compound?
One mole of a substance has a mass equal its M
r
.
18 g (2 1) + 16
= 18
H
2
O Water
40 g 24 + 16 = 40 MgO Magnesium
oxide
254 g 2 127 = 160 I
2
Iodine
32 g 2 16 = 32 O
2
Oxygen
Molar mass M
r
Formula Substance
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The number of moles of a substance can be
calculated using the following formulae:
Number of moles
Mass of substance (g)
M
r
=
or
Number of particles
6 10
23
=
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Example 1
A conical flask contains 68.4 g of octane (C
8
H
18
).
How many molecules of octane are there in the

Number of moles of octane
Mass of octane
M
r
of octane
=
6.84
114
=
= 0.6 mol
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Example 1 (continued)
A conical flask contains 68.4 g of octane (C
8
H
18
).
How many molecules of octane are there in the
Number of molecules of octane
= number of moles Avogadros constant
= 0.6 6 10
23
= 3.6 10
23

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Example 2
How many ions are there in 20 g of magnesium
oxide (MgO)?

Number of moles of MgO
Mass of magnesium oxide
M
r
of magnesium oxide
=
20
40
=
= 0.5 mol
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Example 2 (continued)
How many ions are there in 20 g of magnesium
oxide (MgO)?
MgO Mg
2+
+ O
2
1 mol of MgO 1 mol of Mg
2+
ions and 1 mol of O
2
ions.
0.5 mol of MgO 0.5 mol of Mg
2+
ions and
0.5 mol of O
2
ions.
Hence, 0.5 mol of MgO contains 1 mol of ions.
Number of ions = 1 6 10
23
= 6 10
23
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Molar Gas Volume
Unlike solids and liquids, gases weigh very
little.

It is easier to measure the volume of a gas
than its mass.

Is there a way to relate moles to the volumes
of gases?
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Molar Gas Volume
One mole of any gas occupies 24 dm
3
(24 000 cm
3
)
at room temperature and pressure (r.t.p.).
24 dm
3
is called the molar volume of a gas.
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This means that at r.t.p.
1 mol of oxygen occupies 24 dm
3
,
1 mol of carbon dioxide occupies 24 dm
3
,

2 mol of oxygen occupy 2 24 = 48 dm
3
,
2 mol of carbon dioxide occupy 2 24 = 48 dm
3
.
how many dm
3
?
how many dm
3
?
how many dm
3
?
how many dm
3
?
2 24 = 48 dm
3
24 dm
3
2 24 = 48 dm
3
24 dm
3
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How can we calculate the number of
moles of a gas?
The number of moles of a gas can be measured in 2 ways:
Number of moles of gas =
M
r
of gas
Mass of gas in grams
Number of moles of gas =
24 000 cm
3
Volume of gas in cm
3
at r.t.p
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Example 1 What is the volume, in dm
3
, of 8 g
of oxygen gas (O
2
) at r.t.p.?
Relative molecular mass of oxygen = 2 16 = 32
Volume of oxygen
= number of moles of oxygen 24

= 24

= 6 dm
3
32
8
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Number of moles of carbon dioxide given off
Number of molecules of carbon dioxide given off
= number of moles Avogadros constant
= 3.33 10
3
6 10
23

= 2.00 10
21

Example 2 In an experiment, hydrochloric acid
was reacted with calcium carbonate at r.t.p.
80 cm
3
of carbon dioxide was produced. Calculate
the number of molecules of carbon dioxide given
off.

= = 3.33 10
3
mol
000 24
80
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Example 3 Calculate the mass of oxygen gas
(O
2
) in a room that measures 4 m high, 8 m wide
and 10 m long. Assume that air contains 20%
oxygen. (1 m
3
= 10
6
cm
3
)
Volume of air in room = 4 x 8 x 10 = 320 m
3
= 320 x 10
6
cm
3
Volume of oxygen in room = 20% x 320 x 10
6
= 64 x 10
6
cm
3
Mass of oxygen =
24 000 cm
3
Volume of oxygen
Number of moles of oxygen x M
r
Molar volume
=
=
x 32
64 x 10
6
cm
3
8.53 x 10
4
g
=
x 32
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Do the balloons of the same volume contain
the same number of particles?

According to Avogadros Law, each of
these balloons contains the same number
of gaseous particles since they have the
same volume.
Yes, they do!
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Do the balloons of the same mass
contain the same number of
particles?

No, they dont!
Same mass but different number of moles.
Gas Mass (g) A
r
or M
r
Number of moles
= mass / A
r
or M
r
Helium (He)
0.18 4
Hydrogen
(H2)
0.18 2
Methane
(CH4)
0.18 16
= 0.011
16
0.18
= 0.090
2
0.18
= 0.045
4
0.18