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Introduction:

I. UNDERSTANDING INTERNET
The Internet is a massive network
comprised of thousands of
computers located on almost every
part of the world. These
computers exchange information
using a common language, or
protocol.

The Internet is not controlled by any
one person or agency. It belongs
to no one and has no physical
location. Each computer connected
to the Internet is a small part of
the whole. Consequently, the
Internet is always evolving and
being redefined.
MELJUN CORTES
PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE
VISTER - REYES
The INTERNET is a network
of all the computers in the
world. It provides a great
deal of electronic
information that is
organized in many different
ways and represents many
different topics. It is also
considered as the largest
electronic library in the
world or better yet a
superhighway full of
information.
Introduction:
I. UNDERSTANDING INTERNET
Information Superhighway
PREPARED BY: JYR
MARIE VISTER -
REYES
Some Uses of the Internet
Exchange of information via global
communication links.
Retrieve information on any topic for
your own use (in school, business, or
just about anything.)
Add, include or share your own
ideas, thoughts and creation, publish
them instantly to millions of people
around the world.
Have fun browsing the ideas,
thoughts and creation of others.
PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE
VISTER - REYES
I. UNDERSTANDING INTERNET
Brief History
The Internet began in 1969 as
ARPANET, an information network that
connected military researchers,
contractors, and universities. A unique
feature of ARPANET was dynamic
rerouting which sent information quickly
to any site even when there were breaks
in the network.

Around 1980, universities first allowed
students and staff to access ARPANET
Advanced Research Projects Agency
(ARPA) for non-official purposes. This
caused the population and uses of
ARPANET to grow unchecked. In 1990,
ARPANET was overwhelmed and was
shut down. The Internet has taken its
place.
PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE
VISTER - REYES
LOOKING AT THE INTERNET
Examining the growth of the Internet
The Internet began as one computer
network in 1969. Now it is comprised
often of thousands of networks. Over 35
million people use the Internet, and
currently, as estimated 160,000 new
users join each day. The Internet is
growing exponentially.

The Internet is spreading over the entire
planet; every continent is feeling its
presence. Sites around the world contain
valuable information pertaining to
business, education, research, and
entertainment. Using the Internet opens
up avenues for accessing all types of
resources.
PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE
VISTER - REYES
LOOKING AT THE INTERNET
Exploring the future of the Internet
Because the Internet is not regulated, no
one can predict what will happen in its
future. It is expected, however, that over
100 million people world wide will be
connected to the Internet by 1998.

Video teleconferencing will become more
feasible as software and hardware improve
and allow virtual classrooms and offices to
become a reality. The Internet will continue
to be used more and more, and may, in
some cases replace phones and fax
machines.

PREPARED BY: JYR
MARIE VISTER -
REYES
II. HOW INTERNET WORKS
The internet is primarily composed
of telephone lines. When you open
a connection and transfer
information, a piece of the
network or telephone lines is
dedicated to you even if you are
using it.
The different pieces of the
internet are connected by a set of
computers called routers, which
connect networks together. These
networks are sometimes Ethernet,
sometimes Token Ring, and
sometimes telephone lines.
Therefore, the internet can get
data from many different places,
distributed all over the world.
PREPARED BY: JYR
MARIE VISTER -
REYES
II. HOW INTERNET WORKS
The internet uses a protocol (or rule)
called IP (Internet Protocol) which
takes care of the addressing of a
packet and make sure that the
routers knows to do it when arrives.

The internet use address scheme
which works like the postal service.
The postal address is composed of
the name of the country, the region,
the town, the street, and its number
and finally the name of a person or
organization. To avoid crisis in naming
they create DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM
(DNS)
PREPARED BY: JYR
MARIE VISTER -
REYES
II. HOW INTERNET WORKS
THE DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM (DNS)

ZONE - rightmost part of the name e.g., .net, .com, .org
DOMAIN - Internet Service Provider from which the
organization or person is connected.
USER/ACCOUNT - defines the user name or account
@ - at sign, the separator form the remaining name

Example:
JRCCSD@MNL.SEQUEL.NET
user
separator
domain
zone
PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE
VISTER - REYES
II. HOW INTERNET WORKS
The internet uses a Transmission
Control Protocol (TCP), which prevents
in the transmission of data. The TCP
transforms the data that needs to be
transmitted into pieces or packets
and add some information so that the
receiver of the packets is able to know
if a mistake appeared during the
transmission. Furthermore,
transmitting small pieces of
information (packets) prevents any
user from monopolizing the network,
and allows anyone to send data.
PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE
VISTER - REYES
II. HOW INTERNET WORKS
The Internet Connection Options
Setting up your Internet will yield three
possible connection paths.
1. You can buy your own, direct
connection to
the Internet.
This involves buying a computer
(server), configuring it, and leasing some
fiber optic cables or similar transmission
media. In this case your computer
becomes a node on the network. You
become part of the Internet by being a
permanent domain on the Internet (a
domain is a site of a host computer).
2. You can choose a connectivity through
a
dial-up connection.
When dialing for the Internet, you will
likely be offered a choice of what type of
dial-up account you want. If you want the
world-wide web, you need a provider who
can offer a SLIP (Serial Line Internet
Protocol) or PPP (Point-to-Point)
connection. Using SLIP or PPP is the
second best thing. Here you dial-up
someone who already has a direct
connection
PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE
VISTER - REYES
II. HOW INTERNET WORKS
The Internet Connection Options
And renting use of their connection, they are popularly known as
INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER or ISP.
What do you need to make this king of Internet connection?
- PC
- Modem (internal or external)
- Telephone line
- Browser
- Internet Service Provider
3. Another kind of a direct connection, is that your computer or your
local area network (LAN) is connected to the Internet all the time.
To achieve a direct connection your LAN is connected to the router,
which carries signal that has been translated from your computers
language into the official language of the Internet, TCP/IP (Transmission
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). The router then is connected, via a
special high-speed telephone lines, to the nearest Internet.

PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE
VISTER - REYES
II. HOW INTERNET WORKS
The Internet Connection Options
Any computer that is connected to the
Internet, or that is equipped with a modem, is
capable of accessing the Internet. The Internet
has its own language, or protocol, called
TCP/IP. The Internet protocol enables
computers of various platforms to freely
exchange information.

Connecting to the Internet requires
communications hardware and software. You
should purchase a modem that transmits data
at 14,400 bps (bits per second) or faster.
Communications software is usually included
with most modems.
PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE
VISTER - REYES
II. HOW INTERNET WORKS
The Internet Connection Options
Any computer that is connected to the
Internet, or that is equipped with a modem, is
capable of accessing the Internet. The Internet
has its own language, or protocol, called
TCP/IP. The Internet protocol enables
computers of various platforms to freely
exchange information.

Connecting to the Internet requires
communications hardware and software. You
should purchase a modem that transmits data
at 14,400 bps (bits per second) or faster.
Communications software is usually included
with most modems.
PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE
VISTER - REYES
III. THE INTERNET SERVICES

NEWSGROUP - bulletin boards used to provide a central spot
for the exchange of information. In the internet, bulletin boards
are called Newsgroup. Each Newsgroup focuses on a particular
interest.

TELNET - Mail evolved spontaneously, as messages
accompanying file transfers. Telnet Forums grew out of mail, and
ftp (File Transfer Protocol), evolved out of remote log-ins. Telnet
(teletype network) allows you to perform real time login to
remote computers. You can interact with another computer by
using your computer, which is as good ad a non-vocal phone
conversation. The process can cover many different purposes.
With FTP, a distant computer allows us to download/save large
files from its storage area. With remote log-ins, we can actually
run programs on distant computers.
PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE
VISTER - REYES
III. THE INTERNET SERVICES

They might let us browse information--library
catalogs for example--as if we were there, real-
time. No waiting for a librarian.
FTP - One of the main reasons people
connect to the Internet is to download a copy
of a shareware program. The Internet uses FTP
(File Transfer Protocol) to handle the process of
transferring files over th Internet to your
computer. A protocol is like a program or
language enabling two or more computers to
transmit data to each other. Some browse, like
Netscape, comes with built-in FTP support, so
you dont need a separate FRP program to
download files from the Internet.
FTP essentially does two things. First, it
transmits large files, likes, like receiving many-
paged documents by fax. And second, it hand-
delivers it right to the file folder where you
want to keep it.
PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE
VISTER - REYES
III. THE INTERNET SERVICES

GOPHER - Gophers basic interface is a
menu. This program connects you to the
Gopherspace. Gopherspace was designed to
create an interconnected index of files and
documents located on various Gopher
servers throughout the Internet.

HTML - stands for HyperText Markup
Language and is based on SGML (Standard
Generalized Markup Language), standard for
describing documents. HTML is basically a
set of specifications for the formatting of
documents. Its documents are plain texts
also, known as ASCII files that can be
created using any text editor.
PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE
VISTER - REYES

III. THE INTERNET SERVICES
Exploring E-mail
Looking at e-mail

E-MAIL - An electronic mail, refers to any
correspondence sent between computers in a
network. Computers can connect to an Internet
mail server, a system that lets their computer
send messages to any e-mail address in the
world. E-mail allows quick, paperless
correspondence that is faster than a fax
machine.

E-mail is the Internets mail system. E-mail
allows free, almost instantaneous contact
between Internet users anywhere in the world.
E-mail makes it possible for all types of
computers to send messages and files to each
other.
PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE
VISTER - REYES

III. THE INTERNET SERVICES
Exploring E-mail
Looking at e-mail

Addresses are the key to e-mail
communication. All Internet users have an
address that directs their mail to a specific
computer on the Internet. E-mail addresses
are assigned to users by their Internet
providers.

When sending e-mail, you must use the
exact address or the message are
standardized and contain a User ID (user
identification) that tells the Internet exactly
where to send the message.
PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE
VISTER - REYES

III. THE INTERNET SERVICES
World Wide Web (WWW)

WWW - World Wide Web is the most
visual part of the Internet. It is also the
fastest growing part of the Internet, which
maybe because it is also easy to access and
to explore. It is based on the display of Web
pages, which are computer documents that
can present text, graphics, and sounds. A
Web page represents a single location on
the Web. When you are on the Web, you
can usually only see on the Web page at a
time. A Web site is made up of two or more
interconnected Web pages presented as a
unified place on the Web.
PREPARED BY: JYR MARIE
VISTER - REYES
INTERNET RELAY CHAT
(IRC)
IRC stands for Internet Relay Chat and it
can be compared to CB (CITIZENS BAND)
Radio. From an IRC server you elect to join a
channel in IRC, each participants contributions
are displayed on the screen of all the others
taking part in a conversation.
In IRC you can join an existing conversation or
try to start one of your own. The topics being
discussed will be as buried as the people
participating. When you join your name
(Nickname) will be announced to others on that
channel.
IRC is definitely individual and simultaneous.
There can be few or many participants at any
given time.
PREPARED BY: JYR
MARIE VISTER -
REYES
THE WORLD-WIDE- WEB
Hypertext - documents in an electronic form
that are linked together in some fashion.
Hypermedia - multimedia consisting of text,
graphics, audio, and video.
World-Wide-Web (WWW) - information
space on the Internet where hypermedia
documents are stored and can be retrieved
by means of a unique addressing scheme.
PREPARED BY: JYR
MARIE VISTER -
REYES
World-Wide Web Terminology
Web Site - This refers to a computer
linked to the Internet containing
hypermedia that can be accessed from
any other computer in the network by
means of hypertext links.
Hypertext Link - This refers to a
pointer consisting of text or graphic
that is used to access hypertext stored
at any Web Site. The text is typically
underlined and displayed in blue.
PREPARED BY: JYR
MARIE VISTER -
REYES
World-Wide Web Terminology
Web Page - This refers to a
hypermedia file stored at a Web site,
which is identified by a unique address.
Home Page - This refers to the first
page of a Web site. Other pages at
the site can be reached from the home
page.
URL (Universal Resource Locator) -
This refers to the address of a Web
page, pronounced earl.
PREPARED BY: JYR
MARIE VISTER -
REYES
World-Wide Web Terminology
Protocol - is a set of standards that
govern the communication of data.
HTTP is the protocol for hypertext, and
the letters stand for HyperText
Transport Protocol. The protocol name
is in lower-case, and it is followed by a
colon (:) and two slashes(//).
Domain name - is the address of the Web
site where the Web page is stored. The
PREPARED BY: JYR
MARIE VISTER -
REYES
World-Wide Web Terminology
The name can contain periods (called
dots0. The last three letters of the
domain name specify the type of Web
site; edu ( education), com
(commercial), and gov (government)
are the ones most often used. The
domain name is followed by a single
slash.
Path - can identify a certain account at
the Web site and the HTML.
PREPARED BY: JYR
MARIE VISTER -
REYES
World-Wide Web Terminology
BROWSER - This refers to a
software system that enables you
to retrieve hypermedia by typing
in search parameters or clicking
on a graphic.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) - This
refers to a software that enables
you to copy files onto your
computer from any Web site.
PREPARED BY: JYR
MARIE VISTER -
REYES
THE WORLD-WIDE- WEB
Hypertext - documents in an electronic form
that are linked together in some fashion.
Hypermedia - multimedia consisting of text,
graphics, audio, and video.
World-Wide-Web (WWW) - information
space on the Internet where hypermedia
documents are stored and can be retrieved
by means of a unique addressing scheme.
PREPARED BY: JYR
MARIE VISTER -
REYES
INTERNET SECURITY
FIREWALL - is a filter that restricts the
flow of data between the firms internal
network and the Internet. It establishes one
safeguard for all computers on the network
rather than separate safeguards for each
computer.